Docetaxel, Oxaliplatin, and 5-Fluorouracil (DOF) in Metastatic and Unresectable Gastric/Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma: A Phase II Study with Long-Term Follow-Up
Rosenberg, Ari Joseph; Rademaker, Alfred; Hochster, Howard S; Ryan, Theresa; Hensing, Thomas; Shankaran, Veena; Baddi, Lisa; Mahalingam, Devalingam; Mulcahy, Mary F; Benson, Al B
LESSONS LEARNED/CONCLUSIONS:) regimen that can be considered in select patients with advanced gastric cancer and is a potential choice in the curative setting. BACKGROUND:The combination of docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) demonstrates high response rates in advanced gastric cancer, albeit with increased toxicity. Given the efficacy of platinum-taxane-fluoropyrimidine regimens, this phase II study evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of docetaxel, oxaliplatin, and 5-FU (DOF) for the treatment of metastatic or unresectable gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma. METHODS:continuous intravenous infusion over 46 hours; cycles were repeated every 2 weeks. The primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR). RESULTS:Forty-four patients were enrolled. Assessment of treatment response and toxicity was feasible in 41 and 43 patients, respectively. ORR was 73.2% (68.3% partial response; 4.9% complete response). Therapy was discontinued for progressive disease in 53%, toxicity in 26%, and death on treatment in 16%. Two patients underwent surgical resection. Thirty-three patients (76.7%) received at least seven cycles (7-34). Grade 3-4 toxicities occurred in 31 patients (72.1%), including neutropenia (23.3%), neurologic (20.9%), and diarrhea (14.0%). Median overall survival was 10.3 months. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:DOF demonstrates a high response rate, expected safety profile, and prolonged survival and remains an option for select patients with unresectable or metastatic gastric or GEJ adenocarcinoma.
Can we downstage locally advanced pancreatic cancer to resectable? A phase I/II study of induction oxaliplatin and 5-FU chemoradiation
Amodeo, Salvatore; Masi, Antonio; Melis, Marcovalerio; Ryan, Theresa; Hochster, Howard S; Cohen, Deirdre J; Chandra, Anurag; Pachter, H Leon; Newman, Elliot
Background/UNASSIGNED:Half of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PC) present with regionally advanced disease. This includes borderline resectable and locally advanced unresectable tumors as defined by current NCCN guidelines for resectability. Chemoradiation (CH-RT) is used in this setting in attempt to control local disease, and possibly downstage to resectable disease. We report a phase I/II trial of a combination of 5FU/Oxaliplatin with concurrent radiation in patients presenting with borderline resectable and locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer. Methods/UNASSIGNED:. Concurrent radiation therapy consisted of 4,500 cGy in 25 fractions (180 cGy/fx/d) followed by a comedown to the tumor and margins for an additional 540 cGy Ã—3 (total dose 5,040 cGy in 28 fractions). Following completion of CH-RT, patients deemed resectable underwent surgery; those who remained unresectable for cure but did not progress (SD, stable disease) received mFOLFOX6 Ã—6 cycles. Survival was calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. End-points of the phase II portion were resectability and overall survival. Results/UNASSIGNED:) was well tolerated and it was used as the recommended phase II dose. An additional 7 patients were treated in the phase II portion, 5 of whom completed CH-RT; the remaining 2 patients did not complete treatment because of grade 3 toxicities. Overall, 4/24 did not complete CH-RT. Grade 4 toxicities related to initial CH-RT were observed during phase I (n=2, pulmonary embolism and lymphopenia) and phase II (n=3, fatigue, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia). Following restaging after completion of CH-RT, 4 patients had progressed (PD); 9 patients had SD and received additional chemotherapy with mFOLFOX6 (one of them had a dramatic response after two cycles and underwent curative resection); the remaining 7 patients (29.2%) were noted to have a response and were explored: 2 had PD, 4 had SD, still unresectable, and 1 patient was resected for cure with negative margins. Overall 2 patients (8.3%) in the study received curative resection following neoadjuvant therapy. Median overall survival for the entire study population was 11.4 months. Overall survival for the two resected patients was 41.7 and 21.6 months. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:Combined modality treatment for borderline resectable and locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer with oxaliplatin, 5FU and radiation was reasonably well tolerated. The majority of patients remained unresectable. Survival data with this regimen were comparable to others for locally advanced pancreas cancer, suggesting the need for more novel approaches.
