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Cortical Pain Processing in the Rat Anterior Cingulate Cortex and Primary Somatosensory Cortex

Xiao, Zhengdong; Martinez, Erik; Kulkarni, Prathamesh M; Zhang, Qiaosheng; Hou, Qianning; Rosenberg, David; Talay, Robert; Shalot, Leor; Zhou, Haocheng; Wang, Jing; Chen, Zhe Sage
Pain is a complex multidimensional experience encompassing sensory-discriminative, affective-motivational and cognitive-emotional components mediated by different neural mechanisms. Investigations of neurophysiological signals from simultaneous recordings of two or more cortical circuits may reveal important circuit mechanisms on cortical pain processing. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and primary somatosensory cortex (S1) represent two most important cortical circuits related to sensory and affective processing of pain. Here, we recorded in vivo extracellular activity of the ACC and S1 simultaneously from male adult Sprague-Dale rats (n = 5), while repetitive noxious laser stimulations were delivered to animalÕs hindpaw during pain experiments. We identified spontaneous pain-like events based on stereotyped pain behaviors in rats. We further conducted systematic analyses of spike and local field potential (LFP) recordings from both ACC and S1 during evoked and spontaneous pain episodes. From LFP recordings, we found stronger phase-amplitude coupling (theta phase vs. gamma amplitude) in the S1 than the ACC (n = 10 sessions), in both evoked (p = 0.058) and spontaneous pain-like behaviors (p = 0.017, paired signed rank test). In addition, pain-modulated ACC and S1 neuronal firing correlated with the amplitude of stimulus-induced event-related potentials (ERPs) during evoked pain episodes. We further designed statistical and machine learning methods to detect pain signals by integrating ACC and S1 ensemble spikes and LFPs. Together, these results reveal differential coding roles between the ACC and S1 in cortical pain processing, as well as point to distinct neural mechanisms between evoked and putative spontaneous pain at both LFP and cellular levels.
PMID: 31105532
ISSN: 1662-5102
CID: 4038782

Cross-Disorder Genome-Wide Analyses Suggest a Complex Genetic Relationship Between Tourette's Syndrome and OCD

