Correlation of hemoglobin A1c and outcomes in patients hospitalized with COVID-19
BACKGROUND:) level and poor outcomes in hospitalized patients with diabetes and COVID-19. METHODS:results for each patient were divided into quartiles; 5.1-6.7% (32-50 mmol/mol), 6.8-7.5% (51-58 mmol/mol), 7.6-8.9% (60-74 mmol/mol), and >9% (>75 mmol/mol). The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included admission to an intensive care unit, invasive mechanical ventilation, acute kidney injury, acute thrombosis, and length of hospital stay. RESULTS:Five hundred and six patients were included. The number of deaths within quartiles 1 through 4 were 30 (25%), 37 (27%), 34 (27%) and 24 (19%), respectively. There was no statistical difference in the primary or secondary outcomes between the quartiles except acute kidney injury was less frequent in quartile 4. CONCLUSIONS:should not be used for risk stratification in these patients.
Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusions vs. Multiple Daily Injections of Insulin in Hospitalized Patients: Glycemic Trends in the First 24 Hours of Admission
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) is a common diabetes treatment modality. Glycemic outcomes of patients using CSII in the first 24â€‰hours of hospitalization have not been well studied. This timeframe is of particular importance because insulin pump settings are programmed to achieve tight outpatient glycemic targets which could result in hypoglycemia when patients are hospitalized. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:This retrospective cohort study evaluated 216 hospitalized adult patients using CSII and 216 age-matched controls treated with multiple daily injections (MDI) of insulin. Patients using CSII did not make changes to pump settings in the first 24â€‰hours of admission. Blood glucose (BG) values within the first 24â€‰hours of admission were collected. The primary outcome was frequency of hypoglycemia (BGâ€‰<â€‰70â€‰mg/dL). Secondary outcomes were frequency of severe hypoglycemia (BGâ€‰<â€‰40â€‰mg/dL) and hyperglycemia (BGâ€‰â‰¥â€‰180â€‰mg/dL). RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:â€‰=â€‰0.06). CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:Patients using CSII experienced fewer events of both hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia in the first 24â€‰hours of hospital admission than those treated with MDI. Our study demonstrates that CSII use is safe and effective for the treatment of diabetes within the first 24â€‰hours of hospital admission.
THYROTOXIC PERIODIC PARALYSIS IN A COMPETITIVE BODYBUILDER WITH THYROTOXICOSIS FACTITIA [Case Report]
Objective/UNASSIGNED:We report a case of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) in a bodybuilder who developed paralysis secondary to thyrotoxicosis factitia after taking a supplement containing thyroid hormone. Interestingly, the patient had no intrinsic thyroid disease. Prompt recognition of thyrotoxicosis is critical to avoid progression of paralysis and subsequent complications. Methods/UNASSIGNED:We discuss a 27-year-old body builder who presented after a 3-day bodybuilding competition with sudden upper and lower extremity paralysis. He admitted to taking anabolic steroids, a supplement containing an unknown amount of thyroid hormone for 2 weeks, and furosemide 40 mg twice daily with near-complete fluid restriction for 3 days. Results/UNASSIGNED:Laboratory results showed a thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level of <0.010 Î¼IU/mL (normal, 0.3 to 5.8 Î¼IU/mL), normal total triiodothyronine level, elevated free thyroxine level of 3.6 ng/dL (normal, 0.8 to 1.9 ng/dL), and potassium level of 1.9 mEq/L (normal, 3.7 to 5.2 mEq/L). Thyroid peroxidase antibody, thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin, and thyroglobulin antibody levels were normal. Thyroid uptake was 1% (normal, 8 to 25%) after administration of I-123 and thyroglobulin level was 9 ng/mL (normal, 1.4 to 29.2 ng/mL). The patient was treated with normal saline infusion, magnesium supplementation and a total of 230 mEq of potassium within 12 hours of hospitalization. Muscle weakness resolved within this time period and potassium level normalized. By the third day of hospitalization free thyroxine level also normalized and TSH improved to 0.1 mIU/L. Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:TPP is a rare complication of thyrotoxicosis that should be considered in bodybuilders who are presenting with acute muscle weakness.
