Risk factors, transcriptomics, and outcomes of myocardial injury following lower extremity revascularization
Myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (MINS) is common. We investigated the incidence and outcomes of MINS, and mechanistic underpinnings using pre-operative whole blood gene expression profiling in a prospective cohort study of individuals undergoing lower extremity revascularization (LER) for peripheral artery disease (PAD). Major adverse cardiovascular and limb events (MACLE) were defined as a composite of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, major lower extremity amputation or reoperation. Among 226 participants undergoing LER, MINS occurred in 53 (23.5%). Patients with MINS had a greater incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (49.1% vs. 22.0%, adjusted HR 1.87, 95% CI 1.07-3.26) and MACLE (67.9% vs. 44.5%; adjusted HR 1.66, 95% CI 1.08-2.55) at median 20-month follow-up. Pre-operative whole blood transcriptome profiling of a nested matched MINS case-control cohort (nâ€‰=â€‰41) identified upregulation of pathways related to platelet alpha granules and coagulation in patients who subsequently developed MINS. Thrombospondin 1 (THBS1) mRNA expression was 60% higher at baseline in patients who later developed MINS, and was independently associated with long-term cardiovascular events in the Duke Catheterization Genetics biorepository cohort. In conclusion, pre-operative THBS1 mRNA expression is higher in patients who subsequently develop MINS and is associated with incident cardiovascular events. Pathways related to platelet activity and coagulation associated with MINS provide novel insights into mechanisms of myocardial injury.
Comparative analysis of patients undergoing lower extremity bypass using in-situ and reversed great saphenous vein graft techniques
OBJECTIVE:Autologous great saphenous vein (GSV) is considered the conduit of choice for lower extremity bypass (LEB). However, the optimal configuration remains the source of debate. We compared outcomes of patients undergoing LEB using in-situ and reversed techniques. METHODS:The Vascular Quality Initiative database was queried for patients undergoing LEB with a single-segment GSV in in-situ (ISGSV) and reversed (RGSV) configurations for symptomatic occlusive disease from 2003 to 2021. Patient demographics, procedural detail, and in-hospital and follow-up outcomes were collected. The primary outcome measures included primary patency at discharge or 30Â days and one year. Secondary outcomes were secondary patency, and reinterventions at discharge or 30Â days and one year. Cox proportional hazards models were created to determine the association between bypass techniques and outcomes of interest. RESULTS:= 0.985) at follow-up, compared to reversed bypass. A subgroup analysis of bypasses to crural targets showed that in-situ and reversed bypasses had similar rates of primary patency loss and reinterventions at 1Â year. Among patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia, in-situ bypass was associated with a decreased risk of reinterventions but similar rates of primary and secondary patency and major amputations at 1Â year. CONCLUSIONS:In patients undergoing LEBs using the GSV, in-situ configuration was associated with more perioperative reinterventions and lower primary patency rate. However, this was offset by decreased risks of loss of primary patency and reinterventions at 1Â year. A thorough intraoperative graft assessment with adjunctive imaging may be performed to detect abnormalities in patients undergoing in-situ bypasses to prevent early failures. Furthermore, closer surveillance of reversed bypass grafts is warranted given the higher rates of reinterventions.
Mannitol Use is Renal Protective in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease Requiring Suprarenal Aortic Clamping
BACKGROUND:Mannitol is often administered during open juxtarenal or suprarenal aortic surgery to prevent ischemic injury to the kidneys. Prior evidence evaluating the benefits of intraoperative mannitol in reducing ischemia/reperfusion injury is conflicting and largely based on small, retrospective series. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mannitol in preventing postoperative hemodialysis in patients undergoing open abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair where proximal control involved temporary renal ischemia. METHODS:The Society for Vascular Surgery Quality Initiative database was queried for all patients undergoing elective open AAA repair between 2003 and 2020. Patients were included in the current analysis if the proximal aortic clamp was placed above at least one renal artery. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was defined as Cr > 1.8 mg/dL. Primary end points were 30-day major morbidity (myocardial infarction, respiratory complications, lower extremity or intestinal ischemia, and the need for temporary or permanent hemodialysis) and mortality. Comparisons were made between the mannitol and nonmannitol cohorts and stratified by the presence of preexisting CKD. RESULTS:During the study period, 4,156 patients underwent elective open AAA repair requiring clamp placement more than one (32.7%) or both (67.3%) renal arteries; 182 patients (4.4%) had preexisting CKD. Overall, 69.8% of patients received mannitol during their surgery. Mannitol was more frequently used in cases involving clamp placement above both renal arteries (70.3%) than one renal artery (61.5%). While prolonged ischemia time (more than 40 min) was associated with a higher risk of postoperative dialysis in patients without CKD, it was not significant in patients with baseline CKD. On a univariate analysis, mannitol use in patients with CKD was associated with a lower risk of postoperative dialysis (P = 0.005). This remained significant on a multivariate analysis (P = 0.008). Mannitol use did not appear to confer renal protective effects in patients without baseline CKD. CONCLUSIONS:Mannitol use was associated with a decreased risk of need for postoperative hemodialysis in patients with CKD undergoing suprarenal aortic clamping for open aneurysm repair. In appropriately selected patients, particularly those with underlying renal insufficiency, mannitol may confer a renal protective effect in open repair of pararenal AAA requiring suprarenal clamping.
