Improving Birth Dose Hepatitis B Vaccination Rates: A Quality Improvement Intervention
BACKGROUND:There are 43â€‰000 new cases of hepatitis B virus infection and 1000 cases of perinatally acquired infection each year in the United States. National recommendations are to administer hepatitis B (HepB) vaccine to all stable newborns >2000 g within 24 hours of birth. Our primary objective was to increase institutional vaccination rates from a baseline of 52% to goal >85% before hospital discharge. METHODS:In February 2017, we instituted a multidisciplinary quality improvement project aimed at increasing HepB vaccination birth dose rates. Interventions included (1) standardizing the process of offering HepB vaccine via scripting and timing, (2) engaging and educating parents, and (3) educating physicians and nurses regarding the importance of HepB vaccination and strategies to discuss HepB vaccination with vaccine-hesitant parents. The main outcome measure was the percentage of newborns receiving HepB vaccination by discharge. The secondary outcome was the percentage of newborns receiving HepB vaccination by 12 hours of life per New York State Department of Health recommendation. Data were analyzed by using statistical process control P-charts. RESULTS:A total of 21â€‰108 newborns were included between July 2015 and April 2019. In addition to several upward centerline shifts, implementation of interventions resulted in increased and sustained HepB vaccination rates by hospital discharge from a baseline of 52.4% to 72.5%. Rates by 12 hours of life increased from 21.5% to 42.5%. CONCLUSIONS:Multidisciplinary collaboration, scripting, and provider and staff education regarding the risks of hepatitis B virus, benefits of HepB vaccine, and strategies to discuss HepB vaccination with parents significantly increased vaccination rates. Further efforts to improve vaccination rates to within 12 hours are preferable.
Implementation of Febrile Infant Management Guidelines Reduces Hospitalization
The clinical management of well-appearing febrile infants 7-60 days of age remains variable due in part to multiple criteria differentiating the risk of a serious bacterial infection. The purpose of this quality improvement study was to standardize risk stratification in the emergency department and length of stay in the inpatient unit by implementing an evidence-based clinical practice guideline (CPG).
Discharge Instruction Comprehension and Adherence Errors: Interrelationship Between Plan Complexity and Parent Health Literacy
OBJECTIVE:To examine associations between parent health literacy, discharge plan complexity, and parent comprehension of and adherence to inpatient discharge instructions. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:This was a prospective cohort study of English/Spanish-speaking parents (nÂ =Â 165) of children â‰¤12Â years discharged on â‰¥1 daily medication from an urban, public hospital. Outcome variables were parent comprehension (survey) of and adherence (survey, in-person dosing assessment, chart review) to discharge instructions. Predictor variables included low parent health literacy (Newest Vital Sign score 0-3) and plan complexity. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for the assessment of multiple types of comprehension and adherence errors for each subject, adjusting for ethnicity, language, child age, length of stay, and chronic disease status. Similar analyses were performed to assess for mediation and moderation. RESULTS:Error rates were highest for comprehension of medication side effects (50%), adherence to medication dose (34%), and return precaution (78%) instructions. Comprehension errors were associated with adherence errors (aOR, 8.7; 95% CI, 5.9-12.9). Discharge plan complexity was associated with comprehension (aOR, 7.0; 95% CI, 5.4-9.1) and adherence (aOR, 5.5; 95% CI, 4.0-7.6) errors. Low health literacy was indirectly associated with adherence errors through comprehension errors. The association between plan complexity and comprehension errors was greater in parents with low (aOR, 8.3; 95% CI, 6.2-11.2) compared with adequate (aOR, 3.8; 95% CI, 2.2-6.5) health literacy (interaction term PÂ =Â .004). CONCLUSIONS:Parent health literacy and discharge plan complexity play key roles in comprehension and adherence errors. Future work will focus on the development of health literacy-informed interventions to promote discharge plan comprehension.
Use of Gabapentin in Posterior Spinal Fusion is Associated With Decreased Postoperative Pain and Opioid Use in Children and Adolescents
STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to examine associations of gabapentin use with inpatient postoperative daily pain scores and opioid use in children undergoing PSF for AIS. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA/BACKGROUND:Gabapentin use in posterior spinal fusion (PSF) postoperative pain management for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is increasingly common in order to decrease opioid use and improve pain control, though there is conflicting data on dosing and effectiveness to support this practice in real world settings. METHODS:Retrospective cohort study of children aged 10 to 21 years undergoing PSF for AIS between January 2013 and June 2016 at an urban academic tertiary care center. Adjuvant gabapentin exposure was defined as at least 15â€‰mg/kg/d by postoperative day (POD) 1 with an initial loading dose of 10â€‰mg/kg on day of surgery. Primary outcomes were daily postoperative mean pain score and opioid use [morphine milligram equivalents/kg/day(mme/kg/d)]. Secondary outcomes were short and long-term complications. RESULTS:Among 129 subjects (mean age, 14.6â€‰y, 74% female, mean coronal cobb, 55.2 degrees), 24 (19%) received gabapentin. Unadjusted GABA exposure was associated with significantly lower opioid use on POD1 and 2 (49% and 31%mme/kg/d, respectively) and lower pain scores (14%) on POD2. Adjusting for preexisting back pain, preoperative coronal Cobb angle, and site, GABA use was associated with significantly lower mean pain scores on POD1 through POD3 (-0.68, P=0.01; -0.86, P=0.002; -0.63, P=0.04). Gabapentin use was also associated with decreased opioid use on POD1 and POD2 (-0.39mme/kg/d, P<0.001; -0.27, P=0.02). There was no difference in complications by gabapentin exposure. CONCLUSIONS:Addition of gabapentin as adjuvant therapy for adolescent PSF, beginning on day of surgery, is associated with improved pain scores and decreased opioid use in the first 48 to 72 hours postoperatively. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:This is a retrospective cohort study, classified as Level III under "Therapeutic Studies Investigating the Results of a Treatment."
