Clinical Relevance of Detection of Lymphovascular Invasion in Primary Melanoma Using Endothelial Markers D2-40 and CD34
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) using endothelial markers may facilitate the detection of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) in primary melanoma; however, the clinical implications of enhanced detection are unknown. We evaluated whether the use of lymphatic endothelial marker D2-40 and panvascular marker CD34 increases LVI positivity relative to routine histology alone and then evaluated the prognostic relevance of LVI detected using these markers in terms of disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS). A total of 246 primary melanomas were assessed for LVI using D2-40, CD34, and routine histology. Associations between LVI positivity and clinicopathologic variables, DFS, and OS were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. The use of endothelial markers increased the rate of LVI positivity (18% using D2-40 and/or CD34 vs. 3% by routine histology, P<0.0001). On univariate analysis, IHC-detected LVI was significantly associated with more adverse clinicopathologic variables (thickness, ulceration, mitoses, and nodular subtype) compared with LVI detected by routine histology (thickness and ulceration only). In a multivariate model controlling for stage, LVI detected using IHC markers remained a significant marker of both reduced DFS [hazard ratio (HR), 2.01; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27-3.18; P=0.003] and OS (HR, 2.08; 95% CI: 1.25-3.46; P=0.005). Results show that D2-40 and CD34 increase the detection of LVI in primary melanoma and that cases missed by routine histology have prognostic relevance
Clinical variables and primary tumor characteristics predictive of the development of melanoma brain metastases and post-brain metastases survival
BACKGROUND: Melanoma patients who develop brain metastases (B-Met) have limited survival and are excluded from most clinical trials. In the current study, the authors attempted to identify primary tumor characteristics and clinical features predictive of B-Met development and post-B-Met survival. METHODS: A prospectively accrued cohort of 900 melanoma patients was studied to identify clinicopathologic features of primary melanoma (eg, thickness, ulceration, mitotic index, and lymphovascular invasion) that are predictive of B-Met development and survival after a diagnosis of B-Met. Associations between clinical variables present at the time of B-Met diagnosis (eg, extracranial metastases, B-Met location, and the presence of neurological symptoms) and post-B-Met survival were also assessed. Univariate associations were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, and the effect of independent predictors was assessed using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 900 melanoma patients studied, 89 (10%) developed B-Met. Ulceration and site of the primary tumor on the head and neck were found to be independent predictors of B-Met development on multivariate analysis (P = .001 and P = .003, respectively). Clinical variables found to be predictive of post-B-Met survival on multivariate analysis included the presence of neurological symptoms (P = .008) and extracranial metastases (P = .04). Ulceration was the only primary tumor characteristic that remained a significant predictor of post-B-Met survival on multivariate analysis (P = .04). CONCLUSIONS: Primary tumor ulceration was found to be the strongest predictor of B-Met development and remained an independent predictor of decreased post-B-Met survival in a multivariate analysis inclusive of primary tumor characteristics and clinical variables. The results of the current study suggest that patients with ulcerated primary tumors should be prospectively studied to determine whether heightened surveillance for B-Met can improve clinical outcome. Cancer 2011. (c) 2010 American Cancer Society
Clinical relevance of SKP2 alterations in metastatic melanoma
In this study, we investigated the mechanism(s) of altered expression of protooncogene SKP2 in metastatic melanoma and its clinical relevance in patients with metastatic melanoma. The genomic status of SKP2 was assessed in cell lines by sequencing, single nucleotide polymorphism array, and genomic PCR. Copy number status was then evaluated for concordance with SKP2 mRNA and protein expression. SKP2 protein was further evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 93 human metastatic tissues. No mutations were identified in SKP2. Increased copy number at the SKP2 locus was observed in 6/14 (43%) metastatic cell lines and in 9/22 (41%) human metastatic tissues which was associated with overexpression of SKP2 protein. Overexpression of SKP2 protein in human tissues was associated with worse survival in a multivariate model controlling for the site of metastasis. Copy number gain is a major contributing mechanism of SKP2 overexpression in metastatic melanoma. Results may have implications for the development of therapeutics that target SKP2
A high proliferative index of recurrent melanoma is associated with worse survival
Objective: Previous melanoma studies evaluating prognostic factors of survival at recurrence have focused on primary tumor characteristics and clinical variables at first recurrence. We examined the prognostic relevance of recurrent tumor proliferation. Methods: 114 melanoma patients with available recurrent tissues who were prospectively enrolled at New York University Medical Center were studied. Standard of care prognostic variables (e.g. stage at initial diagnosis and lactate dehydrogenase level) and recurrent tissue expression of proliferative marker Ki-67 were evaluated for their association with overall survival. Results: High Ki-67 expression was observed in 57 (50%) of the 114 recurrent melanomas. On univariate analysis, the median overall survival of patients whose recurrent tumors overexpressed Ki-67 was significantly shorter than that of patients whose recurrent tumors had low Ki-67 expression (3.6 vs. 9.5 years, p = 0.03). On multivariate analysis, a high proliferative index of the recurrent melanoma remained an independent predictor of worse overall survival, controlling for stage at initial diagnosis, disease-free survival, and stage at first recurrence [HR = 2.09 (95% CI 1.24-3.54), p = 0.006]. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the prognostic relevance of tumor proliferation in recurrent melanoma patients. Data also support restratification of risk assessment upon recurrence that considers tumor biology in addition to clinical variables evaluated as part of the standard of care
New gamma-secretase inhibitor (RO4929097) targeting notch signaling in melanoma [Meeting Abstract]
The incidence of melanoma has increased 3-7% per year, and is now approaching 30 per 100,000 individuals. This rate is faster than any other cancer, and is predicted to double every 10-20 years . Surgery can be curative in Stage I, II, or III disease, but 75% of patients with deep primary lesions will develop extensive recurrence or distant metastases (Stage IV disease). To date, no curative treatment exists for Stage IV melanoma and these patients have a median overall survival of only 7 months . A subset of patients can be salvaged with surgical resection of metastatic sites, but no adjuvant therapy has further improved the outcome . The only FDA approved adjuvant therapy for Stage IV melanoma is alpha-interferon. Several trials have demonstrated an increase in relapse-free survival; however, toxicity is high and overall survival remains controversial. Several reports have demonstrated a role for aberrant Notch signaling in melanoma genesis or progression, prompting us to explore if targeting this pathway is a valid therapeutic approach against melanoma. To investigate the potential benefits of Notch inhibition in melanoma, we are using RO4929097, a novel inhibitor of gamma secretase, a key component of the enzymatic complex that cleaves and activates Notch. RO4929097 is completing Phase I dose escalation in cancer patients and a CTEP-sponsored Phase II clinical trial in melanoma is currently under review. We have generated DNA microarray data for a series of 22 melanoma cell lines at both the gene expression and DNA copy number level. Preliminary gene expression analysis has indicated that melanoma cells over express crucial components of NOTCH-pathway, such as Hey1 Hey2 and NOXA. Furthermore, integration of gene expression and copy number data for NOTCH2 suggests that the increased DNA copy number play a role in the increase in gene expression. We have also tested the efficacy of RO4929047 in human melanoma cell lines. We have observed that treatment with RO4929097 for 24h causes a!
