Direct puncture of the superior ophthalmic vein for carotid cavernous fistulas: a 21-year experience
BACKGROUND:Direct puncture of the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) is an alternative approach to traversing the inferior petrosal sinus for embolization of carotid cavernous fistulas (CCFs). OBJECTIVE:To analyze direct SOV puncture for the treatment of CCFs and review the literature. METHODS:All patients at a single center, treated for a CCF with direct SOV cannulation between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2020, were retrospectively analyzed. An additional review of the literature for all case series for direct puncture of the SOV for treatment of CCF was performed. RESULTS:During the 21-year study period, direct cannulation of the SOV for treatment of a CCF was attempted for 19 patients, with the procedure aborted for one patient because of an inability to navigate the wire into the distal aspect of the cavernous sinus. In 18 patients with direct SOV CCF treatment, 1 experienced a minor complication with an asymptomatic postoperative hemorrhage. Angiographic cure and improvement of symptoms were achieved in 17 patients with a mean (SD) follow-up of 6 (5.2) months. In the review of the literature, an additional 45 patients were reported to have direct cannulation of the SOV for CCF treatment, with angiographic cure in 43 (96%) and decreased objective visual acuity in 1 (2%). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Direct SOV cannulation to treat CCFs is safe and effective. Although it is typically used after other endovascular approaches have failed, SOV access for CCF treatment may be warranted as a first-line treatment for select patients.
Retained radial catheters associated with variant radial anatomy in neurointerventional procedures
BACKGROUND:Transradial artery access (TRA) for neurointerventional procedures is gaining widespread acceptance. However, complications that were previously rare may arise as TRA procedures increase. Here we report a series of retained catheter cases with a literature review. METHODS:All patients who underwent a neurointerventional procedure during a 23-month period at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed for a retained catheter in TRA cases. In cases of retained catheters, imaging was reviewed for anatomical variances in the radial artery, and clinical and demographic case details were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 1386 nondiagnostic neurointerventional procedures were performed during the study period, 631 (46%) initially via TRA. The 631 TRA cases were performed for aneurysm embolization (n=221, 35%), mechanical thrombectomy (n=116, 18%), carotid stent/angioplasty (n=40, 6%), arteriovenous malformation embolization (n=38, 6%), and other reasons (n=216, 34%). Thirty-nine (6%) TRA procedures crossed over to femoral access, most commonly because the artery of interest could not be catheterized (26/39, 67%). A retained catheter was identified in five cases (1%), and one (0.2%) patient had an entrapped catheter that was recovered. All six patients with a retained or entrapped catheter had aberrant radial anatomy. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Retained catheters for neurointerventional procedures performed via TRA are rare. However, this complication may be associated with variant radial anatomy. With the increased use of TRA for neurointerventional procedures, awareness of anatomical abnormalities that may lead to a retained catheter is necessary. We propose a simple protocol to avoid catheter entrapment, including in emergent situations such as TRA for stroke thrombectomy.
Early Experience of Surgical Planning for STA-MCA Bypass Using Virtual Reality
BACKGROUND:The superficial temporal artery (STA)-to-middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass requires precise preoperative planning, and 3-dimensional virtual reality (VR) models have recently been used to optimize planning of STA-MCA bypass. In the present report, we have described our experience with VR-based preoperative planning of STA-MCA bypass. METHODS:Patients from August 2020 to February 2022 were analyzed. For the VR group, using 3-dimensional models from the patients' preoperative computed tomography angiograms, VR was used to locate the donor vessels, potential recipient, and anastomosis sites and plan the craniotomy, which were referenced throughout surgery. Computed tomography angiograms or digital subtraction angiograms were used to plan the craniotomy for the control group. The procedure time, bypass patency, craniotomy size, and postoperative complication rates were assessed. RESULTS:The VR group included 17 patients (13 women; age, 49 ± 14 years) with Moyamoya disease (76.5%) and/or ischemic stroke (29.4%). The control group included 13 patients (8 women; age, 49 ± 12 years) with Moyamoya disease (92.3%) and/or ischemic stroke (7.3%). For all 30 patients, the preoperatively planned donor and recipient branches were effectively translated intraoperatively. No significant difference were found in the procedure time or craniotomy size between the 2 groups. Bypass patency was 94.1% for the VR group (16 of 17) and 84.6% for the control group (11 of 13). No permanent neurological deficits occurred in either group. CONCLUSIONS:Our early experience has shown that VR can serve as a useful, interactive preoperative planning tool by enhancing visualization of the spatial relationship between the STA and MCA without compromising the surgical results.