Non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism caused by a somatic mosaic GNAS gene mutation involving part of the thyroid gland
Non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism caused by activating mutations in the GNAS gene is a rare condition. Here we report a 5-year-old girl diagnosed with non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism and tall stature harboring a somatic mosaic gain-of-function mutation in the GNAS gene (NM_080425.3: c.2530C>T;p.Arg844Cys previously reported as NM_000516.5:c.601C>T;p.Arg201Cys) and referred thereafter as R201C, in three of four quadrants of the thyroid gland. Provision of a molecular diagnosis may avoid unnecessary complete ablation of the thyroid gland.
Method of detection of thyroid nodules: correlation with frequency of fine-needle aspiration and malignancy rate
BACKGROUND:Thyroid nodules are commonly found by screening, and the clinical implications are unclear. METHODS:We retrospectively studied 460 patients who were evaluated for thyroid nodules. Medical records were queried to determine how the nodules were detected. We compared the rates of fine needle aspiration (FNA) and malignancy between nodules detected clinically, incidentally on imaging, or by screening. RESULTS:Nodules were detected clinically in 184 patients (40%), incidentally in 121 patients (26%), and by screening in 155 patients (34%). The rates of FNA and malignancy were lower for patients with nodules detected by screening (28% and 1%, respectively), compared to patients with clinically apparent nodules (75% and 15%) and patients with incidental nodules (69% and 8% [Pâ€‰<â€‰.001]). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Thyroid nodules detected via screening has a lower rate of FNA and is less likely to be diagnosed as a malignancy compared to nodules detected clinically or incidentally on imaging. Thyroid ultrasound examinations should be reserved for nodules that are clinically apparent or to evaluate nodules found incidentally on imaging.
Low Free T3 Is Associated With Worse Outcomes in Patients in the ICU Requiring Invasive Mechanical Ventilation
OBJECTIVE/UNASSIGNED:) levels. This condition, known as nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS), is associated with poor outcomes. The association of NTIS and outcomes in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) requiring mechanical ventilation has not been well studied. This study aimed to determine the impact of NTIS on the outcomes of these patients. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:levels. Patients who died while on mechanical ventilation were assigned a VFD of 0. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:< .001 for both mean and median VFDs). CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:due to NTIS in patients in the ICU requiring mechanical ventilation is associated with poor outcomes.
Low Free T3 Is Associated with Worse Outcomes in Patients with Acute Respiratory Failure Requiring Invasive Mechanical Ventilation [Meeting Abstract]
Usefulness of Serum Triiodothyronine (T3) to Predict Outcomes in Patients Hospitalized With Acute Heart Failure
Thyroid hormone plays an important role in cardiac function. Low levels of serum triiodothyronine (T3) due to nonthyroidal illness syndrome may have adverse effects in heart failure (HF). This study was designed to assess the ability of T3 to predict in-hospital outcomes in patients with acute HF. In total, 137 patients without thyroid disease or treatment with drugs which affect TH levels, who were hospitalized with acute HF were prospectively enrolled and studied. TH levels were tested upon hospital admission, and outcomes were compared between patients with low (<2.3 pg/ml) and normal (â‰¥2.3 pg/ml) free T3 levels as well as between those with low (<0.6Â ng/ml) and normal (â‰¥0.6Â ng/ml) total T3 levels. Low free T3 correlated with an increased length of stay in the hospital (median 11 vs 7Â days, p <0.001) and higher rates of intensive care unit admission (31.8% vs 16.9%, pÂ =Â 0.047), with a trend toward increased need for invasive mechanical ventilation (9.0% vs 1.4%, pÂ = 0.056). Low total T3 correlated with an increased length of stay in the hospital (median 11 vs 7Â days, p <0.001) and increased need for invasive mechanical ventilation (9.8% vs 1.3%, pÂ = 0.045). In conclusion, low T3 predicts worse hospital outcomes in patients with acute HF and can be useful in the risk stratification of these patients.
The Case | Elevated lactate and osmolar gap after levothyroxine overdose [Case Report]
Quality Improvement in Inpatient Diabetes Care Decreases Wasteful HbA1c Testing [Meeting Abstract]