Multicenter, randomized, double-blind phase 2 trial of FOLFIRI with regorafenib or placebo as second-line therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer
Sanoff, Hanna K; Goldberg, Richard M; Ivanova, Anastasia; O'Reilly, Seamus; Kasbari, Samer S; Kim, Richard D; McDermott, Ray; Moore, Dominic T; Zamboni, William; Grogan, William; Cohn, Allen Lee; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios S; Leonard, Gregory; Ryan, Theresa; Olowokure, Olugbenga O; Fernando, Nishan H; McCaffrey, John; El-Rayes, Bassel F; Horgan, Anne M; Sherrill, Gary Bradley; Yacoub, George Hosni; O'Neil, Bert H
BACKGROUND:Regorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor that inhibits angiogenesis, growth, and proliferation, prolongs survival as monotherapy in patients with refractory colorectal cancer. This international, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial assessed the efficacy of regorafenib with folinic acid, fluorouracil, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) as a second-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer. METHODS:Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who progressed on first-line oxaliplatin and fluoropyrimidine enrolled at 45 sites in the United States and Ireland. Patients, stratified by prior bevacizumab use, were randomized 2:1 to regorafenib or placebo. The treatment consisted of FOLFIRI on days 1 and 2 and days 15 and 16 with 160â€‰mg of regorafenib or placebo on days 4 to 10 and days 18 to 24 of every 28-day cycle. Crossover was not allowed. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Under the assumption of a 75% event rate, 180 patients were required for 135 events to achieve 90% power to detect a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.65 with a 1-sided Î± value of .1. RESULTS:One hundred eighty-one patients were randomized (120 to regorafenib-FOLFIRI and 61 to placebo-FOLFIRI) with a median age of 62 years. Among these, 117 (65%) received prior bevacizumab or aflibercept. PFS was longer with regorafenib-FOLFIRI than placebo-FOLFIRI (median, 6.1 vs 5.3 months; HR, 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53-1.01; log-rank Pâ€‰=â€‰.056). The median overall survival was not longer (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.71-1.44). The response rate was higher with regorafenib-FOLFIRI (34%; 95% CI, 25%-44%) than placebo-FOLFIRI (21%; 95% CI, 11%-33%; Pâ€‰=â€‰.07). Grade 3/4 adverse events with a >5% absolute increase from regorafenib included diarrhea, neutropenia, febrile neutropenia, hypophosphatemia, and hypertension. CONCLUSIONS:The addition of regorafenib to FOLFIRI as second-line therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer only modestly prolonged PFS over FOLFIRI alone. Cancer 2018. Â© 2018 American Cancer Society.
A multi-center, randomized, double-blind phase II trial of FOLFIRI plus regorafenib or placebo for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who failed one prior line of oxaliplatin-containing therapy [Meeting Abstract]
O'Neil, B; O'Reilly, S; Kasbari, S; Kim, R; McDermott, R; Moore, D; Grogan, W; Cohn, A; Bekaii-Saab, T; Ivanova, A; Olowokure, O; Fernando, N; McCaffrey, J; El-Rayes, B; Horgan, A; Ryan, T; Sherrill, G; Yacoub, G; Goldberg, RM; Sanoff, H
Methylation profiling of locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC): Exploration of potential predictive markers for neoadjuvant chemoradiation (NACR). [Meeting Abstract]
Guo, Songchuan; Melamed, Jonathan; Eze, Ogechukwu; Bowman, Christopher; Ahmed, Sunjida; Moore, Harvey G; Loomis, Cynthia; Heguy, Adriana; Brody, Rachel; Morrison, Debra J; Serrano, Jonathan; Du, Kevin Lee; Wu, Jennifer J; Ryan, Theresa; Cohen, Deirdre Jill; Gu, Ping; Goldberg, Judith D; Snuderl, Matija; Leichman, Lawrence P; Leichman, Cynthia G
Randomized phase 2 study of pegylated SN-38 (EZN-2208) or irinotecan plus cetuximab in patients with advanced colorectal cancer