Republished: Resolution of an enlarging subdural haematoma after contralateral middle meningeal artery embolisation
A man in his 50s presented 1 month after an automobile accident with worsening headaches and an enlarging chronic left subdural haematoma (SDH). He underwent left middle meningeal artery (MMA) embolisation. Due to tortuosity at its origin, we were unable to catheterise the MMA distally. Only proximal coil occlusion at the origin was performed. Follow-up interval head CT showed an increase in the size of the SDH with new haemorrhage, worsening mass effect and midline shift. However, he remained neurologically intact. Contralateral embolisation of the right MMA was performed with a liquid embolic agent. His headaches improved, and a follow-up head CT 3 months later showed near-complete resolution of the SDH.
Poor Accuracy of Manually Derived Head Computed Tomography Parameters in Predicting Intracranial Hypertension After Nontraumatic Intracranial Hemorrhage
BACKGROUND:The utility of head computed tomography (CT) in predicting elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) is known to be limited in traumatic brain injury; however, few data exist in patients with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective review of prospectively collected data in patients with nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage (subarachnoid hemorrhage [SAH] or intraparenchymal hemorrhage [IPH]) who underwent external ventricular drain (EVD) placement. Head CT scans performed immediately prior to EVD placement were quantitatively reviewed for features suggestive of elevated ICP, including temporal horn diameter, bicaudate index, basal cistern effacement, midline shift, and global cerebral edema. The modified Fisher score (mFS), intraventricular hemorrhage score, and IPH volume were also measured, as applicable. We calculated the accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of these radiographic features for the coprimary outcomes of elevated ICP (> 20 mm Hg) at the time of EVD placement and at any time during the hospital stay. Multivariable backward stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to identify significant radiographic factors associated with elevated ICP. RESULTS:Of 608 patients with intracranial hemorrhages enrolled during the study time frame, 243 (40%) received an EVD and 165 (n = 107 SAH, n = 58 IPH) had a preplacement head CT scan available for rating. Elevated opening pressure and elevated ICP during hospitalization were recorded in 48 of 152 (29%) and 103 of 165 (62%), respectively. The presence of ≥ 1 radiographic feature had only 32% accuracy for identifying elevated opening pressure (PPV 30%, NPV 58%, area under the curve [AUC] 0.537, 95% asymptotic confidence interval [CI] 0.436-0.637, P = 0.466) and 59% accuracy for predicting elevated ICP during hospitalization (PPV 63%, NPV 40%, AUC 0.514, 95% asymptotic CI 0.391-0.638, P = 0.820). There was no significant association between the number of radiographic features and ICP elevation. Head CT scans without any features suggestive of elevated ICP occurred in 25 of 165 (15%) patients. However, 10 of 25 (40%) of these patients had elevated opening pressure, and 15 of 25 (60%) had elevated ICP during their hospital stay. In multivariable models, mFS (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.36, 95% CI 1.10-1.68) and global cerebral edema (aOR 2.93, 95% CI 1.27-6.75) were significantly associated with elevated ICP; however, their accuracies were only 69% and 60%, respectively. All other individual radiographic features had accuracies between 38 and 58% for identifying intracranial hypertension. CONCLUSIONS:More than 50% of patients with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage without radiographic features suggestive of elevated ICP actually had ICP > 20 mm Hg during EVD placement or their hospital stay. Morphological head CT findings were only 32% and 59% accurate in identifying elevated opening pressure and ICP elevation during hospitalization, respectively.
