Discrete immune response signature to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination versus infection
Both SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination elicit potent immune responses. A number of studies have described immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, beyond antibody production, immune responses to COVID-19 vaccines remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we performed multimodal single-cell sequencing on peripheral blood of patients with acute COVID-19 and healthy volunteers before and after receiving the SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine to compare the immune responses elicited by the virus and by this vaccine. Phenotypic and transcriptional profiling of immune cells, coupled with reconstruction of the B and T cell antigen receptor rearrangement of individual lymphocytes, enabled us to characterize and compare the host responses to the virus and to defined viral antigens. While both infection and vaccination induced robust innate and adaptive immune responses, our analysis revealed significant qualitative differences between the two types of immune challenges. In COVID-19 patients, immune responses were characterized by a highly augmented interferon response which was largely absent in vaccine recipients. Increased interferon signaling likely contributed to the observed dramatic upregulation of cytotoxic genes in the peripheral T cells and innate-like lymphocytes in patients but not in immunized subjects. Analysis of B and T cell receptor repertoires revealed that while the majority of clonal B and T cells in COVID-19 patients were effector cells, in vaccine recipients clonally expanded cells were primarily circulating memory cells. Importantly, the divergence in immune subsets engaged, the transcriptional differences in key immune populations, and the differences in maturation of adaptive immune cells revealed by our analysis have far-ranging implications for immunity to this novel pathogen.
Author Correction: Mortality outcomes with hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine in COVID-19 from an international collaborative meta-analysis of randomized trials
Mortality outcomes with hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine in COVID-19 from an international collaborative meta-analysis of randomized trials
Substantial COVID-19 research investment has been allocated to randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, which currently face recruitment challenges or early discontinuation. We aim to estimate the effects of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine on survival in COVID-19 from all currently available RCT evidence, published and unpublished. We present a rapid meta-analysis of ongoing, completed, or discontinued RCTs on hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine treatment for any COVID-19 patients (protocol: https://osf.io/QESV4/ ). We systematically identified unpublished RCTs (ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Cochrane COVID-registry up to June 11, 2020), and published RCTs (PubMed, medRxiv and bioRxiv up to October 16, 2020). All-cause mortality has been extracted (publications/preprints) or requested from investigators and combined in random-effects meta-analyses, calculating odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), separately for hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine. Prespecified subgroup analyses include patient setting, diagnostic confirmation, control type, and publication status. Sixty-three trials were potentially eligible. We included 14 unpublished trials (1308 patients) and 14 publications/preprints (9011 patients). Results for hydroxychloroquine are dominated by RECOVERY and WHO SOLIDARITY, two highly pragmatic trials, which employed relatively high doses and included 4716 and 1853 patients, respectively (67% of the total sample size). The combined OR on all-cause mortality for hydroxychloroquine isÂ 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.20; IÂ²â€‰=â€‰0%; 26 trials; 10,012 patients) and for chloroquine 1.77 (95%CI: 0.15, 21.13, IÂ²â€‰=â€‰0%; 4 trials; 307 patients). We identified no subgroup effects. We found that treatment with hydroxychloroquine is associated with increased mortality in COVID-19 patients, and there is no benefit of chloroquine. Findings have unclear generalizability to outpatients, children, pregnant women, and people with comorbidities.
Treating COVID-19 With Hydroxychloroquine (TEACH): A Multicenter, Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial in Hospitalized Patients
Background/UNASSIGNED:Effective therapies to combat coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) are urgently needed. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has in vitro antiviral activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but the clinical benefit of HCQ in treating COVID-19 is unclear. Randomized controlled trials are needed to determine the safety and efficacy of HCQ for the treatment of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Methods/UNASSIGNED:We conducted a multicenter, double-blind randomized clinical trial of HCQ among patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Subjects were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to HCQ or placebo for 5 days and followed for 30 days. The primary efficacy outcome was a severe disease progression composite end point (death, intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and/or vasopressor use) at day 14. Results/UNASSIGNED:â€…=â€….350). There were no significant differences in COVID-19 clinical scores, number of oxygen-free days, SARS-CoV-2 clearance, or adverse events between HCQ and placebo. HCQ was associated with a slight increase in mean corrected QT interval, an increased D-dimer, and a trend toward an increased length of stay. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:In hospitalized patients with COVID-19, our data suggest that HCQ does not prevent severe outcomes or improve clinical scores. However, our conclusions are limited by a relatively small sample size, and larger randomized controlled trials or pooled analyses are needed.
Clostridioides difficile Enteritis in Patients Following Total Colectomy-a Rare but Genuine Clinical Entity
Objective/UNASSIGNED:enteritis prevalence, severity, and potential risk factors are unknown. Methods/UNASSIGNED:stool testing after colectomy. We compared CDE cases to controls using multivariable analysis to identify potential CDE risk factors. Results/UNASSIGNED:enteritis presented with severe disease half of the time, with 81.8% requiring hospitalization. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:enteritis often presents as severe disease and frequently requires hospitalization.