Collaborations with Pediatric Hospitalists: National Surveys of Pediatric Surgeons and Orthopedic Surgeons
To understand characteristics of pediatric hospitalist (PH) involvement in the care of children admitted to surgical services and explore surgeons' perspectives of PH effectiveness, we conducted a cross-sectional, web-based survey of pediatric surgical (PS) and pediatric orthopedic subspecialists (OS) from professional organizations. We used basic analyses to compare responses between the 2 surgical groups. The initial response rate was 48% (291/606) for PS and 59% (415/706) for OS. Among 185 PS and 212 OS unique programs, PH were routinely engaged (69% and 75%) in the care of surgical patients, particularly in patients with medical complexity (64% PS vs 81% OS; P = .003). PS and OS perceived positive PH impact on care coordination and comorbidity management but little on pain management or length of stay. OS were more likely than PS to view PH involvement positively (64% vs 42%; P < .001). Further research on care models, especially for children with medical complexity, is needed.
Provider Perspectives on Partnering With Parents of Hospitalized Children to Improve Safety
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:There is increasing emphasis on the importance of patient and family engagement for improving patient safety. Our purpose in this study was to understand health care team perspectives on parent-provider safety partnerships for hospitalized US children to complement a parallel study of parent perspectives. METHODS:Our research team, including a family advisor, conducted semistructured interviews and focus groups of a purposive sample of 20 inpatient pediatric providers (nurses, patient care technicians, physicians) in an acute-care pediatric unit at a US urban tertiary hospital. We used a constant comparison technique and qualitative thematic content analysis. RESULTS:Themes emerged from providers on facilitators, barriers, and role negotiation and/or balancing interpersonal interactions in parent-provider safety partnership. Facilitators included the following: (1) mutual respect of roles, (2) parent advocacy and rule-following, and (3) provider quality care, empathetic adaptability, and transparent communication of expectations. Barriers included the following: (1) lack of respect, (2) differences in parent versus provider risk perception and parent lack of availability, and (3) provider medical errors and inconsistent communication, lack of engagement skills and time, and fear of overwhelming information. Providers described themes related to balancing parent advocacy with clinician's expertise, a provider's personal response to challenges to the professional role, and parents balancing relationship building with escalating safety concerns. CONCLUSIONS:To keep children safe in the hospital, providers balance perceived challenges to their personal and professional roles continuously in interpersonal interactions, paralleling parent concerns about role ambiguity and trust. Understanding these shared barriers to and facilitators of parent-provider safety partnerships can inform system design, parent education, and professional training.
Ultrasound Has Limited Utility in the Surgical Management of Geographically Clustered Pediatric MRSA Infections [Meeting Abstract]
Pediatric Hospitalist Comanagement Survey of Clinical and Billing Practices
Surgical comanagement is an increasingly common practice in pediatric hospital medicine. Information about the structure and financing of such care is limited. The aim of the researchers for this study was to investigate pediatric hospitalist surgical comanagement models and to assess pediatric hospitalist familiarity with and patterns of billing for surgical patients. We conducted a cross-sectional cohort web-based survey of pediatric hospitalists using the American Academy of Pediatrics' Section on Hospital Medicine listserv. In our study (N = 133), we found wide variation in our cohort in surgical patient practice management, including program structure, individual billing practices, and knowledge regarding billing practices. Even for pediatric hospitalists with comanagement service agreements between surgeons and pediatric hospitalists, there was no increased awareness or knowledge about reimbursement or billing for surgical patients. This global lack of knowledge in our small but diverse sample suggests that billing resources and training for pediatric hospitalists practicing comanagement of surgical patients are needed.
Getting Closer to Optimizing the Prevention and Detection of VTE in Hospitalized Children
Factors Predicting Parent Anxiety Around Infant and Toddler Postoperative and Pain
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Understanding of parent anxiety and its effect on infant postoperative pain is limited. We sought to identify psychological factors associated with preoperative anxiety for parents of infants and toddlers undergoing elective surgery and to determine whether parent anxiety is associated with child postoperative pain. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of consecutively eligible patients aged =18 months undergoing craniofacial surgery and their parents. Preoperative parent assessment included anxiety, coping, parent health locus of control, and self-efficacy. Postoperative inpatient child pain scores and medication use were collected. Analyses included hierarchical multivariable logistic and linear regression models. RESULTS: Parents (n = 71, 90% female) of young children (mean age 6.6 months) undergoing cleft lip or palate (n = 59) or cranial vault repair (n = 13) were enrolled. Maladaptive coping (odds ratio 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.6), low parent self-efficacy (odds ratio 2.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-4.5), and external locus of control (odds ratio 1.74; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.9) were independently associated with high parental anxiety. The adjusted odds of moderate/severe parent anxiety was 3.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.5-9.1) higher with each SD increase in maladaptive coping. High parental anxiety was correlated with significantly higher hospital mean child pain scores (1.87 points on 0-10 scale; 95% confidence interval, 0.42-3.70; P = .045). CONCLUSIONS: Coping and self-efficacy are modifiable factors that contribute to parent anxiety before and during hospitalization and may be targets for intervention. Infants and toddlers undergoing elective craniofacial surgery with highly anxious parents may be at greater risk for higher postoperative pain.