Garrett, Christopher R; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios S; Ryan, Theresa; Fisher, George A; Clive, Sally; Kavan, Petr; Shacham-Shmueli, Einat; Buchbinder, Aby; Goldberg, Richard M
BACKGROUND: Irinotecan is cytotoxic in patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC). SN-38 (10-hydroxy-7-ethyl-camptothecin) is the active metabolite of irinotecan. Attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymer chains (pegylation) to SN-38 (EZN-2208) increases the solubility, exposure, and half-life of SN-38. Preclinical studies demonstrated superior in vitro efficacy of EZN-2208 when it was tested in irinotecan-refractory human CRC cell lines. METHODS: Patients with metastatic or locally recurrent CRC who had previously received 5-flurouracil (5-FU), oxaliplatin, and irinotecan were assigned to receive EZN-2208 monotherapy (9 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days for patients with KRAS-mutant tumors only [arm A]), and patients with KRAS wild-type tumors were randomized (2:1) to receive either EZN-2208 plus cetuximab (400 mg/m(2) loading dose on day 1 followed by 250 mg/m(2) weekly starting on day 8 [arm B]) or irinotecan 125 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8 every 21 days plus cetuximab at the same doses indicated above (arm C). RESULTS: The overall response rate and progression-free survival were 0% and 1.8 months, respectively, in arm A; 10.7% and 4.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.2-5.8 months), respectively, in arm B; and 14.3% and 3.7 months (95% CI, 2.1-5.8 months), respectively, in arm C. EZN-2208 was well tolerated in combination with cetuximab. No statistically significant difference in survival was observed between arm B (9.8 months; 95% CI, 7.2-11.2 months) and arm C (9.1 months; 95% CI, 6.0-13.0 months). CONCLUSIONS: EZN-2208, either as monotherapy or in combination with cetuximab, was well tolerated in patients with refractory CRC. Overall survival and progression-free survival were similar in the cetuximab plus irinotecan arm and the EZN-2208 arm. Cancer 2013;119:4223-4230. (c) 2013 American Cancer Society.
Cisplatin with Capecitabine: Tolerance and Activity in a Phase I/II Study Preferentially Enrolling Patients with Gastric Cancer
Wu, Jennifer; Ryan, Theresa; Levinson, Benjamin; Newman, Elliot; Hochster, Howard S; Muggia, Franco
BACKGROUND: Capecitabine is an oral prodrug of flurouracil with broad activity against various malignancies. We explored its tolerance and preliminary efficacy when given together with cisplatin in a phase I/II study preferentially enrolling gastric cancer patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was a 3+3 dose escalation design and at the recommended phase II dose it included an expanded cohort of patients with upper gastrointestinal cancer. The dose of cisplatin was escalated from 40 to 50 mg/m(2) on day 1, and capecitabine of 2,500 mg/m(2)/day starting on day 2, was escalated from 5 days to 10 and then to 14 days, with the cycle repeated every 21 days. Prolonged maintenance with capecitabine was offered to selected patients completing three to six cycles. RESULTS: A total of 34 patients were enrolled, and 27 patients were also evaluable for response. Dose limiting toxicities were palmar plantar erythrodyesthesia (PPE) and diarrhea; grade 3 and 4 neutropenia occurred in 8.8% and grade 3 PPE in 5.9%, while the most common grade 1-2 toxicities were anemia, neutropenia, fatigue and PPE (11.7% each). There were no treatment related deaths. With cisplatin at 40-50 mg/m(2) day 1 and capecitabine at 2,500 mg/m(2)/day for 5 -14 days every 21 days, 18 patients with gastric cancer were treated and 7 had partial responses. CONCLUSION: A regimen of capecitabine and cisplatin at the doses and schedules explored was safe and active in patients with gastric cancer. Moreover, a 6-month administration of adjuvant capecitabine proved feasible, yielding favorable results after treatment completion and surgery, and should be investigated further.
