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Medical therapy for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in patients with myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery

Chen, Jin F; Smilowitz, Nathaniel R; Kim, Jung T; Cuff, Germaine; Boltunova, Alina; Toffey, Jason; Berger, Jeffrey S; Rosenberg, Andrew; Kendale, Samir
BACKGROUND:Myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (MINS) is a common post-operative cardiovascular complication and is associated with short and long-term mortality. The objective of this study was to describe the contemporary management of patients with and without MINS after total joint and spine orthopedic surgery at a large urban health system in the United States. METHODS:Adults admitted for total joint and major spine surgery from January 2013 through December 2015 with ≥1 cardiac troponin (cTn) measurement during their hospitalization were identified. MINS was defined by a peak cTn above the 99th percentile of the upper reference limit. Demographics, medical comorbidities, and admission and discharge medications were reviewed for all patients. RESULTS:A total of 2561 patients underwent 2798 orthopedic surgeries, and 236 cases of MINS were identified. Patients with MINS were older (71.9 ± 10.9 vs. 67.0 ± 10.0, p < 0.001) and more likely to have cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, chronic kidney disease, prior stroke, coronary artery disease, prior MI, and a history of heart failure. Among patients with MINS, only 112 (47.5%) were discharged on a combination of aspirin and statin. Patients with MINS were more likely to be prescribed a statin (154 [65.3%] vs. 1463 [57.1%], p = 0.018), beta-blocker (147 [62.3%] vs. 1194 [46.6%], p < 0.001), and oral anticoagulation (65 [27.5%] vs. 436 [17.0%], p < 0.001) than patients without MINS. CONCLUSIONS:The proportion of patients with MINS who were prescribed medical therapy for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease was low. Additional efforts to determine optimal management of MINS are warranted.
PMID: 30598249
ISSN: 1874-1754
CID: 3563312

Supervised Machine Learning Predictive Analytics for Prediction of Postinduction Hypotension

Kendale, Samir; Kulkarni, Prathamesh; Rosenberg, Andrew D; Wang, Jing
WHAT WE ALREADY KNOW ABOUT THIS TOPIC/UNASSIGNED:WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: BACKGROUND:: Hypotension is a risk factor for adverse perioperative outcomes. Machine learning methods allow large amounts of data for development of robust predictive analytics. The authors hypothesized that machine learning methods can provide prediction for the risk of postinduction hypotension METHODS:: Data was extracted from the electronic health record of a single quaternary care center from November 2015 to May 2016 for patients over age 12 that underwent general anesthesia, without procedure exclusions. Multiple supervised machine learning classification techniques were attempted, with postinduction hypotension (mean arterial pressure less than 55 mmHg within 10 min of induction by any measurement) as primary outcome, and preoperative medications, medical comorbidities, induction medications, and intraoperative vital signs as features. Discrimination was assessed using cross-validated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The best performing model was tuned and final performance assessed using split-set validation. RESULTS:Out of 13,323 cases, 1,185 (8.9%) experienced postinduction hypotension. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve using logistic regression was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.70 to 0.72), support vector machines was 0.63 (95% CI, 0.58 to 0.60), naive Bayes was 0.69 (95% CI, 0.67 to 0.69), k-nearest neighbor was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.63 to 0.65), linear discriminant analysis was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.71 to 0.73), random forest was 0.74 (95% CI, 0.73 to 0.75), neural nets 0.71 (95% CI, 0.69 to 0.71), and gradient boosting machine 0.76 (95% CI, 0.75 to 0.77). Test set area for the gradient boosting machine was 0.74 (95% CI, 0.72 to 0.77). CONCLUSIONS:The success of this technique in predicting postinduction hypotension demonstrates feasibility of machine learning models for predictive analytics in the field of anesthesiology, with performance dependent on model selection and appropriate tuning.
PMID: 30074930
ISSN: 1528-1175
CID: 3217582

A retrospective study of opioid prescribing patterns at hospital discharge in surgical patients with obstructive sleep apnea

Kendale, Samir M; Wang, Jing; Blitz, Jeanna D; Calvino, Steven; Cuff, Germaine; Barone, Nicholas; Rosenberg, Andrew D; Doan, Lisa
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a risk factor for complications with postoperative opioid use, and in those patients with known or suspected OSA, minimization of postoperative opioids is recommended. We hypothesize that despite these recommendations, surgical patients with known or suspected OSA are prescribed postoperative opioids at hospital discharge at similar doses to those without OSA. METHODS:This was a retrospective analysis of the electronic health records of surgical patients from 1 November 2016 to 30 April 2017 at a single academic institution. Patients with a known diagnosis of OSA or a STOP-Bang score ≥ 5 were compared with those without OSA for the amount of postoperative discharge opioid medication using multivariable linear regression. RESULTS:Of the 17,671 patients analyzed, 1,692 (9.6%) had known or suspected OSA with 1,450 (86%) of these patients discharged on opioid medications. Of the 15,979 patients without OSA, 12,273 (77%) were discharged on opioid medications. The total median [interquartile range (IQR)] oral morphine equivalents (OME) for all patients was 150 [0-338] mg and for patients with known or suspected OSA was 160 [0-450] mg, an unadjusted comparison showing an 18% difference in OME (95% confidence interval [CI], 3% to 35%; P = 0.02). The analysis, after adjusting for confounders, showed no significant difference in the amount of opioids prescribed to OSA or non-OSA patients (8% difference in total OME; 95% CI, -6% to 25%; P = 0.26). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:This study shows that surgical patients at risk for OSA or confirmed OSA are prescribed opioids at similar rates and doses upon discharge despite guidelines that recommend minimizing opioid use in OSA patients. These findings indicate a need to implement different strategies to reduce the prescription of opioids to patients with OSA.
PMID: 29777388
ISSN: 1496-8975
CID: 3120822

