Does body mass index influence improvement in patient reported outcomes following total knee arthroplasty? A retrospective analysis of 3918 cases
Purpose: The study aimed to determine whether body mass index (BMI) classification for patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with differences in mean patient reported outcome measure (PROM) score improvements across multiple domains"”including pain, functional status, mental health, and global physical health. We hypothesized that patients with larger BMIs would have worse preoperative and postoperative PROM scores, though improvements in scores would be comparable between groups. Materials and methods: Patients undergoing primary TKA from 2018 to 2021 were retrospectively reviewed and stratified into four groups: Normal Weight; 18.5"“25 kg/m2, Overweight; 25.01"“30 kg/m2, Obese; 30.01"“40 kg/m2, and Morbidly Obese > 40 kg/m2. Preoperative, postoperative, and pre/post-changes (Î”) in knee injury and osteoarthritis, joint replacement (KOOS, JR) and Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) measures of pain intensity, pain interference, physical function, mobility, mental health, and physical health were compared. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess for confounding comorbid conditions. Results: In univariate analysis, patients with larger BMIs had worse scores for KOOS, JR and all PROMIS metrics preoperatively. Postoperatively, scores for KOOS, JR and PROMIS pain interference, mobility, and physical health were statistically worse in higher BMI groups, though differences were not clinically significant. Morbidly obese patients achieved greater pre/post-Î” improvements in KOOS, JR and global physical health scores. Multivariate regression analysis showed high BMI was independently associated with greater pre/post-Î” improvements in KOOS, JR and global health scores. Conclusion: Obese patients report worse preoperative scores for function and health, but greater pre/post-Î” improvements in KOOS, JR and physical health scores following TKA. Quality of life benefits of TKA in obese patients should be a factor when assessing surgical candidacy.
Does antibiotic bone cement reduce infection rates in primary total knee arthroplasty?
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Infection after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) impacts the patient, surgeon, and healthcare system significantly. Surgeons routinely use antibiotic-loaded bone cement (ALBC) in attempts to mitigate infection; however, little evidence supports the efficacy of ALBC in reducing infection rates compared to non-antibiotic-loaded bone cement (non-ALBC) in primary TKA. Our study compares infection rates of patients undergoing TKA with ALBC to those with non-ALBC to assess its efficacy in primary TKA. METHODS:A retrospective review of all primary, elective, cemented TKA patients over the age of 18 between 2011 and 2020 was conducted at an orthopedic specialty hospital. Patients were stratified into two cohorts based on cement type: ALBC (loaded with gentamicin or tobramycin) or non-ALBC. Baseline characteristics and infection rates determined by MSIS criteria were collected. Multilinear and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to limit significant differences in demographics. Independent samples t test and chi-squared test were used to compare means and proportions, respectively, between the two cohorts. RESULTS:) and Charlson Comorbidity Index values (4.51 ± 2.15 vs. 4.04 ± 1.92) were more likely to receive ALBC. The infection rate in the non-ALBC was 0.8% (63/7,980), while the rate in the ALBC was 0.5% (7/1,386). After adjusting for confounders, the difference in rates was not significant between the two groups (OR [95% CI]: 1.53 [0.69-3.38], p = 0.298). Furthermore, a sub-analysis comparing the infection rates within various demographic categories also showed no significant differences between the two groups. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Compared to non-ALBC, the overall infection rate in primary TKA was slightly lower when using ALBC; however, the difference was not statistically significant. When stratifying by comorbidity, use of ALBC still showed no statistical significance in reducing the risk of periprosthetic joint infection. Therefore, the advantage of antibiotics in bone cement to prevent infection in primary TKA is not yet elucidated. Further prospective, multicenter studies regarding the clinical benefits of antibiotic use in bone cement for primary TKA are warranted.