Radiographic clearance of chronic subdural hematomas after middle meningeal artery embolization
BACKGROUND:Few reports discuss variables associated with improved outcomes after middle meningeal artery (MMA) embolization for chronic subdural hematomas (cSDHs). We analyzed radiographic evidence of cSDH clearance after MMA embolization to elucidate optimal techniques, hematoma clearance rates, and suitable length of follow-up. METHODS:Patients who underwent MMA embolization for cSDH from January 1, 2018 through December 31, 2020 were analyzed. Patient characteristics, demographics, and technical procedural details were examined. Outcomes for cSDHs analyzed included complete or near-complete resolution at 30, 90, and 180 days following embolization. A multivariable logistic regression analysis identified variables predictive of rapid clearance and resolution of hematomas at 90 days. RESULTS:The study cohort comprised 66 patients with 84 treated cSDHs. The mean (SD) cSDH size differed significantly at 30-day (8.8 (4.3) mm), 90-day (3.4 (3.0) mm), and 180-day (1.0 (1.7) mm) follow-up (p<0.001). More cSDHs had complete or near-complete resolution at 180 days (92%, 67/73) than at 90 (63%, 45/72) and 30 days (18%, 15/84) post-embolization (p<0.001). Only distal embolysate penetration was independently associated with rapid clearance (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.4 to 11.1; p=0.01) and resolution of cSDHs at 90 days (OR 5.0, 95% CI 1.7 to 14.6; p=0.003). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Although 63% of cSDHs with MMA embolization had complete or near-complete resolution by 90 days post-procedure, 92% reached this stage by 180 days. Therefore, 90-day follow-up may be insufficient to determine the effectiveness of MMA embolization for cSDHs, particularly compared with surgical evacuation alone. Also, distal MMA penetration may be associated with more rapid hematoma clearance.
Endovascular treatment of ruptured anterior communicating aneurysms: a 17-year institutional experience with coil embolization
BACKGROUND:Ruptured anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysms can be challenging to treat via an endovascular procedure. This study analyzed retreatment rates and neurological outcomes associated with ruptured ACoA aneurysms treated via endovascular coiling. METHODS:All patients with a ruptured ACoA aneurysm treated with endovascular coiling from 2003 to 2019 were retrospectively analyzed at a single center. Two comparisons were performed: no retreatment versus retreatment and coil embolization versus balloon-assisted coil embolization. Outcomes included retreatment and neurological outcome assessed via modified Rankin Scale (mRS). RESULTS:During the study period, 186 patients with ruptured ACoA aneurysms underwent coil embolization. Treatment included standard coil embolization (68.3%, n=127), balloon-assisted coiling (28.5%, n=53), and stent-assisted embolization (2.7%, n=5). Angiographic outcomes were as follows: class I, 65.1% (n=121); class II, 28.5% (n=53); and class III, 6.5% (n=12). There were no aneurysm reruptures after the index procedure. The mean (SD) mRS score was 2.7 (2.0) at last follow-up (mortality, 19 (10%)). Retreatment occurred in 9.7% (n=18). Patients with retreatment were younger with lower-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage and more favorable functional status at discharge. Patients with aneurysms >7 mm (n=36) were significantly more likely to have recurrence (22.2% vs 6.7%, P=0.005). CONCLUSIONS:Endovascular treatment of ruptured ACoA aneurysms is safe and is associated with low mortality and retreatment rates. Younger patients with favorable functional status and larger aneurysm size are more likely to be retreated. Ruptured aneurysms <4 mm, although prevalent in the study (29%), never required retreatment.