Yu, Dongmei; Mathews, Carol A; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Neale, Benjamin M; Davis, Lea K; Gamazon, Eric R; Derks, Eske M; Evans, Patrick; Edlund, Christopher K; Crane, Jacquelyn; Fagerness, Jesen A; Osiecki, Lisa; Gallagher, Patience; Gerber, Gloria; Haddad, Stephen; Illmann, Cornelia; McGrath, Lauren M; Mayerfeld, Catherine; Arepalli, Sampath; Barlassina, Cristina; Barr, Cathy L; Bellodi, Laura; Benarroch, Fortu; Berrio, Gabriel Bedoya; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Black, Donald W; Bloch, Michael H; Brentani, Helena; Bruun, Ruth D; Budman, Cathy L; Camarena, Beatriz; Campbell, Desmond D; Cappi, Carolina; Silgado, Julio C Cardona; Cavallini, Maria C; Chavira, Denise A; Chouinard, Sylvain; Cook, Edwin H; Cookson, M R; Coric, Vladimir; Cullen, Bernadette; Cusi, Daniele; Delorme, Richard; Denys, Damiaan; Dion, Yves; Eapen, Valsama; Egberts, Karin; Falkai, Peter; Fernandez, Thomas; Fournier, Eduardo; Garrido, Helena; Geller, Daniel; Gilbert, Donald; Girard, Simon L; Grabe, Hans J; Grados, Marco A; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Grunblatt, Edna; Hardy, John; Heiman, Gary A; Hemmings, Sian M J; Herrera, Luis D; Hezel, Dianne M; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Jankovic, Joseph; Kennedy, James L; King, Robert A; Konkashbaev, Anuar I; Kremeyer, Barbara; Kurlan, Roger; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Leboyer, Marion; Leckman, James F; Lennertz, Leonhard; Liu, Chunyu; Lochner, Christine; Lowe, Thomas L; Lupoli, Sara; Macciardi, Fabio; Maier, Wolfgang; Manunta, Paolo; Marconi, Maurizio; McCracken, James T; Mesa Restrepo, Sandra C; Moessner, Rainald; Moorjani, Priya; Morgan, Jubel; Muller, Heike; Murphy, Dennis L; Naarden, Allan L; Nurmi, Erika; Ochoa, William Cornejo; Ophoff, Roel A; Pakstis, Andrew J; Pato, Michele T; Pato, Carlos N; Piacentini, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Pollak, Yehuda; Rauch, Scott L; Renner, Tobias; Reus, Victor I; Richter, Margaret A; Riddle, Mark A; Robertson, Mary M; Romero, Roxana; Rosario, Maria C; Rosenberg, David; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Sabatti, Chiara; Salvi, Erika; Sampaio, Aline S; Samuels, Jack; Sandor, Paul; Service, Susan K; Sheppard, Brooke; Singer, Harvey S; Smit, Jan H; Stein, Dan J; Strengman, Eric; Tischfield, Jay A; Turiel, Maurizio; Valencia Duarte, Ana V; Vallada, Homero; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Walitza, Susanne; Wang, Ying; Weale, Mike; Weiss, Robert; Wendland, Jens R; Westenberg, Herman G M; Shugart, Yin Yao; Hounie, Ana G; Miguel, Euripedes C; Nicolini, Humberto; Wagner, Michael; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Cath, Danielle C; McMahon, William; Posthuma, Danielle; Oostra, Ben A; Nestadt, Gerald; Rouleau, Guy A; Purcell, Shaun; Jenike, Michael A; Heutink, Peter; Hanna, Gregory L; Conti, David V; Arnold, Paul D; Freimer, Nelson B; Stewart, S Evelyn; Knowles, James A; Cox, Nancy J; Pauls, David L
Objective: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's syndrome are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that are thought to share genetic risk factors. However, the identification of definitive susceptibility genes for these etiologically complex disorders remains elusive. The authors report a combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) of Tourette's syndrome and OCD. Method: The authors conducted a GWAS in 2,723 cases (1,310 with OCD, 834 with Tourette's syndrome, 579 with OCD plus Tourette's syndrome/chronic tics), 5,667 ancestry-matched controls, and 290 OCD parent-child trios. GWAS summary statistics were examined for enrichment of functional variants associated with gene expression levels in brain regions. Polygenic score analyses were conducted to investigate the genetic architecture within and across the two disorders. Results: Although no individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) achieved genome-wide significance, the GWAS signals were enriched for SNPs strongly associated with variations in brain gene expression levels (expression quantitative loci, or eQTLs), suggesting the presence of true functional variants that contribute to risk of these disorders. Polygenic score analyses identified a significant polygenic component for OCD (p=2x10-4), predicting 3.2% of the phenotypic variance in an independent data set. In contrast, Tourette's syndrome had a smaller, nonsignificant polygenic component, predicting only 0.6% of the phenotypic variance (p=0.06). No significant polygenic signal was detected across the two disorders, although the sample is likely underpowered to detect a modest shared signal. Furthermore, the OCD polygenic signal was significantly attenuated when cases with both OCD and co-occurring Tourette's syndrome/chronic tics were included in the analysis (p=0.01). Conclusions: Previous work has shown that Tourette's syndrome and OCD have some degree of shared genetic variation. However, the data from this study suggest that there are also distinct components to the genetic architectures of these two disorders. Furthermore, OCD with co-occurring Tourette's syndrome/chronic tics may have different underlying genetic susceptibility compared with OCD alone.
PMID: 25158072
ISSN: 0002-953x
CID: 1162352

The Efficacy of Oral Celecoxib for Acute Postoperative Pain in Face-lift Surgery

Aynehchi, Behrad B; Cerrati, Eric W; Rosenberg, David B
Importance: Exploring methods of potentially improving patient comfort and pain control in cosmetic facial surgery. Objective: To examine the effects of celecoxib in reducing pain and possible opioid consumption following face-lift surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: We reviewed the medical records of 100 patients: 50 consecutive patients who underwent a face-lift without receiving perioperative celecoxib and 50 patients who underwent face-lift and received immediate preoperative and standing postoperative celecoxib. Main Outcomes and Measures: In addition to demographic information, the following outcome measures were recorded for each group: visual analog scale patient-reported pain, acetaminophen and/or opioid consumption rates, and related analgesic adverse effects. Results: The participants in the noncelecoxib vs celecoxib groups had similar demographic characteristics: mean age, 59.6 vs 57.9 years; mean BMI, 23.3 vs 22.3; history of chronic pain or opioid use, 7 (14%) vs 6 (12%); and 94% of both groups were women. Postoperative pain scores were higher in the noncelecoxib vs celecoxib groups; mean (SD) overall pain score was 3.88 (2.20) vs 2.31 (2.36) (P < .001). The noncelecoxib group had a higher number of postoperative opioid doses than did the celecoxib group: 9.40 (4.30) vs 5.18 (4.58) (P < .05). The noncelecoxib group had a higher incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting: 12 (24%) vs 0 in the celecoxib group. Conclusions and Relevance: Preemptive treatment with oral celecoxib appears to be effective in decreasing acute postoperative pain and opioid consumption in patients undergoing face-lift. Given the well-documented adverse effects of opioids, celecoxib is a desirable alternative. Level of Evidence: 3.
PMID: 25010711
ISSN: 2168-6076
CID: 1071112