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NYU Clinical Practice Guidelines for VTE ProphylaxisHip and Knee Arthroplasty

Arshi, Armin; Rozell, Joshua C; Aggarwal, Vinay K; Schwarzkopf, Ran
PMID: 38739656
ISSN: 2328-5273
CID: 5658542

The Impact of Obesity on Total Hip Arthroplasty Outcomes When Performed by High-Volume Surgeons-A Propensity Matched Analysis From a High-Volume Urban Center

Ashkenazi, Itay; Thomas, Jeremiah; Lawrence, Kyle W; Meftah, Morteza; Rozell, Joshua C; Schwarzkopf, Ran
BACKGROUND:Previous data suggest that obesity does not impact surgical outcomes following total knee arthroplasty performed by high-volume (HV) surgeons. However, this effect has yet to be studied in total hip arthroplasty (THA) patients. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of patient obesity on THA outcomes when surgery is performed by HV surgeons. METHODS:A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent primary, elective THA between January 2012 and December 2022 with a HV surgeon (top 25% of surgeons by number of annual primary THA) was performed. Patients were stratified by their body mass index (BMI) into 3 cohorts: BMI ≥ 40 (morbidly obese [MO]), 30 ≤ BMI < 40 (obese), and BMI < 30 (nonobese); and 1:1:1 propensity matched based on baseline characteristics. A total of 13,223 patients were evaluated, of which 669 patients were included in the final matched analysis (223 patients per group). The average number of annual THAs performed for HV surgeons was 171 cases. RESULTS:The MO patients had significantly longer surgical times (P < .001) and hospital lengths of stay (P < .001). Rates of 90-day readmissions (P = .211) and all-cause, septic, and aseptic revisions at the latest follow-up (P = .268, P = .903, and P = .168, respectively) were comparable between groups. In a subanalysis for non-HV surgeons, MO patients had a significantly greater risk of revision (P = .021) and trended toward significantly greater readmissions (P = .056). CONCLUSIONS:Clinical outcomes and complication rates after THA performed by a HV surgeon are similar regardless of patient obesity status. Patients who have MO may experience improved outcomes and reduced procedural risks if they are referred to HV surgeons. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:III.
PMID: 38428691
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 5655552

The influence of body mass index on patient-reported outcome measures following total hip arthroplasty: a retrospective study of 3,903 Cases

Sobba, Walter; Lawrence, Kyle W; Haider, Muhammad A; Thomas, Jeremiah; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Rozell, Joshua C
BACKGROUND:The influence of obesity on patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) following total hip arthroplasty (THA) is currently controversial. This study aimed to compare PROM scores for pain, functional status, and global physical/mental health based on body mass index (BMI) classification. METHODS:). Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) and Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for Joint Replacement (HOOS, JR) scores were collected. Preoperative, postoperative, and pre/post- changes (pre/post-Δ) in scores were compared between groups. Multiple linear regression was used to assess for confounders. RESULTS:We analyzed 3,404 patients undergoing 3,903 THAs, including 919 (23.5%) normal weight, 1,374 (35.2%) overweight, 1,356 (35.2%) obese, and 254 (6.5%) morbidly obese cases. HOOS, JR scores were worse preoperatively and postoperatively for higher BMI classes, however HOOS, JR pre/post-Δ was comparable between groups. All PROMIS measures were worse preoperatively and postoperatively in higher BMI classes, though pre/post-Δ were comparable for all groups. Clinically significant improvements for all BMI classes were observed in all PROM metrics except PROMIS mental health. Regression analysis demonstrated that obesity, but not morbid obesity, was independently associated with greater improvement in HOOS, JR. CONCLUSIONS:Obese patients undergoing THA achieve lower absolute scores for pain, function, and self-perceived health, despite achieving comparable relative improvements in pain and function with surgery. Denying THA based on BMI restricts patients from clinically beneficial improvements comparable to those of non-obese patients, though morbidly obese patients may benefit from additional weight loss to achieve maximal functional improvement.
PMID: 38796819
ISSN: 1434-3916
CID: 5663202