Copy number and gene expression differences between African American and Caucasian American prostate cancer
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The goal of our study was to investigate the molecular underpinnings associated with the relatively aggressive clinical behavior of prostate cancer (PCa) in African American (AA) compared to Caucasian American (CA) patients using a genome-wide approach. METHODS: AA and CA patients treated with radical prostatectomy (RP) were frequency matched for age at RP, Gleason grade, and tumor stage. Array-CGH (BAC SpectralChip2600) was used to identify genomic regions with significantly different DNA copy number between the groups. Gene expression profiling of the same set of tumors was also evaluated using Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 arrays. Concordance between copy number alteration and gene expression was examined. A second aCGH analysis was performed in a larger validation cohort using an oligo-based platform (Agilent 244K). RESULTS: BAC-based array identified 27 chromosomal regions with significantly different copy number changes between the AA and CA tumors in the first cohort (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.05). Copy number alterations in these 27 regions were also significantly associated with gene expression changes. aCGH performed in a larger, independent cohort of AA and CA tumors validated 4 of the 27 (15%) most significantly altered regions from the initial analysis (3q26, 5p15-p14, 14q32, and 16p11). Functional annotation of overlapping genes within the 4 validated regions of AA/CA DNA copy number changes revealed significant enrichment of genes related to immune response. CONCLUSIONS: Our data reveal molecular alterations at the level of gene expression and DNA copy number that are specific to African American and Caucasian prostate cancer and may be related to underlying differences in immune response
Preclinical analyses of a new gamma-secretase inhibitor targeting notch signaling in melanoma [Meeting Abstract]
The use of integrative genomics to define molecular signatures of melanoma histologic subtypes [Meeting Abstract]
Outcomes of patients lost to followup after mid urethral synthetic slings--successes or failures?
PURPOSE: We classified patients lost to followup after mid urethral synthetic sling placement as examples of treatment success or failure based on the Patient Global Impression of Improvement, and compared the outcomes of those who followed up to the outcomes of those who did not. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the charts of 217 patients who underwent mid urethral synthetic sling placement. Telephone interviews including the Patient Global Impression of Improvement and the Medical, Epidemiological, and Social Aspects of Aging questionnaires were conducted for patients lacking 3-month followup. RESULTS: Based on the Patient Global Impression of Improvement of the 48 patients who responded 13 (27.1%) were failures. The overall failure rate of patients with at least 3-month followup was 19% (23 of 124). CONCLUSIONS: In our study success rates for patients lost to followup were similar to the rates for those who had routine followup. However, it is uncertain if these data can be applied to other study populations, especially in a randomized controlled trial.
Melanoma MicroRNA Signature Predicts Post-Recurrence Survival
PURPOSE: To identify a melanoma microRNA (miRNA) expression signature that is predictive of outcome and then evaluate its potential to improve risk stratification when added to the standard-of-care staging criteria. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Total RNA was extracted from 59 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded melanoma metastases and hybridized to miRNA arrays containing 911 probes. We then correlated miRNA expression with post-recurrence survival and other clinicopathologic criteria. RESULTS: We identified a signature of 18 miRNAs whose overexpression was significantly correlated with longer survival, defined as more than 18 months post-recurrence survival. Subsequent cross-validation showed that a small subset of these miRNAs can predict post-recurrence survival in metastatic melanoma with an estimated accuracy of 80.2% (95% confidence interval, 79.8-80.6%). In contrast to standard-of-care staging criteria, a six-miRNA signature significantly stratified stage III patients into 'better' and 'worse' prognostic categories, and a multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed the signature to be an independent predictor of survival. Furthermore, we showed that most miRNAs from the signature also showed differential expression between patients with better and worse prognoses in the corresponding paired primary melanoma. CONCLUSIONS: MiRNA signatures have potential as clinically relevant biomarkers of prognosis in metastatic melanoma. Our data suggest that molecularly based models of risk assessment can improve the standard staging criteria and support the incorporation of miRNAs into such models. Clin Cancer Res; 16(5); 1577-86