Treatment for comorbid depressive disorder or subthreshold depression in diabetes mellitus: Systematic review and meta-analysis
OBJECTIVE:To provide an estimate of the effect of interventions on comorbid depressive disorder (MDD) or subthreshold depression in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. METHODS:Systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials evaluating the outcome of depression treatments in diabetes and comorbid MDD or subthreshold symptoms published before August 2019 compared to care as usual (CAU), placebo, waiting list (WL), or active comparator treatment as in a comparative effectiveness trial (CET). Primary outcomes were depressive symptom severity and glycemic control. Cohen's d is reported. RESULTS:c. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:c scores modify the treatment effect. Based on the findings, we provide guidance for treatment depending on patient profile and desired outcome, and discuss possible avenues for further research.
Molecular definition of an allelic series of mutations disrupting the mouse Lmx1a (dreher) gene
Mice homozygous for the dreher (dr) mutation are characterized by pigmentation and skeletal abnormalities and striking behavioral phenotypes, including ataxia, vestibular deficits, and hyperactivity. The ataxia is associated with a cerebellar malformation that is remarkably similar to human Dandy-Walker malformation. Previously, positional cloning identified mutations in LIM homeobox transcription factor 1 alpha gene (Lmx1a) in three dr alleles. Two of these alleles, however, are extinct and unavailable for further analysis. In this article we report a new spontaneous dr allele and describe the Lmx1a mutations in this and six additional dr alleles. Strikingly, deletion null, missense, and frameshift mutations in these alleles all cause similar cerebellar malformations, suggesting that all dr mutations analyzed to date are null alleles.