Surgeons Experience Greater Physiologic Stress and Strain in the Direct Anterior Approach Than the Posterior Approach for Total Hip Arthroplasty

Cozzarelli, Nicholas F; Ashkenazi, Itay; Khan, Irfan A; Lonner, Jess H; Lajam, Claudette; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Rozell, Joshua C
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:The direct anterior approach (DAA) and posterior approach (PA) for total hip arthroplasty (THA) have advantages and disadvantages, but their physiologic burden to the surgeon has not been quantified. This study was conducted to determine whether differences exist in surgeon physiological stress and strain during DAA in comparison to PA. METHODS:We evaluated a prospective cohort of 144 consecutive cases (67 DAA and 77 PA). There were five, high-volume, fellowship-trained arthroplasty surgeons who wore a smart-vest that recorded cardiorespiratory data while performing primary THA DAA or PA. Heart rate (beats/minute), stress index (correlates with sympathetic activations), respiratory rate (respirations/minute), minute ventilation (liters/min), and energy expenditure (calories) were recorded, along with patient body mass index and operative time. Continuous data was compared using T-tests or Mann Whitney U tests, and categorical data was compared with Chi-square or Fischer's exact tests. RESULTS:There were no differences in patient characteristics. Compared to PA, performing THA via DAA had a significantly higher surgeon stress index (17.4 versus 12.4; P < 0.001), heart rate (101 versus 98.3; P = 0.007), minute ventilation (21.7 versus 18.7; P < 0.001), and energy expenditure per hour (349 versus 295; P < 0.001). However, DAA had a significantly shorter operative time (71.4 versus 82.1; P = 0.001). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Surgeons experience significantly higher physiological stress and strain when performing DAA compared to PA for primary THA. This study provides objective data on energy expenditure that can be factored into choice of approach, case order, and scheduling preferences, and provides insight into the work done by the surgeon.
PMID: 38801964
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 5663322

Patient Demographic Factors Impact KOOS JR Response Rates for Total Knee Arthroplasty Patients

Tong, Yixuan; Rajahraman, Vinaya; Gupta, Rajan; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Rozell, Joshua C
The Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for Joint Replacement (KOOS JR) is a validated patient-reported measure for assessing pain and function following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This study investigates how patient demographic factors (i.e., age, sex, and race) correlate with KOOS JR response rates. This was a retrospective cohort study of adult, English-speaking patients who underwent primary TKA between 2017 and 2023 at an academic institution. KOOS JR completion status-complete or incomplete-was recorded within 90 days postoperatively. Standard statistical analyses were performed to assess KOOS JR completion against demographic factors. Among 2,883 total patients, 70.2% had complete and 29.8% had incomplete KOOS JR questionnaires. Complete status (all p < 0.01) was associated with patients aged 60 to 79 (71.8%), white race (77.6%), Medicare (81.7%), marriage (76.8%), and the highest income quartile (75.7%). Incomplete status (all p < 0.001) was associated with patients aged 18 to 59 (64.4%), Medicaid (82.4%), and lower income quartiles (41.6% first quartile, 36.8% third quartile). Multiple patient demographic factors may affect KOOS JR completion rates; patients who are older, white, and of higher socioeconomic status are more likely to participate. Addressing underrepresented groups is important to improve the utility and generalizability of the KOOS JR.
PMID: 38776975
ISSN: 1938-2480
CID: 5654712

Return to athletics after total knee arthroplasty: a survey study of 784 recreational athletes across 12 sports

