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Virtual Planning for Exchange Cranioplasty in Cranial Vault Remodeling

Lu, Stephen M; Pessino, Kenneth; Gray, Rachel L; Rodgers, Shaun D; Schneider, Steven J; Bastidas, Nicholas
The use of virtual surgical planning and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing has gained popularity in the surgical correction of craniosynostosis. This study expands the use of virtual surgical planning and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing in cranial vault reconstruction by using these methods to reconstruct the anterior vault using a single endocortically-plated unit constructed from the posterior calvarium. This technique was designed to reduce the risk of undesirable contour deformities that can occur when multiple bone grafts are used to reconstruct the anterior vault and fronto-orbital rim. Six patients were included in this study, all of which had nonsyndromic craniosynostosis. Excellent aesthetic outcomes were obtained in all patients, without complication. Additionally, the placement of a single reconstructive unit constructed from the posterior calvarium was efficient, aesthetically pleasing, and minimized postoperative contour deformities secondary to bone gaps, resorption, and often palpable resorbable plates.
PMID: 33027173
ISSN: 1536-3732
CID: 4626962

Pedicled nasoseptal flap reconstruction for craniopharyngiomas in pediatric patients

Laibangyang, Anya; Rodgers, Shaun D; Baron, Shanna L; Schaeffer, B Todd; Shikowitz, Mark; Mittler, Mark A; Schneider, Steven J
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Though the use of the pedicled nasoseptal flap (NSF), a reconstructive technique used after endoscopic endonasal approaches (EEA) for resection of craniopharyngiomas, has been shown to reduce the occurrence of post-operative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks in adults, less is known about its use in pediatric populations, specifically in children under the age of 7. The goal of this retrospective cohort study is to determine the viability of the pedicled NSF for pediatric patients. METHODS:Retrospective review of 12 pediatric patients (ages 2-16) undergoing 13 NSF reconstructions after resection of craniopharyngiomas. Radioanatomic analysis of computed tomography (CT) scans was utilized to classify the pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus depending on the thickness of the sphenoid bone margin. Intercarotid distances were measured from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to assess the feasibility of this reconstruction technique in pediatric patients. RESULTS:At the time of surgery, all patients were noted to have adequate NSF length and width. No post-operative high-flow CSF leaks were found within the group. Lack of pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus and narrow intercarotid distances in the youngest of patients did not lead to negative clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:Based on our results and experience, the pedicled nasoseptal flap is a viable reconstructive option after EEA in the pediatric population, including even the youngest of patients. In these patients, a narrowed window between the intercarotid arteries and the lack of pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus present a challenge that can be overcome by using stereotactic navigation and advanced endoscopic techniques.
PMID: 31179530
ISSN: 1433-0350
CID: 4089702

Outcomes following endoscopic endonasal resection of sellar and supresellar lesions in pediatric patients

Koumas, Christoforos; Laibangyang, Anya; Barron, Shanna L; Mittler, Mark A; Schneider, Steven J; Rodgers, Shaun D
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) is a credible surgical alternative for the resection of sellar and suprasellar lesions such as pituitary adenomas, craniopharyngiomas, and Rathke cleft cysts. However, its application to pediatric patients poses several unique challenges that have not yet been well evaluated. The authors evaluate the safety, efficacy, and outcomes associated with the use of the EEA for treatment of these pathologic entities in pediatric patients. METHODS:Retrospective review of 30 patients between the ages of two and 24 who underwent endoscopic endonasal resection of sellar or suprasellar lesions between January 2010 and December 2015. Endocrinological and ophthalmological outcomes, as well as extent of resection and complications were all evaluated. RESULTS:Gross total resection was achieved in eight of the nine pituitary adenomas, nine of the 12 craniopharyngiomas, and six of the nine Rathke cleft cysts. Of the 30 patients, 22 remained disease free at last follow-up. A total of six patients developed hypopituitarism and five developed diabetes insipidus. Eleven patients experienced improved vision, sixteen experienced no change, and one patient experienced visual worsening. Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak was seen in a single case and later resolved, vasospasm/stroke was experienced by 10% of patients, and new obesity was recorded in 10% of patients. There were no perioperative deaths. CONCLUSIONS:Endoscopic endonasal resection is a safe and effective surgical alternative for the management of sellar and suprasellar pathologies in pediatric populations with excellent outcomes, minimal complications, and a low risk of morbidity.
PMID: 31214816
ISSN: 1433-0350
CID: 3956212

Tuberous Sclerosis Healthcare Utilization based on the National Inpatient Sample Database: A Review of 5,655 Hospitalizations

