Flexor Hallucis Longus Tenolysis/Tenosynovectomy in Dancers
Barchi, Elizabeth I; Swensen, Stephanie; Dimant, Oscar E; McKay, Tracy Espiritu; Rose, Donald J
The purpose of this study was to report on a series of dancers who had undergone flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tenolysis/tenosynovectomy after having failed conservative management. Institutional human subjects committee approval was obtained prior to initiating this study. This study is a retrospective case series of 58 dancers and 63 ankles who underwent FHL tenolysis/tenosynovectomy via an open posteromedial approach by a single surgeon between 1993 and 2017. All patients were interviewed and charts reviewed. Collected variables included: preoperative and postoperative pain levels, time to return to dance, and subjective satisfaction with the procedure. Age, primary dance form, and level of dance were determined. Mean preoperative pain level decreased significantly postoperatively. Mean time to return to dance was 7.1 weeks. There was a 98% (62/63) return to dance at some level while 97% (61/63) of patients returned to dance symptom-free. There were no neurovascular or other major complications. Minor complications included stiffness at follow-up (6.3%, 4/63), superficial wound infection (3.1%, 2/63), and hypertrophic scar (4.8%, 3/63). Over 97% (61/63) of dancers considered the procedure a success and 98% (62/63) of dancers would repeat the procedure. This is one of the largest series reported of isolated FHL tenolysis/tenosynovectomy in dancers who have failed nonoperative management. Satisfactory pain relief and return to dance with a low complication rate may be expected from this surgical procedure. The results of this study can be used to help dancers and their providers make informed decisions about treatment in isolated FHL tendinitis.
Unlikely SuspectPeroneus Tertius Tear in a Professional Ballet Dancer
Barchi, Elizabeth; Rose, Donald
Peroneus tertius tendon tears are uncommon and patients typically recover with conservative management. The objec-tive of this case report is to highlight this usual injury and provide an alternative treatment option when conserva-tive management fails. A 24-year-old female professional ballet dancer presented with acute right lateral foot pain after hyperflexing over her pointe shoe. She completed a full course of physical therapy and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. However, upon returning to dance, she developed worsening pain and swelling over the lateral ankle. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a complete peroneus tertius tear with retraction. She underwent surgi-cal debridement of this tendon and was able to return to dancing en pointe in 9 weeks.
Case Report of a Bifid Distal Biceps Tendon with Traumatic Rupture and Subsequent Repair of Short Head Tendon Limb
Aggarwal, Vinay K; Rose, Donald
Distal biceps tendon ruptures are a topic of great interest in the orthopedic literature with differentiation between complete and partial tears being difficult to recognize. Recent cadaveric and radiologic studies have shown that the muscle maintains two distinct tendons and tendinous insertions. In this clinical case report, we describe the rare case of a patient with a congenitally bifid distal biceps tendon who selectively ruptured a single bundle of the tendon and subsequently underwent surgical repair.
Excision of Os Trigonum in Dancers via an Open Posteromedial Approach
Heyer, Jessica H; Dai, Amos Z; Rose, Donald J
An os trigonum is a potential source of posterior ankle pain in dancers, often associated with flexor hallucis longus (FHL) pathology. Surgical excision is indicated on failure of nonoperative management. Options for surgical excision include open excision (via a posterolateral or posteromedial approach), subtalar arthroscopy, and posterior endoscopy. Os trigonum excision via an open posteromedial approach with concomitant FHL tenolysis/tenosynovectomy is a safe and effective method for the operative treatment of a symptomatic os trigonum that allows for identification and treatment of associated FHL pathology. The major steps in the procedure, which are demonstrated in this video article, are: (1) preoperative planning with appropriate imaging; (2) patient is positioned in a supine position with the operative extremity in figure-of-4 position; (3) a 3-cm, slightly curvilinear longitudinal incision is made midway between the posterior aspect of the medial malleolus and the anterior aspect of the Achilles tendon, over the palpated FHL tendon, and the flexor retinaculum is exposed and incised; the neurovascular bundle is retracted anteriorly, exposing the FHL tendon and sheath; (4) FHL tenolysis/tenosynovectomy is performed; (5) the FHL is retracted anteriorly and a capsulotomy is performed over the os trigonum and the os trigonum is excised; (6) the capsule is repaired and closure is performed; and (7) dressings and a CAM (controlled ankle motion) walking boot are applied. The patient begins physical therapy at 2 weeks postoperatively and may return to dance at 4 to 6 weeks postoperatively as tolerated. In our series of 40 cases, 95% of patients who desired to return to dance were able to return to their pre-injury level of dance. There were no major neurovascular complications.
Os Trigonum Excision in Dancers via an Open Posteromedial Approach
Heyer, Jessica H; Rose, Donald J
BACKGROUND: An os trigonum is a potential source of posterior ankle pain in dancers, often associated with flexor hallucis longus (FHL) pathology. Options for operative excision include open excision, subtalar arthroscopy, and posterior endoscopy. The purpose of this paper was to present a series of dancers who underwent excision of a symptomatic os trigonum via an open posteromedial approach. METHODS: This study is a retrospective case series of 40 ankles in 38 dancers who underwent os trigonum excision via an open posteromedial approach with FHL tenolysis between 2000 and 2013. All patients were interviewed and charts retrospectively analyzed. Collected variables included pre- and postoperative pain level, time to return to dance, and subjective satisfaction. The average age was 19.2 years; ballet was the primary dance form in 36 (95%) of patient-cases. Eight (20%) of the patient-cases were professional dancers, and 30 (75%) were students or preprofessional dancers. RESULTS: Average preoperative pain level was 7.7/10, which decreased to 0.6/10 postoperatively. Seventeen (42.5%) experienced concurrent preoperation-associated FHL symptomatology, all of whom experienced relief postoperatively. The average time to return to dance was 7.9 weeks, and time to pain-free dance was 17.7 weeks. Of the 37 patient-cases desiring to return to dance, 35 (94.6%) returned to their preoperative level of dance. There were no neurovascular or other major complications. Four (10%) had minor wound complications that resolved, and 38 cases (95%) considered the procedure a success. CONCLUSION: Open posteromedial excision of an os trigonum in dancers provided satisfactory pain relief, return to dance, and complication rates compared to other approaches, and allowed for identifying and treating any associated FHL pathology. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, retrospective case series.