Lawrence, Kyle W; Bloom, David A; Rajahraman, Vinaya; Cardillo, Casey; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Rozell, Joshua C; Arshi, Armin
BACKGROUND:Postoperative return to recreational activity is a common concern among the increasingly active total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patient population, though there is a paucity of research characterizing sport-specific return and function. This study aimed to assess participation level, postoperative return to activity, sport function, and limitations for recreational athletes undergoing TKA. METHODS:A survey of recreational sports participation among primary, elective TKA patients from a single academic center between June 2011 and January 2022 was conducted. Of the 10,777 surveys administered, responses were received from 1,063 (9.9%) patients, among whom 784 indicated being active in cycling (273 [34.8%]), running (33 [4.2%]), jogging (68 [8.7%]), swimming (228 [29.1%]), tennis (63 [8.0%]), skiing (55 [7.0%]), or high-impact team sports (64 [8.2%]) between two years preoperatively and time of survey administration, and were included for analyses. RESULTS:Cycling (62.3% at two years preoperatively vs. 59.0% at latest follow-up) and swimming (62.7% at two years preoperatively vs. 63.6% at latest follow-up) demonstrated the most favorable participation rate changes, while running (84.0% at two years preoperatively vs. 48.5% at latest follow-up) and skiing (72.7% at two years preoperatively vs. 45.5% at latest follow-up) demonstrated the least favorable participation rate changes. The majority of respondents were "satisfied" or "very satisfied" with their return across all sports, though dissatisfaction was highest among runners and joggers. For cycling, running, jogging, and swimming, respondents most commonly reported no change in speed or distance capacity, though among these cyclists reported the highest rates of improved speed and distance. The majority of returning skiers reported improved balance, form, and ability to put on skis. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Return to sport is feasible following TKA with high satisfaction. Swimming and cycling represent manageable postoperative activities with high return-rates, while runners and joggers face increased difficulty returning to equal or better activity levels. Patients should receive individualized, sports-specific counseling regarding their expected postoperative course based on their goals of treatment.
PMID: 38777908
ISSN: 1434-3916
CID: 5654782

Combined Medial Collateral Ligament Reconstruction and Polyethylene Exchange for Valgus Instability Following Total Knee Arthroplasty

Kanakamedala, Ajay C; Lin, Charles C; Whalen, Ryan J; Hackett, Thomas R; Provencher, Matthew T; Vidal, Armando F; Rozell, Joshua C; Kim, Raymond H
Valgus instability can occur after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) due to traumatic medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury, component malpositioning, or progressive ligamentous laxity. Although revision TKA with exchange of the polyethylene to a varus-valgus-constrained liner can reduce laxity due to MCL insufficiency, isolated liner exchange in the setting of collateral ligament insufficiency may lead to greater strain at the cement-bone or implant-cement interface and possibly a greater rate of aseptic loosening. Anatomic MCL reconstruction can be performed in conjunction with liner exchange to restore stability and reduce strain compared with liner exchange alone. The purpose of this Technical Note is to describe a technique for MCL reconstruction and liner exchange for treatment of valgus instability after TKA.
PMID: 38835466
ISSN: 2212-6287
CID: 5665292

Factors influencing patient selection of orthopaedic surgeons for total hip (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA)

Fabrizio, Grant M; Cardillo, Casey; Egol, Alexander; Rozell, Joshua C; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Aggarwal, Vinay K
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:The importance of identifying how patients choose their healthcare providers has grown with the prevalence of consumer-centric health insurance plans. There is currently a lack of studies exploring the factors associated with how patients select their hip and knee joint arthroplasty surgeons. The purpose of this study was to determine how patients find their arthroplasty providers and the relative importance of various arthroplasty surgeon characteristics. METHODS:An electronic mail survey was sent to 3522 patients who had visited our institution for an arthroplasty surgeon office visit between August 2022 and January 2023. The survey consisted of multiple-choice questions, which aimed to inquire about the patients' referral sources for their current arthroplasty surgeon. In addition, patients were requested to rate the significance of 22 surgeon-related factors, on a scale of 1 (Not Important At All) to 5 (Very Important), in choosing their arthroplasty surgeon. RESULTS:Of the 3522 patients that received the survey, 538 patients responded (15.3%). The most common referral sources were physician referral (50.2%), family/friend referral (27.7%), and self-guided research (24.5%). Of those that were referred by a physician, 54.4% of respondents were referred by another orthopaedic provider. Patients rated board certification (4.72 ± 0.65), in-network insurance status (4.66 ± 0.71), fellowship training (4.50 ± 0.81), bedside manner/personality (4.32 ± 0.86), and facility appearance (4.26 ± 0.81) as the five most important factors in picking an arthroplasty surgeon. Television (1.42 ± 0.83), print (1.50 ± 0.88), and online (1.58 ± 0.93) advertisements, along with social media presence (1.83 ± 1.08), and practice group size (2.97 ± 1.13) were rated as the five least important factors. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Patients are most likely to select an arthroplasty surgeon based on referral from other physicians, namely orthopedic surgeons, in addition to board certification status, in-network insurance, and fellowship training. Overall, these findings highlight the importance of physician credentials and reputation within the orthopaedic community in order to attract and retain patients.
PMID: 38641682
ISSN: 1434-3916
CID: 5655882

