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Tracheostomy: Indications and Techniques

Chapter by: Paul, Benjamin C; Rothstein, Stephen
in: Encyclopedia of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery by Kountakis, Stilianos E [Eds]
Berlin, Heidelberg : Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2013
pp. 2834-2840
ISBN: 3642234992
CID: 1808332

Bilateral auricular seromas: A case report and review of the literature

Reitzen, Shari D; Rothstein, Stephen; Shah, Anil R
Hematomas, pseudocysts, and seromas are all part of the differential diagnosis of auricular swellings. Seromas are benign collections of serous fluid that have a tendency to recur. The fluid accumulates in the space between the dermis and perichondrium of the ear. We describe what we believe is the first case of spontaneous bilateral auricular seromas to be reported in the literature. One of the seromas resolved in 4 weeks without treatment, and the other resolved with incision and drainage. It is important for physicians to be aware of auricular seromas when considering the differential diagnosis of an auricular swelling, and to understand the various treatment options
PMID: 22180116
ISSN: 1942-7522
CID: 147700

Clinical outcomes for the elderly patient receiving a tracheotomy

Baskin, Jonathan Zvi; Panagopoulos, Georgia; Parks, Christine; Rothstein, Stephen; Komisar, Arnold
BACKGROUND: Tracheotomies are routinely performed for severely ill and elderly patients with respiratory failure. This intervention is questioned, given the poor survival rate in this group. Outcomes analysis is performed after tracheotomy. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 78 elderly patients, who received tracheotomies for respiratory failure. Pretracheotomy data (age, length of oral intubation, and DNR status) were collected. Outcomes analyzed during the same admission as the tracheotomy included death versus discharge, ventilator dependence, vocal function, route of feeding, decannulation, and ICU discharge disposition. RESULTS: The mean age was 77.6 +/- 11 years (median, 79 years) and patients were intubated for 16.7 +/- 9 days. Forty-two percent (n = 33) obtained DNR orders after tracheotomy, and 8% (n = 6) before tracheotomy. Seventy-one percent of patients (n = 55) had gastrostomy tubes placed. Fifty-six percent of patients (n = 44) died after tracheotomy; median time from tracheotomy to death was 31 days. After tracheotomy, 53 % (n = 41) remained at least partially ventilator dependent, 18 % (n = 14) regained consistent vocal function, and 13 % (n = 10) were decannulated. For those who died, 27 % (n = 12) died without leaving the ICU. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate that a large proportion of elderly, severely ill patients with respiratory failure suffer poor outcomes after tracheotomy. More stringent criteria are necessary for performing the tracheotomy in this patient population
PMID: 14724909
ISSN: 1043-3074
CID: 46197

Tuberculosis of the head and neck

Chapter by: Sikora AG; Rothstein SG; Garay KF; Spiegel R
in: Tuberculosis by Ron WN; Garay SM [Eds]
Philadelphia : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2004
pp. 477-488
ISBN: 0781736781
CID: 3972

Selenium and immunocompetence in patients with head and neck cancer

Kiremidjian-Schumacher, L; Roy, M; Glickman, R; Schneider, K; Rothstein, S; Cooper, J; Hochster, H; Kim, M; Newman, R
This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study aimed to determine whether oral intake of 200 microg/d of sodium selenite, a dose within the safe and adequate daily intake (50-200 microg/d) recommended by the U.S. Food and Nutrition Board, will abrogate depressed or enhance normal-level immune functions of patients receiving therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Subjects were given one selenium/placebo tablet/d for 8 wk, beginning on the day of their first treatment for the disease (e.g., surgery, radiation, or surgery and radiation) and their immune functions were monitored. Supplementation with selenium (Se) during therapy resulted in a significantly enhanced cell-mediated immunue responsiveness, as reflected in the ability of the patient's lymphocytes to respond to stimulation with mitogen, to generate cytotoxic lymphocytes, and to destroy tumor cells. The enhanced responsiveness was evident during therapy and following conclusion of therapy. In contrast, patients in the placebo arm of the study showed a decline in immune responsiveness during therapy, which was followed, in some patients, by an enhancement, but the responses of the group remained significantly lower than baseline values. The data also show that at baseline, patients entered in the study had significantly lower plasma Se levels than healthy individuals, and patients in stage I or II of disease had significantly higher plasma selenium levels than patients in stage III or IV of disease.
PMID: 11049203
ISSN: 0163-4984
CID: 156524

Compliance with anti-reflux therapy in patients with otolaryngologic manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease

Giacchi RJ; Sullivan D; Rothstein SG
OBJECTIVES: The otolaryngologic manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux include sore throat, throat clearing, sensation of postnasal drip, hoarseness, and globus. This constellation of laryngeal and pharyngeal symptoms can be referred to as laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR). Many patients with LPR are treated empirically and the results are often rewarding. The objective of this study is to evaluate compliance with antireflux therapy in this patient population. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective analysis of 30 patients referred to an otolaryngology clinic for the above symptoms. METHODS: The patients were treated for LPR using a standardized behavior modification form in combination with medical management. Patient compliance was followed with a patient questionnaire and evaluation of medication renewal from pharmacy records. RESULTS: The patients were followed for an average of 4 months and 80% reported an improvement of their symptoms. Evaluation of patient questionnaires revealed that 50% of patients reported taking their medications as prescribed. Compliance varied widely with regard to behavioral modifications. The degree of symptomatic improvement was significantly correlated with overall compliance with both medications and behavioral changes (Pearson correlation coefficient, P < .05). The individual behavioral changes that were significantly correlated with the reduction of symptoms were avoidance of food and liquid before sleep and elevation of the head of bed, but not food habits. CONCLUSIONS: The treatment plan for gastroesophageal reflux disease requires behavioral modifications and prescription medications that many patients may find difficult to follow. However, those patients who comply with the treatment plan can be expected to have an improvement of their symptoms. Furthermore, simplifying the treatment regimen including those elements most correlated with symptomatic improvement may increase patient compliance
PMID: 10646709
ISSN: 0023-852x
CID: 8576

Selenium and immunocompetence in patients with head and neck cancer [Meeting Abstract]

Schumacher, LK; Roy, M; Glickman, R; Schneider, K; Rothstein, S; Cooper, J; Kim, M; Newman, R
ISSN: 0892-6638
CID: 53933

Reflux and vocal disorders in singers with bulimia

Rothstein SG
Dysphonia associated with bulimia has been described in the literature associated with vocal fold edema and polypoid changes. Laryngopharyngeat reflux (LPR) has been documented to cause reflux vocal fold pathology including edema and polypoid changes. We studied eight singers with bulimia and documented vocal fold pathology, including edema, posterior commissure hypertrophy, ventricular obliteration, and telangiectasia. Reflux was demonstrated in all eight. The results of this study showed that LPR may be a contributing factor to vocal disorders in singers with bulimia
PMID: 9619983
ISSN: 0892-1997
CID: 7772

Epiglottic position after cricothyroidotomy: a comparison with tracheotomy

Lim JW; Lerner PK; Rothstein SG
Dysphagia is a known problem in patients with tracheotomy, but its association with cricothyroidotomy is not well studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate dysphagia in patients with cricothyroidotomy and to determine if there is a reliable indicator of swallowing dysfunction in these patients. A review of charts for patients with modified barium swallow studies conducted at the New York University Medical Center Swallowing Disorders Center yielded three groups of patients: patients with cricothyroidotomy, patients with tracheotomy, and normal patients. There were 8 patients in each group. In all patients in the cricothyroidotomy group, there was a greater impairment of epiglottic displacement, laryngeal elevation, and upper esophageal opening than in the tracheotomy group. This problem with epiglottic displacement produced susceptibility to laryngeal penetration and, in turn, increased the risk of aspiration in those patients with cricothyroidotomy. After cricothyroidotomy tube removal, a return to normal epiglottic movement was observed within 2 months. One mechanism of swallowing dysfunction is impaired posterior displacement of the epiglottis over the glottic aperture. This impaired epiglottic motion appears to be related to restricted laryngeal elevation secondary to tethering of the larynx anteriorly at the site of the cricothyroidotomy. Additionally, we noted a decrease in the opening of the upper esophageal sphincter
PMID: 9228855
ISSN: 0003-4894
CID: 7199

Squamous cell carcinoma in HIV-positive patients under age 45

Roland JT Jr; Rothstein SG; Mittal KR; Perksy MS
Eight patients 45 years of age and under (range, 29 to 45) with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and infection with the human immunodeficiency virus are reported. Primary tumor sites include nasopharynx, oral cavity, oropharynx, and larynx. Probes for the human papillomavirus were positive in two of the patients. Therapy consisted of surgery followed by radiation therapy in five patients, surgery alone in one patient, and radiation therapy in the remaining two patients. Follow-up ranged up to 2 years and revealed four deaths, three patients alive without disease, and one patient recently posttreatment with residual disease. The significance of the presence of the human papillomavirus in these individuals remains to be determined. The incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck under age 45 is low, and whether there may be a higher incidence in HIV-positive patients cannot be determined from this small series
PMID: 8483367
ISSN: 0023-852x
CID: 13174