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Modern Hearing Preservation Outcomes After Vestibular Schwannoma Stereotactic Radiosurgery

Berger, Assaf; Alzate, Juan Diego; Bernstein, Kenneth; Mullen, Reed; McMenomey, Sean; Jethanemest, Daniel; Friedmann, David R; Smouha, Eric; Sulman, Erik P; Silverman, Joshua S; Roland, J Thomas; Golfinos, John G; Kondziolka, Douglas
BACKGROUND:For patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS), stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has proven effective in controlling tumor growth while hearing preservation remains a key goal. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate hearing outcomes in the modern era of cochlear dose restriction. METHODS:During the years 2013 to 2018, 353 patients underwent Gamma knife surgery for VS at our institution. We followed 175 patients with pre-SRS serviceable hearing (Gardner-Robertson Score, GR 1 and 2). Volumetric and dosimetry data were collected, including biological effective dose, integral doses of total and intracanalicular tumor components, and hearing outcomes. RESULTS:The mean age was 56 years, 74 patients (42%) had a baseline GR of 2, and the mean cochlear dose was 3.5 Gy. The time to serviceable hearing loss (GR 3-4) was 38 months (95% CI 26-46), with 77% and 62% hearing preservation in the first and second years, respectively. Patients optimal for best hearing outcomes were younger than 58 years with a baseline GR of 1, free canal space ≥0.041 cc (diameter of 4.5 mm), and mean cochlear dose <3.1 Gy. For such patients, hearing preservation rates were 92% by 12 months and 81% by 2 years, staying stable for >5 years post-SRS, significantly higher than the rest of the population. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Hearing preservation after SRS for patients with VS with serviceable hearing is correlated to the specific baseline GR score (1 or 2), age, cochlear dose, and biological effective dose. Increased tumor-free canal space correlates with better outcomes. The most durable hearing preservation correlates with factors commonly associated with smaller tumors away from the cochlea.
PMID: 35973088
ISSN: 1524-4040
CID: 5299902

Matched Comparison of Hearing Outcomes in Patients With Vestibular Schwannoma Treated With Stereotactic Radiosurgery or Observation

Schnurman, Zane; Gurewitz, Jason; Smouha, Eric; McMenomey, Sean O; Roland, J Thomas; Golfinos, John G; Kondziolka, Douglas
BACKGROUND:Previous studies comparing hearing outcomes in patients managed with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and a watch-and-wait strategy were limited by small sample sizes that prevented controlling for potential confounders, including initial hearing status, tumor size, and age. OBJECTIVE:To compare hearing outcomes for patients with vestibular schwannomas (VS) managed with observation and SRS while controlling for confounders with propensity score matching. METHODS:Propensity score matching was used to compare 198 patients with unilateral VS with initial serviceable hearing (99 treated with SRS and 99 managed with observation alone) and 116 with initial class A hearing (58 managed with SRS and 58 with observation), matched by initial hearing status, tumor volume, age, and sex. Kaplan-Meier survival methods were used to compare risk of losing class A and serviceable hearing. RESULTS:Between patients with VS managed with SRS or observation alone, there was no significant difference in loss of class A hearing (median time 27.2 months, 95% CI 16.8-43.4, and 29.2 months, 95% CI 20.4-62.5, P = .88) or serviceable hearing (median time 37.7 months, 95% CI 25.7-58.4, and 48.8 months, 95% CI 38.4-86.3, P = .18). For SRS patients, increasing mean cochlear dose was not related to loss of class A hearing (hazard ratio 1.3, P = .17) but was associated with increasing risk of serviceable hearing loss (hazard ratio of 1.5 per increase in Gy, P = .017). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:When controlling for potential confounders, there was no significant difference in loss of class A or serviceable hearing between patients managed with SRS or with observation alone.
PMID: 36001782
ISSN: 1524-4040
CID: 5334982

Predictive Value of Transimpedance Matrix Measurements to Detect Electrode Tip Foldover