Total 1-year hospital cost of middle meningeal artery embolization compared to surgery for chronic subdural hematomas: a propensity-adjusted analysis
BACKGROUND:Middle meningeal artery (MMA) embolization results in fewer treatment failures than surgical evacuation for chronic subdural hematomas (cSDHs). We compared the total 1-year hospital cost for MMA embolization versus surgical evacuation for patients with cSDH. METHODS:Data for patients who presented with cSDHs from January 1, 2018, through May 31, 2020, were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were grouped by initial treatment (surgery vs MMA embolization), and total hospital cost was obtained. A propensity-adjusted analysis was performed. The primary outcome was difference in mean hospital cost between treatments. RESULTS:Of 170 patients, 48 (28%) underwent embolization and 122 (72%) underwent surgery. cSDHs were larger in the surgical (20.5 (6.7) mm) than in the embolization group (16.9 (4.6) mm; P<0.001); and index hospital length of stay was longer in the surgical group (9.8 (7.0) days) than in the embolization group (5.7 (2.4) days; P<0.001). More patients required additional hematoma treatment in the surgical cohort (16%) than in the embolization cohort (4%; P=0.03), and more required readmission in the surgical cohort (28%) than in the embolization cohort (13%; P=0.04). After propensity adjustment, MMA embolization was associated with a lower total hospital cost compared to surgery (mean difference -$32 776; 95% CI -$52 766 to -$12 787; P<0.001). A propensity-adjusted linear regression analysis found that unexpected additional treatment was the only significant contributor to total hospital cost (mean difference $96 357; 95% CI $73 886 to $118 827; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:MMA embolization is associated with decreased total hospital cost compared with surgery for cSDHs. This lower cost is directly related to the decreased need for additional treatment interventions.
The Times They Are a-Changin': Increasing Complexity of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhages in Patients Treated from 2004 to 2018
BACKGROUND:Nationwide study results have suggested varying trends in the incidence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) over time. Herein, trends over time for aSAH treated at a quaternary care center are compared with low-volume hospitals. METHODS:Cases were retrospectively reviewed for patients with aSAH treated at our institution. Trend analyses were performed on the number of aSAH hospitalizations, treatment type, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), Hunt and Hess grade, aneurysm location, aneurysm type, and in-hospital mortality. The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) was queried to compare the CCI scores of our patients with those of patients in low-volume hospitals (<20 aSAH/year) in our census division. RESULTS: = 0.220, P = 0.24). Mean (standard deviation) CCI for small-volume hospitals treating aSAH within our division was significantly lower than that of our patient population (1.8 [1.6] vs 2.1 [2.0]) for 2012-2015. CONCLUSIONS:A decreasing number of patients were hospitalized with aSAH throughout the study. Compared with patients with aSAH admitted in 2004, those admitted more recently were sicker in terms of preexisting comorbidity and neurologic complexity. These trends could be attributable to the increasing availability of neurointerventional services at smaller-volume hospitals capable of treating healthier patients.
Transradial cerebral angiography becomes more efficient than transfemoral angiography: lessons from 500 consecutive angiograms
BACKGROUND:Transradial arterial access (TRA) for cerebral diagnostic angiography is associated with fewer access site complications than transfemoral access (TFA). However, concerns about increased procedure time and radiation exposure with TRA may slow its adoption. Our objective was to measure TRA rates of success and fluoroscopy time per vessel after 'radial-first' adoption and to compare these rates to those obtained with TFA. METHODS:We examined 500 consecutive cerebral angiograms on an intent-to-treat basis during the first full year of radial-first adoption, recording patient and procedural characteristics and outcomes. RESULTS:Over a 9-month period at a single center, 457 of 500 angiograms (91.4%) were performed with intent-to-treat via TRA, and 431 cases (86.2%) were ultimately performed via TRA. One patient (0.2%) experienced a temporary neurologic deficit in the TRA group, and none (0%) did in the TFA group (p=0.80). The meanÂ±SD fluoroscopy time per vessel decreased significantly from the first half of the study to the second half for TRA (5.0Â±3.8 vs 3.4Â±3.5â€‰min/vessel; p<0.001), while TFA time remained unchanged (3.7Â±1.8 vs 3.5Â±1.4â€‰min/vessel; p=0.69). The median fluoroscopy time per vessel for TRA became faster than that for TFA after 150 angiograms. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Of 500 consecutive angiograms performed during the first full year of radial-first implementation, 86.2% were performed successfully using TRA. TRA efficiency exceeded that of TFA after 150 angiograms. Concerns about the length of procedure or radiation exposure should not be barriers to TRA adoption.