Outcomes of medicaid patients undergoing TJA with previous positive urine toxicology screens
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Previous studies have demonstrated that patients with positive preoperative urine toxicology (utox) screens prior to total joint arthroplasty (TJA) have higher readmission rates, greater complication rates, and longer hospital stays compared to patients with negative screens. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of postponing surgery for patients with positive preoperative utox in the Medicaid population. METHODS:This retrospective, observational study reviewed the Medicaid ambulatory database at a large, academic orthopedic specialty hospital for patients with a utox screen prior to TJA from 2012 to 2020. Patients were categorized into three groups: (1) controls with negative preoperative utox or a utox consistent with prescription medications (Utox-) with TJA completed as scheduled; (2) positive preoperative utox with TJA rescheduled and surgery completed on a later date (R-utox+); (3) positive preoperative utox inconsistent with prescription medications with TJA completed as scheduled (S-utox+). Primary outcomes included mortality, 90-day readmission rate, complication rate, and length of stay. RESULTS:Of the 300 records reviewed, 185 did not meet inclusion criteria. The remaining 115 patients included 80 (69.6%) Utox-, 5 (6.3%) R-utox+, and 30 (37.5%) S-utox+. Mean follow-up time was 49.6 months. Hospital stays trended longer in the Utox- group (3.7 ± 2.0 days vs. 3.1 ± 1.6 S-utox+ vs.2.5 ± 0.4 R-utox+, p = 0.20). Compared to the R-utox+group, the S-utox+ group trended toward lower home discharge rates (p = 0.20), higher in-hospital complication rates (p = 0.85), and more all-cause 90-day emergency department visits (p = 0.57). There were no differences in postoperative opioid utilization between groups (p = 0.319). Duration of postoperative narcotic use trended toward being longer in the Utox- patients (820.7 ± 1073.8 days vs. 684.6 ± 1491.8 S-utox+ vs. 585.1 ± 948.3 R-utox+, p = 0.585). Surgical time (p = 0.045) and revision rates (p = 0.72) trended toward being higher in the S-utox+ group. CONCLUSIONS:Medicaid patients with positive preoperative utox who had surgeries postponed trended towards shorter hospital stays and greater home discharge rates. Larger studies should be conducted to analyze the implications of a positive preoperative utox on risk profiles and outcomes following TJA in the Medicaid population. Study design Retrospective cohort study.
Ambulatory status after revision total hip arthroplasty in elective versus fracture indications
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:To improve revision total hip arthroplasty (rTHA) prognosis and postoperative management, a better understanding of how non-elective and elective indications influence clinical outcomes is needed. We sought to compare ambulatory status, complication rates, and implant survival rates in patients who underwent aseptic rTHA for periprosthetic fracture or elective indications. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:This retrospective study examined all aseptic rTHA patients with a minimum follow-up of two years at a single tertiary referral center. Patients were divided into two groups: fracture rTHA (F-rTHA) if the patient had a periprosthetic femoral or acetabular fracture, and elective rTHA (E-rTHA) if the patient underwent rTHA for other aseptic indications. Multivariate regression was performed for clinical outcomes to adjust for baseline characteristics, and Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to assess implant survival. RESULTS:A total of 324 patients (F-rTHA: 67, E-rTHA: 257) were included. In the F-rTHA cohort, 57 (85.0%) and 10 (15.0%) had femoral and acetabular periprosthetic fractures, respectively. F-rTHA patients were more likely to be discharged to skilled nursing (40.3% vs. 22.2%, p = 0.049) and acute rehabilitation facilities (19.4% vs. 7.8%, p = 0.004). F-rTHA patients had higher 90-day readmission rates (26.9% vs. 16.0%, p = 0.033). Ambulatory status at three months postoperatively significantly differed (p = 0.004); F-rTHA patients were more likely to use a walker (44.6% vs. 18.8%) and less likely to ambulate independently (19.6% vs. 28.6%) or with a cane (28.6% vs. 41.1%). These differences did not persist at one and two years postoperatively. Freedom from all-cause re-revision (77.6% vs. 74.7%, p = 0.912) and re-revision due to PJI (88.1% vs. 91.9%, p = 0.206) were similar at five-year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:Compared to rTHA performed for elective aseptic indications, fracture rTHA patients had poorer early functional outcomes, with greater need for ambulatory aids and non-home discharge. However, these differences did not persist long term and did not portend increased infection or re-revision rates.