Kay-Rivest, Emily; McMenomey, Sean O; Jethanamest, Daniel; Shapiro, William H; Friedmann, David R; Waltzman, Susan B; Roland, J Thomas
OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the ability of the transimpedance matrix (TIM) measurement to detect cochlear implant electrode tip foldover by comparing results to a "gold standard," the intraoperative plain film radiograph. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective case series. SETTING/METHODS:Tertiary referral hospital. PATIENTS/METHODS:One hundred three patients who underwent cochlear implantation between June 2020 and August 2021. INTERVENTIONS/METHODS:Intraoperative electrophysiologic monitoring (electrode impedances, neural response telemetry, and TIM measurement) and modified Stenver's view plain film radiographs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES/METHODS:Identification of tip foldover on both TIM and plain films. RESULTS:In total, 103 patients (117 ears) had both a TIM measurement and intraoperative X-ray available for review, including 68 adults and 35 children. One hundred patients (85%) received the Cochlear Slim Modiolar electrode. Tip foldovers were noted in three of 117 implants (2.5%). In all cases, TIM was able to detect the foldover, and the electrode arrays were reinserted with the patients still under anesthesia, with repeat X-ray demonstrating a normal configuration. Two other abnormal TIM patterns were identified. One was in a patient with an obstructed cochlea in whom only 10 electrodes could be inserted, the other was in a patient with a common cavity abnormality. One additional patient underwent electrode repositioning intraoperatively because of overinsertion. In this patient, the TIM appeared to be within normal limits, but the over-insertion was apparent on X-ray. Overall, the sensitivity and specificity of TIM measurements in detecting electrode tip foldover were both 100%. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:TIM measurements were able to accurately identify tip foldovers. More research is needed to define the adjunctive role of TIM as an intraoperative measure.
PMID: 36040040
ISSN: 1537-4505
CID: 5334992

Cochlear Implantation Outcomes in Patients With Retrocochlear Pathology: A Systematic Review and Pooled Analysis

Schlacter, Jamie A; Kay-Rivest, Emily; Nicholson, Joseph; Santacatterina, Michele; Zhang, Yan; Jethanamest, Daniel; Friedmann, David R; McMenomey, Sean O; Roland, J Thomas
OBJECTIVE:To review the current literature regarding cochlear implantation in patients with retrocochlear pathologies and extract speech perception scores between 6 months and 1 year after surgery. DATABASES REVIEWED/UNASSIGNED:PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane CENTRAL via Ovid, CINAHL Complete via Ebsco, and Web of Science. METHODS:The review was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Search strategies included keywords and subject headings to maximize retrieval and reflect cochlear implants and retrocochlear pathologies. Patients with previously resected vestibular schwannoma (VS) were excluded. RESULTS:There were 2,524 abstracts screened against inclusion criteria, and 53 studies were included, with individual data available for 171 adult patients. Pathologies included were either observed or irradiated VS (previously operated tumors were excluded) (n = 99, 57.9%), superficial siderosis (n = 39, 22.8%), neurosarcoidosis (n = 11, 6.4%), and previous central nervous system or skull base radiation (n = 22, 12.9%). Mean (standard deviation) postoperative consonant-nucleus-consonant (CNC) word scores were 45.4% (24.2) for observed VS, 44.4% (20.8) for irradiated VS, 43.6% (21.0) for superficial siderosis, 89.5% (3.0) for neurosarcoidosis, and 30.0% (30.2) in patients with previous central nervous system or skull base irradiation. Irradiated compared with observed VS had similar postoperative CNC word scores (effect size, 0.06; p = 0.71). Age, sex, maximal tumor dimension, and neurofibromatosis type 2 status did not significantly impact cochlear implant performance in patients with VS. Eighty-two percent of patients with reported device usage were daily users, and overall, 82% of cases benefitted from cochlear implantation. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Cochlear implantation in patients with concomitant retrocochlear pathology generally results in improved speech discrimination scores sustained over time.
PMID: 36047686
ISSN: 1537-4505
CID: 5335012

Long-term Natural History and Patterns of Sporadic Vestibular Schwannoma Growth: A Multi-institutional Volumetric Analysis of 952 Patients