Safety And Efficacy of Drug Eluting Stents for Treatment of Transplant Renal Artery Stenosis
OBJECTIVE:Transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS) after renal transplantation is a common cause of graft dysfunction and failure. Endovascular intervention in the form of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stenting has rapidly become the dominant treatment modality for the TRAS. There is a paucity of clinical data on use of drug-eluting stent (DES) for TRAS. We investigated the outcomes of patients with clinically significant TRAS undergoing DES placement. METHODS:A retrospective review of patients with clinically significant TRAS undergoing PTA with DES placement from June 2014 to April 2021 was conducted. Patients treated for TRAS exhibited uncontrolled hypertension and/or unexplained allograft dysfunction. Patient demographics, procedural details, and follow-up outcomes were collected. Primary endpoints were the in-stent primary patency and graft survival. Secondary endpoints were freedom from reintervention, primary-assisted patency and access-related complications. RESULTS:Thirteen TRAS in twelve patients with graft function alteration were treated with DES. The median age was 57 years (interquartile range (IQR), 48-63 years), and nine (70%) patients were male (Table). The median follow-up was 9 months (IQR, 4-52 months). The most common comorbidity was hypertension (100%), coronary artery disease (83%) and diabetes. The median time from deceased donor transplant to intervention was 5.8 months (IQR, 3.5-6.7 months). TRAS was most commonly found at the juxta-ostial segment (77%). The procedure was performed with carbon dioxide angiography with minimal amount of iodinated contrast (median, 3 mL) under local anesthesia in nine (69%) and general anesthesia in four (31%) patients. The median stent diameter was 4.5 mm (IQR, 4-5 mm), and the median stent length was 15 mm (IQR, 15-18 mm). No intraoperative complications occurred. The rates of stenosis-free primary patency of the DES and graft survival were 76% and 100%, respectively. All three reinterventions for restenosis resulted from the kinking of the transplant renal artery proximal to the DES, which were treated by extending the stent more proximally 1-2 mm into the external iliac artery. There were no access-related complications. The median time to reintervention was 0.9 months (range, 0.23-2 months). Freedom from reintervention and primary-assisted patency were 76% and 100%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Our study demonstrates that DES is a safe and effective treatment modality in patients with TRAS at short to mid-term follow-up. As all reinterventions after DES were performed due to kinking of the transplant renal artery proximal to the stent, bridging of the DES 1-2 mm into the external iliac artery is recommended.