The Effect of Surgeon and Hospital Volume on Total Knee Arthroplasty Patient-reported Outcome Measures: An American Joint Replacement Registry Study
BACKGROUND:The lower morbidity and mortality rate associated with increased surgeon and hospital volume may also correlate with improved patient-reported outcome measures. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between surgeon and hospital volume and patient-reported outcome measures after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) using American Joint Replacement Registry data. METHODS:Using American Joint Replacement Registry data from 2012 to 2020, 8,193 primary, elective TKAs with both preoperative and 1-year postoperative The Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Joint Replacement (KOOS-JR) scores were analyzed. This study was powered to detect the minimally clinical important difference (MCID). The main exposure variables were median annual surgeon and hospital volume. Tertiles were formed based on the median annual number of TKAs performed: low-volume surgeons (1 to 52), medium-volume (53 to 114), and high-volume (≥115); low-volume hospitals (1 to 283), medium-volume (284 to 602), and high-volume (≥603). The mean preoperative and 1-year postoperative KOOS-JR were compared. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine the effect of surgeon and hospital volume and demographics on achieving the MCID for KOOS-JR. RESULTS:The mean preoperative and 1-year postoperative KOOS-JR score for low-volume surgeons was 47.78 ± 13.50 and 77.75 ± 16.65, respectively, and 47.32 ± 13.73 and 76.86 ± 16.38 for low-volume hospitals. The mean preoperative and 1-year postoperative KOOS-JR score for medium-volume surgeons was 47.20 ± 13.46 and 76.70 ± 16.98, and 48.93 ± 12.50 and 77.15 ± 16.36 for medium-volume hospitals. The mean preoperative and 1-year postoperative KOOS-JR scores for high-volume surgeons were 49.08 ± 13.04 and 78.23 ± 16.72, and 48.11 ± 13.47 and 78.23 ± 17.22 for high-volume hospitals. No notable difference was observed in reaching MCID for KOOS-JR after adjustment for potential confounders. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:An increased number of TKA cases performed by a given surgeon or at a given hospital did not have an effect on achieving MCID for KOOS-JR outcomes.
Larger operating rooms have better air quality than smaller rooms in primary total knee arthroplasty
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Operating room air quality can be affected by several factors including temperature, humidity, and airborne particle burden. Our study examines the role of operating room (OR) size on air quality and airborne particle (ABP) count in primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:We analyzed all primary, elective TKAs performed within two ORs measuring 278 sq ft. (small) and 501 sq ft. (large) at a single academic institution in the United States from April 2019 to June 2020. Intraoperative measurements of temperature, humidity, and ABP count were recorded. p values were calculated using t test for continuous variables and chi-square for categorical values. RESULTS:91 primary TKA cases were included in the study, with 21 (23.1%) in the small OR and 70 (76.9%) in the large OR. Between-groups comparisons revealed significant differences in relative humidity (small OR 38.5% ± 7.24% vs. large OR 44.4% ± 8.01%, p = 0.002). Significant percent decreases in ABP rates for particles measuring 2.5 μm (- 43.9%, p = 0.007) and 5.0 μm (- 69.0%, p = 0.0024) were found in the large OR. Total time spent in the OR was not significantly different between the two groups (small OR 153.09 ± 22.3 vs. large OR 173 ± 44.6, p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Although total time spent in the room did not differ between the large and small OR, there were significant differences in humidity and ABP rates for particles measuring 2.5 μm and 5.0 μm, suggesting the filtration system encounters less particle burden in larger rooms. Larger studies are required to determine the impact this may have on OR sterility and infection rates.
The Impact of Hospital Exposures Prior to Total Knee Arthroplasty on Postoperative Outcomes
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) procedures are expected to grow exponentially in the upcoming years, highlighting the importance of identifying preoperative risk factors that predispose patients to poor outcomes. The present study sought to determine if preoperative healthcare events (PHEs) influenced outcomes following TKA. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:This was a retrospective review of all patients who underwent TKA at a single institution from June 2011 to April 2022. Patients who had a PHE within 90 days of surgery, defined as an emergency department visit or hospital admission, were compared to patients with no history of PHE. Patients who underwent revision, nonelective, and/or bilateral TKA were excluded. Chi-squared analysis and independent sample t-tests were used to determine significant differences between demographic variables. All significant covariates were included in binary logistic regressions used to predict discharge disposition, 90-day readmission, and 1-year revision. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED: = .004) compared to patients without a PHE. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:Our results demonstrate that PHEs put patients at significantly greater risk of facility discharge, 90-day readmission, and 1-year revision. Moving forward, consideration of elective surgery scheduling in the context of a recent PHE may lead to improved postoperative outcomes. LEVEL III EVIDENCE/UNASSIGNED:Retrospective Cohort Study.