Marinelli, John P; Schnurman, Zane; Killeen, Daniel E; Nassiri, Ashley M; Hunter, Jacob B; Lees, Katherine A; Lohse, Christine M; Roland, J Thomas; Golfinos, John G; Kondziolka, Douglas; Link, Michael J; Carlson, Matthew L
BACKGROUND:The current study aims to characterize the natural history of sporadic vestibular schwannoma volumetric tumor growth, including long-term growth patterns following initial detection of growth. METHODS:Volumetric tumor measurements from 3,505 serial MRI studies were analyzed from unselected consecutive patients undergoing wait-and-scan management at three tertiary referral centers between 1998 and 2018. Volumetric tumor growth was defined as a change in volume ≥20%. RESULTS:Among 952 patients undergoing observation, 622 experienced tumor growth with initial growth-free survival rates (95% CI) at 1, 3, and 5 years following diagnosis of 66% (63-69), 30% (27-34), and 20% (17-24). Among 405 patients who continued to be observed despite demonstrating initial growth, 210 experienced subsequent tumor growth with subsequent growth-free survival rates at 1, 3, and 5 years following initial growth of 77% (72-81), 37% (31-43), and 24% (18-31). Larger tumor volume at initial growth (HR 1.13, p=0.02) and increasing tumor growth rate (HR 1.31; p<0.001) were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of subsequent growth, whereas a longer duration of time between diagnosis and detection of initial growth was protective (HR 0.69; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:While most vestibular schwannomas exhibit an overall propensity for volumetric growth following diagnosis, prior tumor growth does not perfectly predict future growth. Tumors can subsequently grow faster, slower, or demonstrate quiescence and stability. Larger tumor size and increasing tumor growth rate portend a higher likelihood of continued growth. These findings can inform timing of intervention: whether upfront at initial diagnosis, after detection of initial growth, or only after continued growth is observed.
PMID: 34964894
ISSN: 1523-5866
CID: 5108222

Cochlear Implant Outcomes in CHARGE Syndrome: Updated Perspectives

Kay-Rivest, Emily; McMenomey, Sean O; Jethanamest, Daniel; Roland, J Thomas; Shapiro, William H; Waltzman, Susan B; Friedmann, David R
OBJECTIVE:To evaluate outcomes of auditory implants in children with CHARGE syndrome and describe the evolution in management of hearing loss in this complex population. METHODS:A retrospective case review was performed at a tertiary referral center. Children with CHARGE syndrome who received either a cochlear implant (CI) or auditory brainstem implant (ABI) were included. Clinical records, demographic information, CHARGE features, neuroimaging, audiology, hearing rehabilitation interventions, operative notes, and outcomes were reviewed. RESULTS:Thirteen children with CHARGE syndrome underwent a total of 19 cochlear implants between 2008 and 2020. Among the congenitally deafened children (n = 9), six underwent bilateral implantation (five simultaneous and one sequential). Bilateral implantation was performed even in the presence of diminutive-appearing cochlear nerves. The average age of implantation was 1.1 years, and the mean device use time was 9.4 hours per day. Patients showed improvements in subjective family assessment related to hearing. In this group, two patients use oral communication, five use total communication, and two use sign language exclusively. Among the children with progressive hearing loss, the mean age of hearing deterioration was 4.4 years of age, and the device use time on average was 9.8 hours per day. The highest performer in the cohort was a child who lost hearing in their only hearing ear at age 4 and had normal cochleovestibular anatomy on that side. One child received an auditory brainstem implant at age two after deriving no benefit from a CI and can detect environmental sounds but is currently a nonuser. Over time, we noted that implantation occurred earlier in life and that practice has shifted toward bilateral implantation. CONCLUSIONS:Compared to a previous institutional cohort, children evaluated in this study were often implanted at a younger age and bilaterally with significantly improved outcomes. A CI evaluation should be considered in children with CHARGE syndrome to maximize sensory input and auditory ability.
PMID: 35261375
ISSN: 1537-4505
CID: 5213402

Stimulating the Cochlear Apex Without Longer Electrodes: Preliminary Results With a New Approach

Landsberger, David M; Stupak, Natalia; Spitzer, Emily R; Entwisle, Lavin; Mahoney, Laurel; Waltzman, Susan B; McMenomey, Sean; Friedmann, David R; Svirsky, Mario A; Shapiro, William; Roland, J Thomas
OBJECTIVE:To investigate a new surgical and signal processing technique that provides apical stimulation of the cochlea using a cochlear implant without extending the length of the electrode array. PATIENTS/METHODS:Three adult patients who underwent cochlear implantation using this new technique. INTERVENTIONS/METHODS:The patients received a cochlear implant. The surgery differed from the standard approach in that a ground electrode was placed in the cochlear helicotrema via an apical cochleostomy rather than in its typical location underneath the temporalis muscle. Clinical fitting was modified such that low frequencies were represented using the apically placed electrode as a ground. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES/METHODS:Pitch scaling and speech recognition. RESULTS:All surgeries were successful with no complications. Pitch scaling demonstrated that use of the apically placed electrode as a ground lowered the perceived pitch of electric stimulation relative to monopolar stimulation. Speech understanding was improved compared with preoperative scores. CONCLUSIONS:The new surgical approach and clinical fitting are feasible. A lower pitch is perceived when using the apically placed electrode as a ground relative to stimulation using an extracochlear ground (i.e., monopolar mode), suggesting that stimulation can be provided more apically without the use of a longer electrode array. Further work is required to determine potential improvements in outcomes and optimal signal processing for the new approach.
PMID: 35283466
ISSN: 1537-4505
CID: 5213392

Skull Base Aerosol Generating Cases Amidst the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Experience from the Epicenter

Dastagirzada, Yosef; Klauberg, Olga; Sheerin, Kathleen; Lieberman, Seth; Lebowitz, Richard; McMenomey, Sean; Sen, Chandranath; Roland, J Thomas; Golfinos, John G; Pacione, Donato
Soon after the World Health Organization declared the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 a global health emergency on January 30, 2020, New York City was plagued by the virus and its health system and economy pushed to their limits. The majority of the limited neurosurgical data in relation to COVID-19 is anecdotal and the higher theoretical risk of transmission of the virus among skull base aerosol generating (SBAG) cases has not been investigated or discussed in a neurosurgical population. We discuss a series of 13 patients who underwent 15 SBAG surgical procedures during the peak of COVID-19 in our hospital system and the protocols use perioperatively for their procedures. Our data support that with proper preoperative testing, a well-delineated surgical algorithm, and appropriate personal protective equipment, emergent/urgent cases can be done safely in hospitals that are currently experiencing high volumes of COVID-19 cases as we did in March to May of 2020.
PMID: 35832935
ISSN: 2193-6331
CID: 5387592

Fluorescence in situ hybridization and microbial community profiling analysis of explanted cochlear implants

Asfour, Leena; Smyth, Daniel; Whitchurch, Cynthia B; Cavaliere, Rosalia; Roland, J Thomas
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:hybridization (FISH) and microbial community profiling (MCP) are methods of studying microbial environments of explanted devices that can provide information to reduce morbidity and costs of infected CIs. AIMS/OBJECTIVES/UNASSIGNED:To describe the results and clinical significance of bacterial analyses conducted on explanted CIs. MATERIAL AND METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Between 2013 and 2017, 12 explanted devices underwent microbiological analysis in addition to the manufacturer's device failure analysis. Patients' clinical history, infection status and outcome were reviewed and correlated with microbial analysis results. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:From 2013 to 2017, 12 Cochlearâ„¢ devices from 11 patients underwent additional MCP or FISH analysis. Five devices were explanted due to suspected implant associated infection, and seven were explanted for other reasons. FISH analysis revealed biofilm presence on all infected devices, only partial correlation of cultures with biofilm composition and confirmation that biofilm formation occurs preferentially at particular device interfaces and geometries. MCP analysis presented challenges in data analysis inherent to its technique but correlated with cultures of infected devices and suggested a diverse microbial composition of explanted devices. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE/UNASSIGNED:Microbial analysis of explanted devices can aid in further elucidating treatment approaches to infected CIs.
PMID: 35549817
ISSN: 1651-2251
CID: 5214642

Cochlear implant explantation: An in vitro model to evaluate electrode explant force and trauma

Asfour, Leena; Risi, Frank; Miah, Hanif; Roland, J Thomas
OBJECTIVES/UNASSIGNED:Removal of a cochlear implant and its intracochlear electrode array is sometimes necessary, potentially causing cochlear explant trauma. Explantation typically occurs years post-implantation by which time reactive tissue has formed around the electrode. We aimed to create an in-vitro electrode explant model to examine explant forces and intracochlear trauma across multiple electrode types and insertion depths. STUDY DESIGN/UNASSIGNED:An in-vitro model using gel to represent tissue surrounding the electrode was developed. Pre-curved electrodes and straight electrodes at different insertion depths (20mm, 25mm, 28mm) were explanted from the model. During explantation, explant force was measured, and high-definition videos were recorded to capture electrode exit path and gel disruption. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:Explant force patterns varied based on electrode position in the scala tympani. Explant forces did not correlate with gel disruption, which represented explant trauma. The least gel disruption occurred with pre-curved electrodes and the under-inserted straight electrode. The greatest disruption occurred with the overly inserted straight electrode. CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:An in-vitro model using gel to mimic tissue surrounding the electrode may provide insights into potential electrode explant trauma. Explant force did not correlate with explant trauma in our model. Pre-curved electrodes and shallower insertion depth of a straight electrode resulted in the least amount of explant trauma.
PMID: 35236258
ISSN: 1754-7628
CID: 5174492