Factors affecting operating room scheduling accuracy for primary and revision total hip arthroplasty: a retrospective study

Cardillo, Casey; Connolly, Patrick; Katzman, Jonathan L; Ben-Ari, Erel; Rozell, Joshua C; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Lajam, Claudette
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Optimizing operating room (OR) scheduling accuracy is important for OR efficiency, meeting patient expectations, and maximizing value for health systems. However, limited data exist on factors influencing the precision of Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) OR scheduling. This study aims to identify the factors influencing the accuracy of OR scheduling for THA. METHODS:A retrospective review of 6,072 THA (5,579 primary THA and 493 revision THA) performed between January 2020 and May 2023 at an urban, academic institution was conducted. We collected baseline patient characteristics, surgeon years of experience, and compared actual wheels in to wheels out (WIWO) OR time against scheduled OR time. Significant scheduling inaccuracies were defined as actual OR times deviating by at least 15% from scheduled OR times. Logistic regression analyses were employed to assess the impact of patient, surgeon, and intraoperative factors on OR scheduling accuracy. RESULTS:Using adjusted odds ratios, primary THA patients who had a lower BMI and surgeons who had less than 10 years of experience were associated with overestimation of OR time. Whereas, higher BMI, younger age, general anesthesia, non-primary osteoarthritis indications, and afternoon procedure start times were linked to underestimation of OR time. For revision THA, lower BMI and fewer components revised correlated with overestimated OR time. Men, higher BMI, more components revised, septic indication for surgery, and morning procedure start times were associated with underestimation of OR time. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:This study highlights several critical patient, surgeon, and intraoperative factors influencing OR scheduling accuracy for THA. OR scheduling models should consider these factors to enhance OR efficiency.
PMID: 38578311
ISSN: 1434-3916
CID: 5655702

Increased patient body mass index is associated with increased surgeon physiologic stress during total hip arthroplasty

Ashkenazi, Itay; Lawrence, Kyle W; Shichman, Ittai; Lajam, Claudette M; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Rozell, Joshua C
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:While increased body mass index (BMI) in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) increases surgical complexity, there is a paucity of objective studies assessing the impact of patient BMI on the cardiovascular stress experienced by surgeons during THA. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of patient BMI on surgeon cardiovascular strain during THA. METHODS:We prospectively evaluated three fellowship-trained arthroplasty surgeons performing a total of 115 THAs. A smart-vest worn by the surgeons recorded mean heart rate, stress index (correlate of sympathetic activation), respiratory rate, minute ventilation, and energy expenditure throughout the procedures. Patient demographics as well as perioperative data including surgical approach, surgery duration, number of assistants, and the timing of the surgery during the day were collected. Linear regression was utilized to assess the impact of patient characteristics and perioperative data on cardiorespiratory metrics. RESULTS:Average surgeon heart rate, energy expenditure, and stress index during surgery were 98.50 beats/min, 309.49 cal/h, and 14.10, respectively. Higher patient BMI was significantly associated with increased hourly energy expenditure (P = 0.027), mean heart rate (P = 0.037), and stress index (P = 0.027) independent of surgical approach. Respiratory rate and minute ventilation were not associated with patient BMI. The number of assistants and time of surgery during the day did not impact cardiorespiratory strain on the surgeon. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The physiologic burden on surgeons during primary THA significantly increases as patient BMI increases. This study suggests that healthcare systems should consider adjusting reimbursement models to account for increased surgeon workload due to obesity. Further surgeons should adopt strategies in operative planning and case scheduling to handle this added physical strain. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:III.
PMID: 38498157
ISSN: 1434-3916
CID: 5640122