Prior Infrarenal Aortic Surgery is Not Associated with Increased Risk of Spinal Cord Ischemia Following Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair and Complex Endovascular Aortic Repair
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Patients with prior infrarenal aortic intervention represent an increasing demographic of patients undergoing thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) and/or complex EVAR. Studies have suggested that prior abdominal aortic surgery is a risk factor for spinal cord ischemia (SCI). However, these results are largely based on single-center experiences with limited multi-institutional and national data assessing clinical outcomes in these patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of prior infrarenal aortic surgery on SCI. METHODS:The Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Quality Initiative database was retrospectively reviewed to identify all patients â‰¥18 years old undergoing TEVAR/complex EVAR from January 2012 to June 2020. Patients with previous thoracic or suprarenal aortic repairs were excluded. Baseline and procedural characteristics and postoperative outcomes were compared by group: TEVAR/complex EVAR with or without previous infrarenal aortic repair. The primary outcome was postoperative SCI. Secondary outcomes included postoperative hospital length of stay (LOS), bowel ischemia, renal ischemia, and 30-day mortality. Multivariate regression was used to determine independent predictors of postoperative SCI. Additional analysis was performed for patients undergoing isolated TEVAR. RESULTS:A total of 9506 patients met the inclusion criteria: 8691 (91.4%) had no history of infrarenal aortic repair and 815 (8.6%) had previous infrarenal aortic repair. Patients with previous infrarenal repair were older with an increased prevalence of chronic kidney disease (p=0.001) and cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and smoking history (p<0.001). These patients presented with larger maximal aortic diameters (6.06Â±1.47 cm versus 5.15Â±1.76 cm; p<0.001) and required more stent grafts (p<0.001) with increased intraoperative blood transfusion requirements (p<0.001), and longer procedure times (p<0.001). Univariate analysis demonstrated no difference in postoperative SCI, postoperative hospital LOS, bowel ischemia, or renal ischemia between the two groups. Thirty-day mortality was significantly higher in patients with prior infrarenal repair (p=0.001). On multivariate regression, prior infrarenal aortic repair was not a predictor of postoperative SCI, while aortic dissection (odds ratio [OR] 1.65; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26-2.16, p<0.001), number of stent grafts deployed (OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.30-1.62, p<0.001), and units of packed red blood cells transfused intraoperatively (OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.03-1.73, p=0.032) were independent predictors of SCI. CONCLUSIONS:Although TEVAR/complex EVAR patients with prior infrarenal aortic repair constituted a sicker cohort with higher 30-day mortality, the rate of SCI was comparable to patients without prior repair. Previous infrarenal repair was not associated with risk of SCI.
Fenestrated EVAR Promotes Positive Infrarenal Neck Remodeling and Greater Sac Shrinkage compared to EVAR
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) has become the standard of care treatment for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) in the modern era. While numerous devices exist for standard infrarenal AAA repair, fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (fEVAR) offers a minimally invasive alternative to traditional open repair in patients with short infrarenal necks. Over time, aortic neck dilation can occur leading to loss of proximal seal, endoleaks, and AAA sac growth. This study analyzes aortic remodeling following EVAR versus fEVAR and further evaluates whether fEVAR confers a benefit in terms of sac shrinkage. METHODS:A retrospective review of prospectively collected data on 120 patients undergoing EVAR was performed: 30 patients were treated with fEVAR (Cook ZenithÂ© Fenestrated) and 90 patients were treated with EVAR devices (30 with each Medtronic Endurant Â©, Gore Excluder Â©, and Cook Zenith Â©). Demographic data were recorded, and anatomic measurements were taken for each patient pre-operatively, 30 days post-operatively, and at the longest point of follow-up using three-dimensional reconstruction software. RESULTS:There were no significant differences in demographics data between the 4 groups. fEVAR was used more often in aortas with large necks and irregular morphology (p= 0.004). At the time of longest follow up, the suprarenal aorta encompassing 5, 10, and 15mm above the lowest renal artery (ALRA) dilated the most for fEVAR versus all EVAR groups. Despite this, the infrarenal segment tended to increase by the least, or even regress, for fEVAR compared to all EVAR groups, and was associated with the overall greatest proportion of sac shrinkage for the fEVAR group compared to Medtronic, Gore, and Cook devices, respectively (-13.90% vs. -5.75% vs. -2.31% vs. -4.68%, p=0.025). CONCLUSIONS:Compared to EVAR, patients treated with fEVAR had greater suprarenal dilation over time, consistent with an overall greater burden of disease in the proximal native aorta. However, the infrarenal segment dilated significantly less over time in the fEVAR group compared to all EVAR groups, suggesting that fEVAR may stabilize the infrarenal neck, promoting positive sac remodeling, as evidenced by the greatest degree of decrease in largest AAA diameter in the fEVAR group.
