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Perforator Variability of the Anterolateral Thigh Flap Identified on Computed Tomographic Angiography: Anatomic and Clinical Implications

Cohen, Oriana D; Abdou, Salma A; Nolan, Ian T; Saadeh, Pierre B
BACKGROUND: The anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap is a useful flap with minimal donor site morbidity. Preoperative computed tomographic angiography (CTA) for lower extremity reconstruction can determine vessel integrity and plan for recipient vascular targets. This study reviews lower extremity CTAs to further characterize ALT vascular anatomy and associated clinical implications thereof. PATIENTS AND METHODS/METHODS: Lower extremity CTA studies were retrospectively reviewed, and information on ALT cutaneous perforator location, origin, and course was collected. RESULTS:. The majority of patients were females (23, 74.2%). The LCFA most commonly originated from the profunda femoris artery (87.3%), followed by the distal common femoral artery (9.1%). On average, there were 1.66 ± 0.69 cm perforators per extremity, with an average of 5.38 cm between adjacent perforators. Perforators originated from the descending branch of the LCFA in 89.6% of studies. Perforator caliber was <1 mm (29, 30.2%), 1 to 2 mm (55, 57.3%), or >2 mm (12, 12.5%). Mean distance from the most proximal perforator to the anterior superior iliac spine was 20.4 ± 4.82 cm. Perforators were musculocutaneous (46.9%), septocutaneous (34.4%), or septomyocutaneous (18.8%). In 58.1% of patients, only one thigh had easily dissectable septocutaneous and/or septomyocutaneous perforators, in which case preoperative CTA aided in donor thigh selection. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS: ALT flap cutaneous perforator anatomy varies considerably. Using CTA, we report on rates of septocutaneous, myocutaneous, and septomyocutaneous perforators and underscore its utility in perforator selection.
PMID: 32643763
ISSN: 1098-8947
CID: 4580972

Feasibility and Perception of Cross-sex Face Transplantation to Expand the Donor Pool

Sosin, Michael; Robinson, Isabel S; Diep, Gustave K; Alfonso, Allyson R; Maliha, Samantha G; Ceradini, Daniel J; Levine, Jamie P; Staffenberg, David A; Saadeh, Pierre B; Rodriguez, Eduardo D
Background/UNASSIGNED:A major challenge in face transplantation (FT) is the limited donor allograft pool. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of cross-sex FT (CSFT) for donor pool expansion by: (1) comparing craniomaxillofacial metrics following CSFT versus same-sex FT (SSFT); and (2) evaluating the public and medical professionals' perception of CSFT. Methods/UNASSIGNED:Seven cadaveric FTs were performed, resulting in both CSFT and SSFT. Precision of bony and soft tissue inset was evaluated by comparing pre- versus post-operative cephalometric and anthropometric measurements. Fidelity of the FT compared to the virtual plan was assessed by imaging overlay techniques. Surveys were administered to medical professionals, medical students, and general population to evaluate opinions regarding CSFT. Results/UNASSIGNED:< 0.001). On non-blinded and blinded assessments, 62.9% and 79% of responses rated the CSFT superior or equal to SSFT, respectively. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:Our study demonstrates similar anthropometric and cephalometric outcomes for CSFT and SSFT. Participants were more reticent to undergo CSFT, with increased willingness if supported by research. CSFT may represent a viable option for expansion of the donor pool in future patients prepared to undergo transplantation.
PMID: 33133951
ISSN: 2169-7574
CID: 4655852

Larger free flap size is associated with increased complications in lower extremity trauma reconstruction

Lee, Z-Hye; Abdou, Salma A; Ramly, Elie P; Daar, David A; Stranix, John T; Anzai, Lavinia; Saadeh, Pierre B; Levine, Jamie P; Thanik, Vishal D
BACKGROUND:Free flap reconstruction after lower extremity trauma remains challenging with various factors affecting overall success. Increasing defect and flap size have been demonstrated to be a surrogate for overall injury severity and correlated with complications. In addition, larger free flaps that encompass more tissue theoretically possess high metabolic demand, and may be more susceptible to ischemic insult. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to determine how flap size affects microsurgical outcomes in the setting of lower extremity trauma reconstruction. METHODS:. Partial flap failure, total flap failure, takebacks, and overall major complications (defined as events involving flap compromise) were compared between these two groups. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine whether flap size independently predicts complications and flap failures, controlling for injury-related and operative factors. RESULTS:, use of muscle flaps was associated with significantly increased flap failure rates (p = .008) while for smaller flap size, there was no significant difference in complications between muscle and fasciocutaneous flaps. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:was associated with significantly increased flap failure and complications particularly among muscle-based flaps. Therefore, we suggest that fasciocutaneous flaps be utilized for injuries requiring large surface area of soft tissue reconstruction.
PMID: 31912944
ISSN: 1098-2752
CID: 4257362

The Left-handed Plastic Surgery Trainee: Perspectives and Recommendations

Savetsky, Ira L; Cammarata, Michael J; Kantar, Rami S; Diaz-Siso, J Rodrigo; Avashia, Yash J; Rohrich, Rod J; Saadeh, Pierre B
Left-handed surgeons experience difficulty with tools designed for use in the right hand. The purpose of this study was to examine instrument laterality and to survey the experiences of left-handed plastic surgery trainees.
PMID: 33133882
ISSN: 2169-7574
CID: 4671152

Revisiting the Reverse Sural Artery Flap in Distal Lower Extremity Reconstruction: A Systematic Review and Risk Analysis