Wilson, Taylor A; Rodgers, Shaun; Tanweer, Omar; Agarwal, Prateek; Lieber, Bryan A; Agarwal, Nitin; McDowell, Michael; Devinsky, Orrin; Weiner, Howard; Harter, David H
INTRODUCTION: Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) has an incidence of 1/6,000 in the general population. Overall care may be very complex and costly. We examine trends in healthcare utilization and outcomes of TSC patients over the last decade. METHODS: The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database for inpatient hospitalizations was searched for admission of patients with TSC. RESULTS: During 2000-2010, the NIS captured 5655 TSC patients. The majority patients were admitted to teaching hospitals (71.7%). Over time, the percentage of craniotomies performed per year remained stable (p = 0.351). Relevant diagnoses included neuro-oncologic pathology (5.4%), hydrocephalus (6.5%), and epilepsy (41.2%). Hydrocephalus significantly increased length of stay and hospital charges. A higher percentage of patients who underwent craniotomy had hydrocephalus (29.8% versus 5.3%; p < 0.001), neuro-oncologic pathology (43.5% versus 3.4%; p < 0.001), other cranial pathologies (4.2% versus 1.2%; p < 0.001), and epilepsy (61.4% versus 40.1%; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our study identifies aspects of inpatient healthcare utilization, outcomes, and cost of a large number of patients with TSC. These aspects include related diagnoses and procedures that contribute to longer length of stay, increased hospital cost, and increased in-hospital mortality, which can inform strategies to reduce costs and improve care of patients with TSC.
PMID: 27025453
ISSN: 1878-8769
CID: 2179822

Resective Epilepsy Surgery for Tuberous Sclerosis in Children: Determining Predictors of Seizure Outcomes in a Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Study

Fallah, Aria; Rodgers, Shaun D; Weil, Alexander G; Vadera, Sumeet; Mansouri, Alireza; Connolly, Mary B; Major, Philippe; Ma, Tracy; Devinsky, Orrin; Weiner, Howard L; Gonzalez-Martinez, Jorge A; Bingaman, William E; Najm, Imad; Gupta, Ajay; Ragheb, John; Bhatia, Sanjiv; Steinbok, Paul; Witiw, Christopher D; Widjaja, Elysa; Snead, O Carter; Rutka, James T
BACKGROUND: There are no established variables that predict the success of curative resective epilepsy surgery in children with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). OBJECTIVE: We performed a multicenter observational study to identify preoperative factors associated with seizure outcome in children with TSC undergoing resective epilepsy surgery. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed in eligible children at New York Medical Center, Miami Children's Hospital, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, BC Children's Hospital, Hospital for Sick Children, and Sainte-Justine Hospital between January 2005 and December 2013. A time-to-event analysis was performed. The "event" was defined as seizures after resective epilepsy surgery. RESULTS: Seventy-four patients (41 male) were included. The median age of the patients at the time of surgery was 120 months (range, 3-216 months). The median time to seizure recurrence was 24.0 +/- 12.7 months. Engel Class I outcome was achieved in 48 (65%) and 37 (50%) patients at 1- and 2-year follow-up, respectively. On univariate analyses, younger age at seizure onset (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-4.00, P = .04), larger size of predominant tuber (HR: 1.03, 95% CI: 0.99-1.06, P = .12), and resection larger than a tuberectomy (HR: 1.86, 95% CI: 0.92-3.74, P = .084) were associated with a longer duration of seizure freedom. In multivariate analyses, resection larger than a tuberectomy (HR: 2.90, 95% CI: 1.17-7.18, P = .022) was independently associated with a longer duration of seizure freedom. CONCLUSION: In this large consecutive cohort of children with TSC and medically intractable epilepsy, a greater extent of resection (more than just the tuber) is associated with a greater probability of seizure freedom. This suggests that the epileptogenic zone may include the cortex surrounding the presumed offending tuber. ABBREVIATIONS: EEG, electroencephalographyEZ, epileptic zoneIPD, individual participant dataTSC, tuberous sclerosis complex.
PMID: 26120800
ISSN: 1524-4040
CID: 1649792

Intraoperative fat placement in surgically refractory parasellar neoplasms to facilitate stereotactic radiosurgery

Lieber, Bryan A; Rodgers, Shaun; Kondziolka, Douglas; Sen, Chandranath; Narayana, Ashwatha; Jafar, Jafar J
BACKGROUND: In this article, we report on the technique of placing fat in between a sellar or parasellar neoplasm and the optic chiasm to possibly protect the optic chiasm from sequelae of radiation. METHODS: A review was performed on three patients, each of whom had planned subtotal resection with fat placed near their optic chiasm to facilitate future radiosurgery. RESULTS: Follow-up on our three patients varied from 6 months to 3 years post-stereotactic radiosurgery. The fat remained stable and in place. The tumors either remained stable or reduced in size. No infections, postoperative marker dependent neurological complications or unusual symptoms were encountered. CONCLUSIONS: Placement of fat between a parasellar neoplasm and the optic chiasm appears to be a safe approach to help define the tumor chiasm space, helping to facilitate radiosurgery. Future experience is warranted to determine the efficacy of this technique.
PMID: 25062907
ISSN: 0001-6268
CID: 1089562

