Stress Induced Cardiomyopathy with Midventricular Ballooning: A Rare Variant
Stress cardiomyopathy (SCM) also referred to as the "broken heart syndrome" is a condition in which intense emotional or physical stress can cause fulminant and reversible cardiac muscle weakness. SCM most commonly involves the apical segment of left ventricle but newer and rare variants have recently been seen reported. We here report a case of rare midventricular variant of stress related cardiomyopathy. A 72-year-old female with past medical history, only significant for SVT, presented with an episode of severe substernal chest pain while hiking with her husband. She felt a significant heaviness in her chest and was short of breath. During her hospitalization she was found to have positive cardiac enzymes. EKG showed 1 mm downsloping ST segment changes. Ventriculogram during left heart catheterization revealed dyskinetic midventricle. Patient was diagnosed with midventricular SCM. The patient was placed on ACE inhibitor and beta-blocker and discharged in a well-compensated state. We suggest identifying these patients by standard lab testing, electrocardiography, echocardiography, and left heart coronary angiography and ventriculography. Management of this unique entity is similar to the other variants with close observation and treatment of accompanying heart failure, valvular dysfunction, and any arrhythmias that may develop.
Comparison of efficacy and safety of intracoronary sodium nitroprusside and intravenous adenosine for assessing fractional flow reserve
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of intracoronary (IC) nitroprusside and intravenous adenosine (IVA) for assessing fractional flow reserve (FFR). BACKGROUND:IV infusion of adenosine is a standard method to achieve a coronary hyperemia for FFR measurement. However, adenosine is expensive, causes multiple side effects, and is contraindicated in patients with reactive airway disease. Sodium nitroprusside (NTP) is a strong coronary vasodilator but its efficacy and safety for assessing FFR is not well established. METHODS:We compared FFR response and side effects profile of IC NTP and IVA. Bolus of NTP at a dose of 100 Î¼g and IVA (140 Î¼g/kg/min) were used to achieve coronary hyperemia. RESULTS:We evaluated 75 lesions in 53 patients (60% male) mean age 61.6 Â± 13.9 years. Mean FFR after NTP was similar to FFR after adenosine (0.836 Â± 0.107 vs. 0.856 Â± 0.106; P = 0.26; r = 0.91, P < 0.001). NTP induced maximal stable hyperemia within 10 sec (mean: 6.4 Â± 1) which lasted consistently between 38 and 60 sec (mean 51 Â± 7.5). NTP caused significant (14%), but asymptomatic decrease in mean blood pressure which returned to baseline within 60 sec. Adenosine caused shortness of breath in 26%, headache and flushing in 19%, and transient second degree heart block in 6% of patients. No adverse symptoms were reported after NTP. CONCLUSIONS:IC NTP is as effective as IVA for measuring FFR. NTP is better tolerated by patients. Since NTP is inexpensive, readily available, well tolerated, and safe, it may be a better choice for FFR assessment.
Extensive myocardial iron deposition in a patient with hepatitis C [Case Report]
During a cardiac evaluation prior to liver transplantation, a 51-year-old man with hepatitis C and cirrhosis was found to have nonischemic cardiomyopathy-a condition that would have made him ineligible for liver transplantation. Right ventricular biopsy revealed extensive cardiac hemosiderosis. Despite the elevated levels of serum ferritin, the patient had no history of multiple red blood cell transfusions; moreover, genetic testing for hereditary hemochromatosis was negative for the HFE mutations C282Y and H63D. Chelation therapy was considered for this patient, to reduce the cardiac iron deposits. However, before a course of treatment was established, the patient's clinical condition worsened, and chelation therapy was no longer feasible. He was referred for combined heart and liver transplantation. Cardiac iron deposition can be diagnosed readily using right ventricular biopsy or T2* magnetic resonance imaging. Early detection may allow time for intensive chelation therapy, which might, in turn, reverse the myopathic process. Improved cardiac function should improve cirrhosis patients' chances to be placed on the liver transplant waiting list and ultimately optimize transplantation outcomes.
Routine stress testing after percutaneous coronary interventions
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the most frequently performed cardiovascular procedure. Many physicians caring for post-PCI patients have routinely subjected patients to periodic stress testing. In the recent years, due to widespread use of drug eluting stents the combined rates of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and in-stent restenosis (ISR) dropped <10% in the initial 12 months post-PCI, with only half of these patients bearing symptoms. This has translated into reduced pre-test probability of post-PCI ischemia. Consequently, the beneficial effect of this practice came into question. Moreover, in addition to its financial implications, routine post-PCI stress testing may carry potential harm: medication or exercise induced arrhythmia, infarction and/or death, patient irradiation exposure, false-positive tests resulting in excessive invasive testing or interventions, and the illusion of "wellness" in the face of a somewhat unpredictable disease. This review addresses the role stress testing post-PCI: it is concluded that routine stress testing in clinically stable asymptomatic post-PCI patients should be discouraged. Selective utilization of stress testing in patients with exceptionally high risk of ISR or MACE can be utilized to answer important clinical questions or guide and refine clinical care.
Cocaine-induced coronary thrombosis: what is the optimal treatment strategy [Case Report]
Arterial thrombosis and especially coronary thrombosis are known complications of cocaine abuse. We report three cases of severe life-threatening coronary arterial thrombosis manifesting as acute coronary syndromes. Thrombosis occurred predominantly in the proximal coronary tree with spontaneous distal embolization. The thrombotic occlusions were frequently not superimposed on flow-limiting atherosclerotic lesions. Treatment of these patients with thrombolytic, antithrombotic and anti-platelet therapy resulted in thrombus and symptom resolution. While stenting these vessels can be successfully executed and may be required in some cases of ST-elevation myocardial infarction, it may expose these patients to the risk of stent thrombosis, which is reported to be significantly higher than the risk of the general population.