Perioperative Outcomes in Total Knee Arthroplasty for Non-English Speakers
BACKGROUND:Many studies have demonstrated that in patients whose primary language is not English, outcomes after orthopaedic surgery are worse compared to primary English speakers. The goal of this study was to compare perioperative outcomes in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) who prefer English as their first language versus those who prefer a different language. METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent primary TKA from May 2012 to July 2021. Patients were separated into two groups based on whether English was their preferred primary language (PPL). Of the 13,447 patients who underwent primary TKA, 11,290 reported English as their PPL and 2,157 preferred a language other than English. Patients whose PPL was not English were further stratified based on whether they requested interpreter services. Multiple regression analyses were performed to determine the significance of perioperative outcomes while controlling for demographic differences. RESULTS:Our analysis found that non-English PPL patients had significantly lower rates of readmission (p=0.040), overall revision (p=0.028), and manipulation under anesthesia (MUA; p=0.025) within 90 days postoperatively. Sub analyses of the non-English PPL group showed that those who requested interpreter services had significantly lower one year revision (p<0.001) and overall MUA (p=0.049) rates. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Our results demonstrate that TKA patients who communicated in English without an interpreter were significantly more likely to undergo revision, readmission, and MUA. These findings may suggest that language barriers may make it more difficult to identify postoperative problems or concerns in non-English speakers, which may limit appropriate postoperative care.
The Benefit in Patient-Reported Outcomes After Total Knee Arthroplasty was Comparable Across Income Quartiles
BACKGROUND:Few studies have assessed how socioeconomic status (SES) influences patient-reported outcomes (PROMs) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This study evaluated the impact of patient median ZIP code income levels on PROMs after TKA. METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed patients at our institution undergoing primary, unilateral TKA from 2017 to 2020. Patients who did not have one-year postoperative PROMs were excluded. Patients were stratified based on the quartile of their home ZIP code median income from United States Census Bureau data. There were 1,267 patients included: 98 in quartile 1 (median income ≤ $46,308) (7.7%); 126 in quartile 2 (median income $46,309-$57,848) (10.0%); 194 in quartile 3 (median income $57,849-$74,011) (15.7%); and 849 in quartile 4 (median income ≥ $74,012) (66.4%). We collected baseline demographic data, 2-year outcomes, and PROMs preoperatively, as well as at 12 weeks and one year, postoperatively. RESULTS:The Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for Joint Replacement was significantly higher in quartile 4 preoperatively (P < .001), 12 weeks postoperatively (P < .001), and one year postoperatively (P < .001). There were no significant differences in delta improvements of Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for Joint Replacement from preoperative to 12 weeks or one year postoperatively. There were no significant differences in lengths of stay, discharge dispositions, readmissions, or revisions. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Patients from lower income areas have slightly worse knee function preoperatively and worse outcomes following TKA. However, improvements in PROMs throughout the first year postoperatively are similar across income quartiles, suggesting that patients from lower income quartiles achieve comparable therapeutic benefits from TKA. LEVEL III EVIDENCE/METHODS:Retrospective Cohort Study.
Patient Designation Prior to Total Knee Arthroplasty: How Can Preoperative Variables Impact Postoperative Status? [Case Report]
BACKGROUND:Removal of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) from the inpatient only list has led to a greater focus on outpatient (OP) procedures. However, the impact of OP-centered models in at-risk patients is unclear. Therefore, the current analysis investigated the effect of conversion from OP to inpatient (IP) status on postoperative outcomes and determined which factors put patients at risk for status change postoperatively. METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent a primary TKA at our institution between January 2, 2018, and April 26, 2022. All patients included were originally scheduled for OP surgery and were separated based on conversion to IP status postoperatively. Multiple regression analyses were used to determine the significance of all perioperative variables. Modeling via binary logistic regressions was used to determine factors predictive of status conversion. RESULTS:Of the 2,313 patients originally designated for OP TKA, 627 (27.1%) required a stay of 2 midnights or longer. Patients in the IP group had significantly higher facility discharge rates (P < .001) compared to the OP group. Factors predictive of conversion included age of 65 years and older (P < .001), women (P < .001), arriving at the postanesthesia care unit after 12 pm (P < .001), body mass index greater than 30 (P = .004), and Charlson Comorbidity Index of 4 and higher (P = .004). Being the first case of the day (P < .001) and being married (P < .001) were both protective against conversion. CONCLUSION:Certain intrinsic patient factors may predispose a patient to an IP stay, and an understanding of predisposing factors which could lead to IP conversion may improve perioperative planning moving forward.