Increased Yield of Hereditary Cancer Risk Assessment in a GI Office Practice Utilizing NCCN Guidelines and Panel Testing [Meeting Abstract]
A phantom gallbladder on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography [Case Report]
Various complications have been related to laparoscopic cholecystectomy but most occur shortly after the procedure. In this report, we present a case with very late complications in which an abscess developed within the gallbladder fossa 6 years after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The abscess resolved after treatment with CT-guided extrahepatic aspiration. However, 4 years later, an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) performed for choledocholithiasis demonstrated a "gallbladder" which communicated with the common bile duct via a patent cystic duct. This unique case indicates that a cystic duct stump may communicate with the gallbladder fossa many years following cholecystectomy.
Minimizing complications in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and sphincterotomy
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a major tool in the diagnosis and management of numerous biliary and pancreatic conditions, including choledocholithiasis as well as benign and malignant pancreatic diseases, especially those causing biliary obstruction. Since the procedure's inception, the techniques and indications have evolved along with advances in technology and an improved understanding of risks associated with ERCP. The trend has been away from purely diagnostic procedures; most ERCPs are now therapeutic in intent. ERCP remains among the more invasive of endoscopic procedures, with significant rates of complications that can be major. As advances are made in less invasive technology, it is important to understand the complications of ERCP and how best to avoid them.
Ulcerative colitis therapy: importance of delivery mechanisms
Since the initial observation that mesalamine or 5-aminosalicylate (5-ASA) has an anti-inflammatory effect on ulcerative colitis, investigators have been trying to improve on the delivery mechanisms of this compound. As it is believed that the anti-inflammatory effect of 5-ASAs is mediated topically, current formulations are designed to release 5-ASA in the small intestine and colon, or predominantly in the colon. A dose-response curve is seen with some preparations of mesalamine but not all. In general, 5-ASAs are effective in patients with ulcerative colitis and much less effective in Crohn's disease. Evidence demonstrates that 5-ASAs are effective for induction of remission and maintenance of remission. Preparations that deliver 5-ASA in a pH-dependent manner are most affected by variability in luminal pH, whereas those that depend on bacterial cleavage for release of the active 5-ASA are most affected by transit time. Most studies have not compared different preparations of mesalamine and examined differences in colonic delivery. Depending on the endpoint examined in the studies, efficacy of the various 5-ASA products appears similar at the most optimal doses. For a given patient, however, it may be necessary to experiment with more than one preparation if an initial trial results in a suboptimal response.
The myth of gastrointestinal sarcoidosis: a case of guilt by association [Editorial]
Platelet-activating factor concentration in the stool of human newborns: effects of enteral feeding and neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis
Epidemiologic studies have identified enteral feedings as a risk factor for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Enteral feedings provide the substrate for colonization of the newborn gut with gram-negative bacteria with endotoxin production, which may trigger the production of endogenous inflammatory mediators, including platelet-activating factor (PAF). In this prospective study, we examined the effect of enteral feeding on PAF concentration in the stool of preterm and full-term human newborns. The concentration of PAF levels in stool was measured at the following times: at passage of first meconium, within 24 h prior to the onset of feedings, at the 3rd and 14th day of feeding and at any time confirmed NEC developed. Stool samples also were analyzed for levels of acetylhydrolase, the PAF breakdown enzyme. Stool PAF concentration rose significantly following the start of enteral feedings. The mean PAF concentration for day 14 samples was significantly higher than the mean concentration of meconium samples (4.90 +/- 1.03 vs. 1.81 +/- 0.38 ng/g, p < 0.05) and day 0 samples (4.90 +/- 1.03 vs. 1.79 +/- 0.39 ng/g, p < 0.05). For the 7 patients diagnosed with definite NEC, the mean stool PAF concentration was 12.42 +/- 0.77 ng/g, significantly elevated compared to the mean PAF levels in stool from healthy infants at all sampling times (p < 0.01). There was no significant change in acetylhydrolase activity at any of the sampling times. Stool PAF concentration increases with the provision of enteral feedings and rises further with the development of NEC. Since stool acetylhydrolase activity remained unchanged, we speculate the increase of PAF in stool likely represents increased PAF production at the local level following the provision of enteral feedings or the development of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis.