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Taking Command of 3D Stitching Artifacts: From an Annoyance to an Easy Tool for Navigating 3D Transesophageal Echocardiography

Maidman, Samuel D; Bamira, Daniel; Ro, Richard; Vainrib, Alan F; Saric, Muhamed
Despite many recent advances in three-dimensional (3D) transesophageal (TEE) imagining, the process of orienting 3D TEE images is nonintuitive and uses assumptions based on idealized anatomy. Correlating two-dimensional (2D) TEE cross-sectional images to 3D reconstructions remains an additional challenge. Here, we suggest the repurposing of the stitching artifact generated in 2-beat ECG-gated 3D TEE as a means of exactly orienting 3D images within a patient's unique anatomy. In this article, we demonstrate this application of this strategy to assess a normal mitral valve (MV), to localize scallops of mitral valve prolapse and to visualize typical left atrial appendage 2D cuts in a 3D space. By taking command of stitching artifacts, cardiac imagers can successfully navigate the complex structures of the heart for optimal, individualized echocardiographic views.
PMID: 36174809
ISSN: 1097-6795
CID: 5334502

Bacterial endocarditis with AACEK (HACEK) organisms [Case Report]

Kuohn, Lindsey R; Ro, Richard; Bamira, Daniel; Vainrib, Alan; Freedberg, Robin; Galloway, Aubrey; Williams, Mathew R; Saric, Muhamed
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Gram-negative organisms of the AACEK group, formerly known as HACEK, rarely cause endocarditis. CASE SERIES/METHODS:We present three cases of bacterial endocarditis, involving native and prosthetic valves, caused by AACEK organisms. In two patients, Cardiobacterium hominis was the responsible organism, and in a third, Aggregatibacter aphrophilus was implicated. A dental source of infection was identified in two patients, and in all three patients, the presentation of endocarditis was subacute. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:This case series highlights the indolent nature of infection with the AACEK organisms. It also demonstrates the crucial role of multimodality imaging, especially transesophageal echocardiography, in the diagnosis of AACEk endocarditis of both native and prosthetic valves, and in delineating the extent of abscess in those with prosthetic valve infection.
PMID: 36198094
ISSN: 1540-8175
CID: 5356642

Multimodality Imaging of Caval and Coronary Sinus Venous Anomalies [Case Report]

Liebman, Jordan; Bamira, Daniel; Ro, Richard; Vainrib, Alan F; Small, Adam J; Donnino, Robert; Saric, Muhamed
PMID: 36247374
ISSN: 2468-6441
CID: 5356652

The Effect of TAVR on Left Ventricular and Left Atrial Mechanics in Patients with Aortic Stenosis

Anastasius, Malcolm; Ro, Richard; Gavalas, Michael; Patel, Neil; Prandi, Francesca Romana; Tang, Gilbert H L; Krishnamoorthy, Parasuram; Sharma, Samin K; Kini, Annapoorna; Lerakis, Stamatios
PMID: 35200690
ISSN: 2308-3425
CID: 5285242

Native mitral valve staphylococcus endocarditis with a very unusual complication: Ruptured posterior mitral valve leaflet aneurysm [Case Report]

Maidman, Samuel D; Kiefer, Nicholas J; Bernard, Samuel; Freedberg, Robin S; Rosenzweig, Barry P; Bamira, Daniel; Vainrib, Alan F; Ro, Richard; Neuburger, Peter J; Basu, Atreyee; Moreira, Andre L; Latson, Larry A; Loulmet, Didier F; Saric, Muhamed
Infective endocarditis (IE) is a life-threatening disease associated with in-hospital mortality of nearly one in five cases. IE can destroy valvular tissue, which may rarely progress to aneurysm formation, most commonly at the anterior leaflet in instances of mitral valve involvement. We present a remarkable case of a patient with IE and a rare complication of a ruptured aneurysm of the posterior leaflet of the mitral valve. Two- and Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography, intra-operative videography, and histopathologic analysis revealed disruption at this unusual location-at the junction of the P2 and P3 scallops, surrounded by an annular abscess.
PMID: 34923683
ISSN: 1540-8175
CID: 5108652

Cor Pulmonale from Concomitant Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Methamphetamine Use [Case Report]

Maidman, Samuel D; Sulica, Roxana; Freedberg, Robin S; Bamira, Daniel; Vainrib, Alan F; Ro, Richard; Latson, Larry A; Saric, Muhamed
PMID: 34430775
ISSN: 2468-6441
CID: 5148322

Abnormal left ventricular global longitudinal strain by speckle tracking echocardiography in COVID-19 patients

Croft, Lori B; Krishnamoorthy, Parasuram; Ro, Richard; Anastasius, Malcolm; Zhao, Wenli; Buckley, Samantha; Goldman, Martin; Argulian, Edgar; Sharma, Samin K; Kini, Annapoorna; Lerakis, Stamatios
COVID-19 infection can affect the cardiovascular system. We sought to determine if left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LVGLS) is affected by COVID-19 and if this has prognostic implications. Materials & methods: Retrospective study, with LVGLS was measured in 58 COVID-19 patients. Patients discharged were compared with those who died. Results: The mean LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and LVGLS for the cohort was 52.1 and -12.9 ± 4.0%, respectively. Among 30 patients with preserved LVEF (>50%), LVGLS was -15.7 ± 2.8%, which is lower than the reference mean LVGLS for a normal, healthy population. There was no significant difference in LVGLS or LVEF when comparing patients who survived to discharge or died. Conclusion: LVGLS was reduced in COVID-19 patients, although not significantly lower in those who died compared with survivors.
PMID: 33034203
ISSN: 1744-8298
CID: 5285272

Biventricular strain by speckle tracking echocardiography in COVID-19: findings and possible prognostic implications

Krishnamoorthy, Parasuram; Croft, Lori B; Ro, Richard; Anastasius, Malcolm; Zhao, Wenli; Giustino, Gennaro; Argulian, Edgar; Goldman, Martin E; Sharma, Samin K; Kini, Annapoorna; Lerakis, Stamatios
The COVID-19 infection adversely affects the cardiovascular system. Transthoracic echocardiography has demonstrated diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic utility. We report biventricular myocardial strain in COVID-19. Methods: Biventricular strain measurements were performed for 12 patients. Patients who were discharged were compared with those who needed intubation and/or died. Results: Seven patients were discharged and five died or needed intubation. Right ventricular strain parameters were decreased in patients with poor outcomes compared with those discharged. Left ventricular strain was decreased in both groups but was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Right ventricular strain was decreased in patients with poor outcomes and left ventricular strain was decreased regardless of outcome. Right ventricular strain measurements may be important for risk stratification and prognosis. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings.
PMID: 32749151
ISSN: 1744-8298
CID: 5285252

Insights into functional mitral regurgitation using transillumination rendering

Ramirez, Roberto H; Ro, Richard; Lerakis, Stamatios; Argulian, Edgar
Secondary mitral regurgitation has been originally explained by tethering of the structurally normal mitral leaflets or by mitral annular dilation after atrial remodeling. Advances in echocardiography have provided more insights into functional anatomy of the mitral valve leaflets as active participants in this entity.
PMID: 33963775
ISSN: 1540-8175
CID: 5285282

Two cases of acute endocarditis misdiagnosed as COVID-19 infection

Hayes, Dena E; Rhee, David W; Hisamoto, Kazuhiro; Smith, Deane; Ro, Richard; Vainrib, Alan F; Bamira, Daniel; Zhou, Fang; Saric, Muhamed
The COVID-19 pandemic has presented countless new challenges for healthcare providers including the challenge of differentiating COVID-19 infection from other diseases. COVID-19 infection and acute endocarditis may present similarly, both with shortness of breath and vital sign abnormalities, yet they require very different treatments. Here, we present two cases in which life-threatening acute endocarditis was initially misdiagnosed as COVID-19 infection during the height of the pandemic in New York City. The first was a case of Klebsiella pneumoniae mitral valve endocarditis leading to papillary muscle rupture and severe mitral regurgitation, and the second a case of Streptococcus mitis aortic valve endocarditis with heart failure due to severe aortic regurgitation. These cases highlight the importance of careful clinical reasoning and demonstrate how cognitive errors may impact clinical reasoning. They also underscore the limitations of real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for SARS-CoV-2 testing and illustrate the ways in which difficulty interpreting results may also influence clinical reasoning. Accurate diagnosis of acute endocarditis is critical given that surgical intervention can be lifesaving in unstable patients.
PMID: 33715241
ISSN: 1540-8175
CID: 4817282