Perioperative Medication Administration: Understanding the Magnitude of Medication [Meeting Abstract]

Fealey, David; Cuff, Germaine; Kendale, Samir; Rosenberg, Andrew
ISSN: 0003-2999
CID: 3182992

Racial Disparities in Postoperative Pain Reporting and Satisfaction [Meeting Abstract]

Cuff, Germaine; Kendale, Samir; Rosenberg, Andrew
ISSN: 0003-2999
CID: 3183002

In Reply

Blitz, Jeanna D; Kendale, Samir M; Jain, Sudheer K; Cuff, Germaine E; Kim, Jung T; Rosenberg, Andrew D
PMID: 28418972
ISSN: 1528-1175
CID: 2532332

Perioperative antiplatelet therapy and cardiovascular outcomes in patients undergoing joint and spine surgery

Smilowitz, Nathaniel R; Oberweis, Brandon S; Nukala, Swetha; Rosenberg, Andrew; Stuchin, Steven; Iorio, Richard; Errico, Thomas; Radford, Martha J; Berger, Jeffrey S
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Perioperative thrombotic complications after orthopedic surgery are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The use of aspirin to reduce perioperative cardiovascular complications in certain high-risk cohorts remains controversial. Few studies have addressed aspirin use, bleeding, and cardiovascular outcomes among high-risk patients undergoing joint and spine surgery. DESIGN/SETTING/PATIENTS: We performed a retrospective comparison of adults undergoing knee, hip, or spine surgery at a tertiary care center during 2 periods between November 2008 and December 2009 (reference period) and between April 2013 and December 2013 (contemporary period). MEASUREMENTS: Patient demographics, comorbidities, management, and outcomes were ascertained using hospital datasets. MAIN RESULTS: A total of 5690 participants underwent 3075 joint and spine surgeries in the reference period and 2791 surgeries in the contemporary period. Mean age was 61+/-13 years, and 59% were female. In the overall population, incidence of myocardial injury (3.1% vs 5.8%, P<.0001), hemorrhage (0.2% vs 0.8%, P=.0009), and red blood cell transfusion (17.2% vs 24.8%, P<.001) were lower in the contemporary period. Among 614 participants with a preoperative diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD), in-hospital aspirin use was significantly higher in the contemporary period (66% vs 30.7%, P<.0001); numerically, fewer participants developed myocardial injury (13.5% vs 19.3%, P=.05), had hemorrhage (0.3% vs 2.1%, P=.0009), and had red blood cell transfusion (37.2% vs 44.2%, P<.001) in the contemporary vs reference period. CONCLUSIONS: In a large tertiary care center, the incidence of perioperative bleeding and cardiovascular events decreased over time. In participants with CAD, perioperative aspirin use increased and appears to be safe.
PMID: 27871515
ISSN: 1873-4529
CID: 2314352

Preoperative Evaluation Clinic Visit Is Associated with Decreased Risk of In-hospital Postoperative Mortality

Blitz, Jeanna D; Kendale, Samir M; Jain, Sudheer K; Cuff, Germaine E; Kim, Jung T; Rosenberg, Andrew D
BACKGROUND: As specialists in perioperative medicine, anesthesiologists are well equipped to design and oversee the preoperative patient preparation process; however, the impact of an anesthesiologist-led preoperative evaluation clinic (PEC) on clinical outcomes has yet to be fully elucidated. The authors compared the incidence of in-hospital postoperative mortality in patients who had been evaluated in their institution's PEC before elective surgery to the incidence in patients who had elective surgery without being seen in the PEC. METHODS: A retrospective review of an administrative database was performed. There were 46 deaths from 64,418 patients (0.07%): 22 from 35,535 patients (0.06%) seen in PEC and 24 from 28,883 patients (0.08%) not seen in PEC. After propensity score matching, there were 13,964 patients within each matched set; there were 34 deaths (0.1%). There were 11 deaths from 13,964 (0.08%) patients seen in PEC and 23 deaths from 13,964 (0.16%) patients not seen in PEC. A subanalysis to assess the effect of a PEC visit on deaths as a result of failure to rescue (FTR) was also performed. RESULTS: A visit to PEC was associated with a reduction in mortality (odds ratio, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.96, P = 0.04) by comparison of the matched cohorts. The FTR subanalysis suggested that the proportion of deaths attributable to an unanticipated surgical complication was not significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.141). CONCLUSIONS: An in-person assessment at the PEC was associated with a reduction in in-hospital mortality. It was difficult to draw conclusions about whether a difference exists in the proportion of FTR deaths between the two cohorts due to small sample size.
PMID: 27433746
ISSN: 1528-1175
CID: 2184972