Iliopsoas Syndrome in Dancers
Laible, Catherine; Swanson, David; Garofolo, Garret; Rose, Donald J
BACKGROUND: Coxa saltans refers to a constellation of diagnoses that cause snapping of the hip and is a major cause of anterior hip pain in dancers. When the internal type is accompanied by weakness or pain, it is referred to as iliopsoas syndrome. Iliopsoas syndrome is the result of repetitive active hip flexion in abduction and can be confused with other hip pathology, most commonly of labral etiology. PURPOSE: To report the incidence, clinical findings, treatment protocol, and results of treatment for iliopsoas syndrome in a population of dancers. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS: A retrospective database review of 653 consecutive patients evaluated for musculoskeletal complaints over a 3-year period was completed. The diagnosis of iliopsoas syndrome was made based on anterior hip or groin pain, weakness with resisted hip flexion in abduction, or symptomatic clicking or snapping with a positive iliopsoas test. Patients identified with iliopsoas syndrome were further stratified according to age at time of onset, insidious versus acute onset, duration of symptoms, side of injury, presence of rest pain, pain with activities of daily living, and associated lower back pain. All patients diagnosed with iliopsoas syndrome underwent physical therapy, including hip flexor stretching and strengthening, pelvic mobilization, and modification of dance technique or exposure as required. RESULTS: A total of 49 dancers were diagnosed and treated for iliopsoas syndrome. Within this injured population of 653 patients, the incidence in female dancers was 9.2%, significantly higher than that in male dancers (3.2%). The mean age at the time of injury was 24.6 years. The incidence of iliopsoas syndrome in dancers younger than 18 years was 12.8%, compared with 7% in dancers older than 18 years. Student dancers had the highest incidence (14%), followed by amateur dancers (7.5%), while professional dancers had the lowest incidence (4.6%). All patients responded to conservative treatment, and no patients required corticosteroid injections or surgical intervention. CONCLUSION: This is the largest series reported to date of iliopsoas syndrome in the dance population, treated noninvasively. This study supports that conservative treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication, activity modification, and a physical therapy regimen specific to the iliopsoas should be the primary treatment for patients with iliopsoas syndrome. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This study supports current literature and conservative treatment of iliopsoas syndrome diagnosis. Furthermore, this study gives specific information regarding incidence of iliopsoas syndrome in dance populations and provides a test for diagnosis and an algorithm for treatment.
Myositis ossificans within the intercondylar notch treated arthroscopically
Leung, Allen H; Rybak, Leon D; Rose, Donald J; Desai, Panna
We present a case of intraarticular myositis ossificans in the right knee of a child. Myositis ossificans (MO), though relatively rare in childhood and even more uncommon within a joint, should be included in the differential diagnosis of an intra-articular mass when indicated by the typical clinical, radiographic, and histologic findings. An 11-year-old male presented with a history of trauma to his right knee. Four weeks after the initial injury, an MRI demonstrated evidence of an ACL rupture with a 'cystic mass' within the intercondylar notch along the anterior surface of the torn ligament. At subsequent arthroscopy, the mass noted on MRI was removed. The histology was consistent with MO. The authors believe this to be the first case of MO in the intercondylar notch detected by MRI, treated by arthroscopy, and confirmed by histology
Arthroscopic management of recurrent low-energy anterior hip dislocation in a dancer: a case report and review of literature [Case Report]
Epstein, David M; Rose, Donald J; Philippon, Marc J
Letter to the editor. The treatment of tibial stress fractures in elite dancers [Letter]
de Bartolomeo, Omar; Albisetti, Walter; Miyamoto, Ryan; Dhotar, Herman; Rose, Donald; Egol, Kenneth
MR imaging of complications of anterior cruciate ligament graft reconstruction
Bencardino, Jenny T; Beltran, Javier; Feldman, Marina I; Rose, Donald J
During the past 3 decades, graft reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has become an accepted treatment for symptomatic ACL deficiency. The goal of surgery is to prevent joint instability, which may further damage articular cartilage and menisci. Graft failure is defined as pathologic laxity of the reconstructed ACL. The prevalence of recurrent instability after primary ACL reconstruction ranges from 1% to 8%. Early failures, those that occur within the first 6 months, often are secondary to poor surgical technique, failure of graft incorporation, or errors in rehabilitation. Late failures, those that occur more than 1 year after surgery, likely are related to new trauma and graft tearing. Other complications of ACL reconstruction include roof impingement, postoperative stiffness, tunnel widening due to cyst formation, iliotibial band friction syndrome, hardware failure, and infection. Magnetic resonance imaging is the preferred advanced imaging modality for the evaluation of symptomatic ACL graft reconstructions