Severity of stenosis in symptomatic patients undergoing carotid interventions may influence perioperative neurologic events
OBJECTIVE:Carotid artery plaque burden, indirectly measured by the degree of stenosis, quantifies future embolic risk. In natural history studies, patients with moderate degrees of stenosis have a lower stroke risk than those with severe stenosis. However, patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis who have experienced TIA or stroke are found to have both moderate and severe degrees of stenosis. We sought to examine the association carotid artery stenosis severity with outcomes in symptomatic patients undergoing carotid interventions including carotid endarterectomy (CEA), transfemoral carotid artery stenting (CAS) and transcervical carotid artery revascularization (TCAR). METHODS:The Society for Vascular Surgery Quality Initiative database was queried for all patients undergoing CAS, CEA and TCAR between 2003 and 2020. Patients were stratified into two groups based on the severity of stenosis - non-severe (0 - 69%) and severe (â‰¥ 70%). Primary endpoints were periprocedural neurologic events (strokes and transient ischemic attacks (TIAs)). Secondary endpoints were periprocedural death, myocardial infarction (MI) and composite outcomes of stroke/death and stroke/death/MI per reporting standards for carotid interventions. RESULTS:Of 29,614 symptomatic patients included in the analysis, 5,296 (17.9%) patients underwent TCAR, 7,844 (26.5%) underwent CAS, and 16,474 (55.6%) underwent CEA for symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. In the CEA cohort, the neurologic event rate was similarly significantly lower in patients with severe stenosis when compared to those with non-severe stenosis (2.6% vs. 3.2%, P=.024). In the TCAR cohort, the periprocedural neurologic even rate was lower in patients with severe stenosis when compared to those with non-severe stenosis (3% vs. 4.3%, P=.033). There was no similar difference noted in the CAS cohort, with periprocedural neurologic event rates of 3.8% in the severe group versus 3.5% in the non-severe group (P=.518). On multivariable analysis, severe stenosis was associated with significantly decreased odds of post procedural neurologic events in patients undergoing CEA (odds ratio [OR] 0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.6 - 0.92; P=.007) and TCAR (OR .83; CI, .69 - 0.99; P=.039), but not CAS. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Severe carotid stenosis as opposed to more moderate degrees of stenosis was associated with decreased rates of periprocedural stroke and TIAs in symptomatic patients undergoing TCAR and CEA, but not CAS. The finding of increased rates of periprocedural neurologic events in symptomatic patients with lesser degrees of stenosis undergoing TCAR and CEA warrants further evaluation with a particular focus on plaque morphology and brain physiology, and their inherent risks with carotid revascularization procedures.
The Presence of a Pathologic Perforator May be Predictive of Central Venous Pathology and Multilevel Disease in Severe Chronic Venous Insufficiency
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:The treatment of a refluxing perforator is indicated in the setting of severe chronic venous insufficiency, but there are limited data on the presence of multilevel disease in these patients. This study sought to evaluate whether the presence of a pathologic perforator is predictive of the presence of central venous pathology. METHODS:This study was a retrospective review of the institutional vascular quality initiative (VQI) database. Consecutive patient-limbs were identified who underwent intervention of refluxing perforators. The patients who underwent imaging, including MRI or CT (Group A) were compared to those who did not undergo imaging (Group B). The treated limbs in Group A were also compared to the contralateral limbs as an internal control. Anatomical findings on imaging were analyzed by two independent investigators. The primary outcome was the presence and degree of central venous stenosis as measured by an orthogonal diameter reduction of > 50% by axial imaging. Secondary outcomes included demographic and clinical differences between the two groups, frequency of central venous intervention, and duration of ulcer healing. Standard statistical analysis was performed. RESULTS:Ninety-three patient-limbs underwent treatment of a pathologic perforator, with 30 in Group A and 63 in Group B. The following demographic and clinical variables were higher in Group A compared to Group B: Male gender, BMI, deep venous thrombosis history, recent or active anticoagulation use, perforator diameter, Clinical Etiology Anatomy Pathophysiology class 4, 5 or 6, and Venous Clinical Severity Score. Radiographic analysis of Group A revealed concordance of a treated pathological perforator with an ipsilateral central venous stenosis in 53.3% of patients, and a higher frequency of common iliac vein stenosis (50% vs 21.4%, P = 0.024) and external iliac vein stenosis (20% vs 0%, P = 0.012) compared to the contralateral limbs. When separated by left or right limb, the left limbs exhibited a greater degree of common iliac vein stenosis as compared to the contralateral limbs (50.7Â±20.9% vs 16.3Â±16.5%, P < 0.001) as well as a greater frequency of >50% common iliac vein stenosis (46.7% vs 13.3%, P = 0.046). The right limbs exhibited a greater frequency of > 50% external iliac vein stenosis as compared to contralateral limbs (33.3% vs 0%, P = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS:This study suggests that patients with severe chronic venous insufficiency who undergo treatment for a pathologic perforator may have additional ipsilateral central venous pathology, supporting the presence of multilevel disease. Additional axial imaging might unmask central venous pathology and provide another option for treatment.