Introduction of Procalcitonin Testing and Antibiotic Utilization for Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Background/UNASSIGNED:The majority of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are triggered by nonbacterial causes, yet most patients receive antibiotics. Treatment guided by procalcitonin (PCT), a sensitive biomarker of bacterial infection, safely decreases antibiotic use in many controlled trials. We evaluated PCT implementation for inpatients with AECOPD at a large academic hospital. Methods/UNASSIGNED:All patients admitted for AECOPD during the first 6â€‰months of PCT-guided therapy were eligible for inclusion in this retrospective cohort study. Patients with PCT performed were compared with those without PCT. The primary outcome was antibiotic days of therapy (DOT). Secondary outcomes included 30-day readmission and mortality. Results/UNASSIGNED:â€‰â©½â€‰.001) decrease in intravenous (IV) antibiotic DOT. Guideline-recommended follow-up testing was rare (12%). Procalcitonin measurement had no effect on 30-day readmission or mortality. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:In this real-world analysis of inpatients with AECOPD, PCT-guided therapy was poorly adopted by providers and was not associated with a decrease in total antibiotic DOT. However, a low PCT level was associated with a 25.5% decrease in IV antibiotic DOT, suggesting increased comfort stepping down from IV to PO therapy.
Is Clostridium difficile infection a risk factor for subsequent bloodstream infection?
BACKGROUND:Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a common nosocomial diarrheal illness increasingly associated with mortality in United States. The underlying factors and mechanisms behind the recent increases in morbidity from CDI have not been fully elucidated. Murine models suggest a mucosal barrier breakdown leads to bacterial translocation and subsequent bloodstream infection (BSI). This study tests the hypothesis that CDI is associated with subsequent BSI in humans. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective cohort study on 1132 inpatients hospitalized >72Â h with available stool test results for toxigenic C.Â difficile. The primary outcome was BSI following CDI. Secondary outcomes included 30-day mortality, colectomy, readmission, and ICU admission. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were developed. RESULTS:CDI occurred in 570 of 1132 patients (50.4%). BSI occurred in 86 (7.6%) patients. Enterococcus (14%) and Klebsiella (14%) species were the most common organisms. Patients with BSI had higher comorbidity scores and were more likely to be male, on immunosuppression, critically ill, and have a central venous catheter in place. Of the patients with BSI, 36 (42%) had CDI. CDI was not associated with subsequent BSI (OR 0.69; 95% CI 0.44-1.08; PÂ =Â 0.103) in unadjusted analysis. In multivariable modeling, CDI appeared protective against subsequent BSI (OR 0.57; 95% CI 0.34-0.96; PÂ =Â 0.036). Interaction modeling suggests a complicated relationship among CDI, BSI, antibiotic exposure, and central venous catheter use. CONCLUSIONS:In this cohort of inpatients that underwent testing for CDI, CDI was not a risk factor for developing subsequent BSI.
Outcomes of patients undergoing percutaneous biliary drainage to reduce bilirubin for administration of chemotherapy
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To describe outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous biliary drainage to reduce total serum bilirubin level for administration of chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:A total of 647 consecutive patients underwent percutaneous biliary drainage between September 2001 and December 2008. In 168, the indication for biliary drainage was to decrease total serum bilirubin level to permit administration of chemotherapy. Of these, 20 were excluded because they had hepatic arterial infusion pumps, leaving 148 patients as the study group. The primary diagnoses for these patients were gallbladder cancer (n = 23), cholangiocarcinoma (n = 21), pancreatic cancer (n = 36), and other metastatic cancers (n = 68). Medical records and imaging studies were reviewed for demographic data, procedural information, pre- and postdrainage total serum bilirubin level levels, 30-day complications, and subsequent biliary procedures. RESULTS:The probability of attaining a total serum bilirubin level of 1 mg/dL or lower by 100 days was 31% (95% CI, 23%-39%). Predrainage total serum bilirubin level of 9 mg/dL or lower (hazard ratio [HR], 3.27; 95% CI, 1.86-5.75; P < .001), 100% liver drainage (HR 2.73, 95% CI, 1.56-4.78; P <.001), and lower predrainage International Normalized Ratio (INR; HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.70-0.92; P = .002) were associated with an increased likelihood of attaining a total serum bilirubin level of 1 mg/dL or lower. The most common indication for follow-up was pericatheter leakage, which occurred in nearly one third of cases. During follow-up, patients required three visits per 100 catheter-days, or approximately one per month. Median overall survival in this population was approximately 3.5 months. CONCLUSIONS:Only 31% of patients attained a normal serum bilirubin level by 100 days, and median overall survival was 107 days. Careful patient selection is warranted before biliary drainage for this indication. Maximal biliary drainage, a preprocedure total serum bilirubin of less than 9 mg/dL, and a lower INR were factors associated with serum bilirubin normalization in this cohort.