Postoperative Intraperitoneal 5-Fluoro-2'-Deoxyuridine Added to Chemoradiation in Patients Curatively Resected (R0) for Locally Advanced Gastric and Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma
Cohen DJ; Newman E; Iqbal S; Chang RY; Potmesil M; Ryan T; Donahue B; Chandra A; Liu M; Utate M; Hiotis S; Pachter LH; Hochster H; Muggia F
PURPOSE: Chemoradiation after surgery for locally advanced gastric cancer improves overall and relapse-free survival compared with observation. However, locoregional recurrences remain high. Accordingly, we instituted this pilot/feasibility study, including intraperitoneal 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (IP FUDR) as part of the treatment. METHODS: Gastric/gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma stage Ib-IV (M0) patients who underwent R(0) resection were eligible and had IP catheters inserted at time of surgery. IP FUDR (3 g/dose/day) was given during study days 1-3 and 15-17 before combined 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and external beam radiation (45 Gy). Endpoints included toxicity, completion rate, locoregional recurrence, and survival. RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients (22 men) were enrolled from 2002-2006 at two institutions; their median age was 59.5 years. After R(0) resection, a median 22 (range, 8-102) lymph nodes were examined, and 22 patients had positive nodes. AJCC stages were IB (n = 8), II (n = 10), IIIA (n = 5), IIIB (n = 1), and IV (n = 4). Full-dose IP FUDR and chemoradiation treatment was completed in 20 and 25 patients, respectively. At nearly 4-year median follow-up, 11 patients were disease-free, 5 were alive with disease, 7 were dead of disease, and 1 was dead from other cause; 4 have been lost to follow-up. Recurrences were local in one, intra-abdominal in six, distant in two, multiple sites in two, and unknown in one. The median relapse-free survival is 65.3 months, and the median overall survival has not yet been reached. CONCLUSIONS: IP FUDR before chemoradiation after R(0) gastric cancer resection is well tolerated without compromising completion of postoperative adjuvant treatment. Larger randomized trials studying IP FUDR as part of gastric cancer multidisciplinary treatment are needed to prove efficacy in reducing regional recurrence and improving survival
Phase II study of sorafenib with gemcitabine and erlotinib (GES) in first-line advanced pancreatic cancer. [Meeting Abstract]
Cohen, D. J.; Leichman, L. P.; Love, E.; Ryan, T.; Leichman, C. G.; Newman, E.; Levinson, B.; Hochster, H. S.
Phase II study of darinaparsin in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma
Wu, Jennifer; Henderson, Charles; Feun, Lynn; Van Veldhuizen, Peter; Gold, Philip; Zheng, Hui; Ryan, Theresa; Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S; Chen, Haobin; Costa, Max; Rosenzweig, Barry; Nierodzik, MaryLynn; Hochster, Howard; Muggia, Franco; Abbadessa, Giovanni; Lewis, Jonathan; Zhu, Andrew X
BACKGROUND: Darinaparsin is a novel organic arsenic that reaches higher intracellular concentration with decreased toxicity compared to inorganic arsenic. We conducted a multi-center phase II study with darinaparsin in patients with advanced HCC. METHODS: Eligibility criteria included unresectable or metastatic measurable HCC, up to two prior systemic treatments, ECOG performance status < or = 2, Child Pugh Class A or B and adequate organ functions. Darinaparsin was administered at 420 mg/m(2) intravenously, twice weekly at least 72 h apart for 3 weeks in a 4-week cycle. The primary end point was response rate. A Simon two-stage design was used. RESULTS: Among 15 patients in the first stage, no objective responses were observed. Two patients had stable disease. The median number of cycles on study per patient was 2 (1-6). The median progression free survival and overall survival were 55 days (95% confidence interval: 50-59) and 190 days (95% confidence interval: 93-227), respectively. No treatment related hospitalizations or deaths occurred. Treatment related grade 1-2 toxicities included nausea, vomiting (26.7% each), fatigue (20%), anorexia and diarrhea (13.3% each). Grade 3 anorexia, wheezing, agitation, abdominal pain and SGPT were observed in 1 patient each (6.7%). One patient experienced grade 4 hypoglycemia (6.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Darinaparsin could be safely administered with tolerable toxicity profiles, and no QTc prolongation in patients with advanced HCC. However, at this dose and schedule, it has shown no objective responses in HCC and this trial was terminated as planned after the first stage of efficacy analysis