Editorial: Auditory brainstem implants [Editorial]

Golfinos, John G; Roland, J Thomas Jr; Rodgers, Shaun D
PMID: 24329025
ISSN: 0022-3085
CID: 761142

A management strategy for intraventricular subependymal giant cell astrocytomas in tuberous sclerosis complex

Harter, David H; Bassani, Luigi; Rodgers, Shaun D; Roth, Jonathan; Devinsky, Orrin; Carlson, Chad; Wisoff, Jeffery H; Weiner, Howard L
Object Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) are benign tumors, most commonly associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). The vast majority of these tumors arise from the lateral ependymal surface adjacent to the foramen of Monro, therefore potentially encroaching on one or both foramina, and resulting in obstructive hydrocephalus that necessitates surgical decompression. The indications for surgery, intraoperative considerations, and evolution of the authors' management paradigm are presented. Methods Patients with TSC who underwent craniotomy for SEGA resection at New York University Langone Medical Center between January 1997 and March 2011 were identified. Preoperative imaging, clinical characteristics, management decisions, operative procedures, and outcomes were reviewed. Results Eighteen patients with TSC underwent 22 primary tumor resections for SEGAs. The indication for surgery was meaningful radiographic tumor progression in 16 of 21 cases. The average age at the time of operation was 10.3 years. Average follow-up duration was 52 months (range 12-124 months). The operative approach was intrahemispheric-transcallosal in 16 cases, transcortical-transventricular in 5, and neuroendoscopic in 1. Nine tumors were on the right, 9 on the left, and 3 were bilateral. Gross-total resection was documented in 16 of 22 cases in our series, with radical subtotal resection achieved in 4 cases, and subtotal resection (STR) in 2 cases. Two patients had undergone ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement preoperatively and 7 patients required shunt placement after surgery for moderate to severe ventriculomegaly. Two patients experienced tumor progression requiring reoperation; both of these patients had initially undergone STR. Conclusions The authors present their management strategy for TSC patients with SEGAs. Select patients underwent microsurgical resection of SEGAs with acceptable morbidity. Gross-total resection or radical STR was achieved in 90.9% of our series (20 of 22 primary tumor resections), with no recurrences in this group. Approximately half of our patient series required CSF diversionary procedures. There were no instances of permanent neurological morbidity associated with surgery.
PMID: 24180681
ISSN: 1933-0707
CID: 688002

Partial labyrinthectomy presigmoid transpetrosal resection of petroclival meningioma [Case Report]

Rodgers, Shaun D; McMenomey, Sean O; Sen, Chandranath
A petroclival meningioma represents a challenging tumor to resect in the cerebellopontine angle and ventral to the brain stem. Multiple cranial nerves and blood vessels may be intimately involved with the tumor. A partial labyrinthectomy presigmoid transpetrosal approach can facilitate resection while preserving hearing. This approach allows for a direct line of sight along the petrous bone while sealing the canals can preserve hearing. In this video operative manuscript, we demonstrate a step-by-step illustration of a partial labyrinthectomy presigmoid transpetrosal resection of a petroclival meningioma. This approach affords the best chance of hearing preservation and an opportunity for maximum tumor resection. The video can be found here: .
PMID: 24380530
ISSN: 1092-0684
CID: 5091982

A novel approach to the lumbar sympathetic chain: lateral access

Rodgers, Shaun D; Engler, John A; Perin, Noel L
Plantar hyperhydrosis is a disabling condition of excessive, symmetric, focal sweating of the feet with social, psychological, and medical implications. Treatment options include topical agents, iontophoresis, botulinum toxin injection, and surgical disruption of the lumbar sympathetic chain. Surgical corridors include transperitoneal and retroperitoneal approaches. We report our technique with a novel minimally invasive lateral retroperitoneal approach commonly used for lateral interbody fusions. The lateral approach for sectioning of the sympathetic chain in the treatment of hyperhydrosis appears safe. The approach may be advantageous for the patient and surgeons familiar with lateral interbody fusion. Further studies may elucidate the long term efficacy and safety of the lateral approach. The video can be found here: .
PMID: 23829842
ISSN: 1092-0684
CID: 438862