Association between Anemia, Bleeding, and Transfusion with Long-Term Mortality Following Non-Cardiac Surgery

Smilowitz, Nathaniel R; Oberweis, Brandon S; Nukala, Swetha; Rosenberg, Andrew; Zhao, Sibo; Xu, Jinfeng; Stuchin, Steven; Iorio, Richard; Errico, Thomas; Radford, Martha J; Berger, Jeffrey S
BACKGROUND: Preoperative anemia is a well-established risk factor for short-term mortality in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery, but appropriate thresholds for transfusion remain uncertain. The objective of this study was to determine long-term outcomes associated with anemia, hemorrhage and red blood cell transfusion in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. METHODS: We performed a long-term follow-up study of consecutive subjects undergoing hip, knee, and spine surgery between November 1, 2008 and December 31, 2009. Clinical data were obtained from administrative and laboratory databases, and retrospective record review. Pre-operative anemia was defined as baseline hemoglobin <13 g/dL for men and <12 g/dL for women. Hemorrhage was defined by ICD-9 coding. Data on long-term survival were queried from the Social Security Death Index (SSDI) database. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with long-term mortality. RESULTS: 3,050 subjects underwent orthopedic surgery. Pre-operative anemia was present in 17.6% (537) of subjects, hemorrhage occurred in 33 (1%), and 766 (25%) received >/=1 red blood cell transfusion. Over 9,015 patient-years of follow up, 111 deaths occurred. Anemia (HR 3.91, CI 2.49 - 6.15) and hemorrhage (HR 5.28, CI 2.20 - 12.67) were independently associated with long-term mortality after multivariable adjustment. Red blood cell transfusion during the surgical hospitalization was associated with long-term mortality (HR 3.96, CI 2.47 - 6.34), which was attenuated by severity of anemia (no anemia [HR 4.39], mild anemia [HR 2.27], and moderate/severe anemia [HR 0.81], P for trend 0.0015). CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative anemia, perioperative bleeding and red blood cell transfusion are associated with increased mortality at long-term follow up after non-cardiac surgery. Strategies to minimize anemia and bleeding should be considered for all patients and restrictive transfusion strategies may be advisable. Further investigation into mechanisms of these adverse events is warranted.
PMID: 26524702
ISSN: 1555-7162
CID: 1825762

Relation of Perioperative Elevation of Troponin to Long-Term Mortality After Orthopedic Surgery

Oberweis, Brandon S; Smilowitz, Nathaniel R; Nukala, Swetha; Rosenberg, Andrew; Xu, Jinfeng; Stuchin, Steven; Iorio, Richard; Errico, Thomas; Radford, Martha J; Berger, Jeffrey S
Myocardial necrosis in the perioperative period of noncardiac surgery is associated with short-term mortality, but long-term outcomes have not been characterized. We investigated the association between perioperative troponin elevation and long-term mortality in a retrospective study of consecutive subjects who underwent hip, knee, and spine surgery. Perioperative myocardial necrosis and International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision-coded myocardial infarction (MI) were recorded. Long-term survival was assessed using the Social Security Death Index database. Logistic regression models were used to identify independent predictors of long-term mortality. A total of 3,050 subjects underwent surgery. Mean age was 60.8 years, and 59% were women. Postoperative troponin was measured in 1,055 subjects (34.6%). Myocardial necrosis occurred in 179 cases (5.9%), and MI was coded in 20 (0.7%). Over 9,015 patient-years of follow-up, 111 deaths (3.6%) occurred. Long-term mortality was 16.8% in subjects with myocardial necrosis and 5.8% with a troponin in the normal range. Perioperative troponin elevation (hazard ratio 2.33, 95% confidence interval 1.33 to 4.10) and coded postoperative MI (adjusted hazard ratio 3.51, 95% confidence interval 1.44 to 8.53) were significantly associated with long-term mortality after multivariable adjustment. After excluding patients with coronary artery disease and renal dysfunction, myocardial necrosis remained associated with long-term mortality. In conclusion, postoperative myocardial necrosis is common after orthopedic surgery. Myocardial necrosis is independently associated with long-term mortality at 3 years and may be used to identify patients at higher risk for events who may benefit from aggressive management of cardiovascular risk factors.
PMID: 25890628
ISSN: 1879-1913
CID: 1542982