Anticoagulation Therapy is Associated with Increased Access-related Wound Infections after Hemodialysis Access Creation
BACKGROUND:The effect of anticoagulation therapy (AC) on hemodialysis access patency and related complications is not well defined. Patients on long-term or chronic AC due to their underlying comorbid conditions may be particularly susceptible to access-related bleeding and complications from repetitive cannulation. Our goal is to assess the effect of anticoagulation therapy on outcomes after access creation. METHODS:The Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) database was queried for patients undergoing arteriovenous fistula (AVF) or graft (AVG) placement, from 2011 to 2019. Only patients with data on post-procedural AC status were included. Anticoagulation use was defined as patients on warfarin, dabigatran, or rivaroxaban after access creation at postoperative follow up. Demographic and procedural details were analyzed. Wound infection and patency rates at six months were assessed. Binomial logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association of anticoagulation use with these outcomes. RESULTS:A total of 27,757 patients underwent access creation, with the majority undergoing AVF creation (78.8%). The average age was 61.4 years and 55.3% were male. 12.9% of patients were on postoperative AC. The wound infection rate was 2.3- 3.8% in the no AC and AC cohorts, respectively (P < 0.001). At six months follow-up, patency was 85.7- 84.3% in the no AC and AC cohorts, respectively (PÂ =Â 0.044). Expectedly, grafts had lower patency rates compared to AVF; those within the no AC cohort had a patency of 83.0% compared to 81.2 % in those on AC (PÂ =Â 0.106). On multivariable analysis, anticoagulation use was associated with a higher risk of wound infections (odds ratio [OR] 1.513, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.160-1.973, PÂ =Â 0.002). AC use did not significantly affect access patency. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Anticoagulation therapy was associated with a higher rate of wound infections but did not affect short-term access patency within six-months. These patients warrant close surveillance of their access for signs of infection. Furthermore, long-term implications of anticoagulation needs further evaluation.
Periprocedural P2Y12 Inhibitors Improve Perioperative Outcomes After Carotid Stenting by Primarily Decreasing Strokes [Meeting Abstract]
Objective: The continuation of antiplatelet agents in the periprocedural period around carotid stenting (transfemoral carotid artery stenting [TF-CAS] and transcarotid artery revascularization [TCAR]) procedures is believed to be mandatory to minimize the risk of periprocedural stroke.
Method(s): The Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Quality Initiative database was queried from 2007 to 2020. All TCAR and TF-CAS procedures were included. The patients were stratified by preoperative use of P2Y12 inhibitors. The primary endpoints were perioperative neurologic events (ie, stroke, transient ischemic attack). The secondary endpoints were mortality and myocardial infarction. The P2Y12 inhibitors included in the analysis were clopidogrel, prasugrel, and ticagrelor.
Result(s): A total of 31,036 carotid stent procedures were included for analysis (49.8% TCAR and 50.2% TF-CAS; 63.8% of the patients were men). Overall, 82.3% of the patients were taking a P2Y12 inhibitor. P2Y12 inhibitor use was significantly more common for men, asymptomatic patients, those aged >70 years, and those with concurrent statin use (Table I). P2Y12 inhibitors were significantly more likely to be used with TCAR cases than with TF-CAS cases (87.3% vs 76.8%; P <.001). The rate of periprocedural neurologic events in the whole cohort was 2.6%. Patients taking P2Y12 inhibitors were significantly less likely to experience a periprocedural neurologic event (2.3% vs 3.9%; P <.001) and periprocedural mortality (0.6% vs 2.1%; P <.001) than were those not taking a P2Y12 inhibitor. No effect was seen on the rates of myocardial infarction. On multivariate analysis, the use of P2Y12 inhibitors demonstrated an independent significant effect in reducing of the rate of perioperative stroke (odds ratio, 0.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.33; Table II). Finally, additional analysis of the types of P2Y12 inhibitors used revealed that all appeared to be equally effective in reducing the periprocedural neurologic event rate.
Conclusion(s): Continuation of P2Y12 inhibitors in the periprocedural period appears to markedly reduce the perioperative neurologic event rate with TCAR and TF-CAS and should be considered mandatory. Patients with contraindications to P2Y12 inhibitors might not be appropriate candidates for any carotid stenting procedure. Additionally, alternative types of P2Y12 inhibitors appear to be equally effective as clopidogrel. Finally, analysis of the Vascular Quality Initiative demonstrated that even for TCAR cases, only 87.3% of patients were receiving P2Y12 inhibitor therapy in the periprocedural period, leaving room for significant improvement. [Formula presented] [Formula presented]