Daar, David A; Abdou, Salma A; David, Joshua A; Kirby, David J; Wilson, Stelios C; Saadeh, Pierre B
BACKGROUND:The reverse sural artery flap (RSAF) is a popular option for patients with distal lower extremity defects who are not ideal candidates for free flap reconstruction. This is the first systematic review and pooled analysis of surgical characteristics, risk factors, and outcomes of the RSAF. METHODS:A systematic literature review was conducted. All studies reporting on patients undergoing RSAF reconstruction and their outcomes were included. Outcomes were pooled and analyzed using Fisher exact or χ test. RESULTS:Forty-three studies (479 patients, 481 flaps) were analyzed. The majority of patients were male (70.3%), and average ± SD age was 46.9 ± 16.7 years. Rates of smoking, diabetes mellitus (DM), and peripheral vascular disease (PVD) were 34.6%, 35.4%, and 12.3%, respectively. Defect etiologies were largely traumatic (60.4%). The most common defect location was the heel (40.8%). Flap modifications were reported in 123 flaps (25.6%). The most common modification was adipofascial extension (20.3%).Overall, the partial and total flap loss rates were 15.4% and 3.1%, respectively. Partial flap loss was significantly increased in smokers (28.9% vs 12.2% in nonsmokers, P = 0.0195). Technical modifications decreased the odds of partial necrosis by almost 3-fold compared with traditional RSAF reconstruction (7.2% vs 17.9%; odds ratio, 2.8 [1.4-5.8]; P = 0.0035). Patient age, DM, and PVD were not significantly associated with flap loss. CONCLUSIONS:The RSAF remains a safe salvage option for patients with DM or PVD but should be used with caution in smokers. Technical modifications to minimize pedicle compression significantly reduce rates of partial necrosis.
PMID: 31688112
ISSN: 1536-3708
CID: 4179322

Free Tissue Transfer with Distraction Osteogenesis and Masquelet Technique Is Effective for Limb Salvage in Patients with Gustilo Type IIIB Open Fractures

Abdou, Salma A; Stranix, John T; Daar, David A; Mehta, Devan D; McLaurin, Toni; Tejwani, Nirmal; Saadeh, Pierre B; Levine, Jamie P; Leucht, Philipp; Thanik, Vishal D
Osteocutaneous reconstruction can be challenging because of concomitant injuries and limited donor sites. There is a paucity of data on limb salvage outcomes following combined soft-tissue reconstruction and bone transport or Masquelet procedures. The authors reviewed a consecutive series of open tibia fracture patients undergoing soft-tissue reconstruction with either distraction osteogenesis or Masquelet technique. Endpoints were perioperative flap complications and bone union. Fourteen patients with Gustilo type IIIB open tibia fractures were included. Half of the group received muscle flaps and the remaining half received fasciocutaneous flaps. Ten patients (71.4 percent) underwent distraction osteogenesis and the remaining patients underwent Masquelet technique. Average bone gap length was 65.7 ± 31.3 mm (range, 20 to 120 mm). In the bone transport group, the average external fixation duration was 245 days (range, 47 to 686 days). In the Masquelet group, the average duration of the first stage of this two-stage procedure (i.e., time from cement spacer placement to bone grafting) was 95 days (range, 42 to 181 days). Bone union rate, as determined by radiographic evidence, was 85.7 percent. There was one complete flap failure (7.1 percent). One patient underwent below-knee amputation after failing bone transport and developing chronic osteomyelitis and subsequent infected nonunion. Our case series demonstrates that nonosteocutaneous flap methods of limb reconstruction are a viable option in patients with segmental long bone defects, with a bone union rate of 85 percent and a limb salvage rate over 90 percent in patients with Gustilo type IIIB fractures. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:: Therapeutic, IV.
PMID: 32221236
ISSN: 1529-4242
CID: 4369902

Simultaneous Ventral Hernia Repair and Panniculectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Outcomes

Sosin, Michael; Termanini, Kareem M; Black, Cara K; Thanik, Vishal; Saadeh, Pierre B; Levine, Jamie P
BACKGROUND:Simultaneous ventral hernia repair and panniculectomy (SVHRP) is a procedure that is more commonly being offered to patients with excess skin and subcutaneous tissue in need of a ventral hernia repair; however, there are concerns about surgical-site complications and uncertainty regarding the durability of repair. SVHRP outcomes vary within the literature. This study assessed the durability, complication profile, and safety of SVHRP through a large data-driven repository of SVHRP cases.360 METHODS:: The current SVHRP literature was queried using the MEDLINE, PubMed, and Cochrane databases. Predefined selection criteria resulted in 76 relevant titles yielding 16 articles for analysis. Meta-analysis was used to analyze primary outcomes, identified as surgical-site occurrence and hernia recurrence. Secondary outcomes included review of techniques used and systemic complications, which were analyzed with pooled weighted mean analysis from the collected data. RESULTS:There were 917 patients who underwent an SVHRP (mean age, 52.2 ± 7.0 years; mean body mass index, 36.1 ± 5.8 kg/m; mean pannus weight, 3.2 kg). The mean surgical-site occurrence rate was 27.9 percent (95 percent CI, 15.6 to 40.2 percent; I = 70.9 percent) and the mean hernia recurrence rate was 4.9 percent (95 percent CI, 2.4 to 7.3 percent; I = 70.1 percent). Mean follow-up was 17.8 ± 7.7 months. The most common complications were superficial surgical-site infection (15.8 percent) and seroma formation (11.2 percent). Systemic complications were less common (7.8 percent), with a thromboembolic event rate of 1.2 percent. The overall mortality rate was 0.4 percent. CONCLUSIONS:SVHRP is associated with a high rate of surgical-site occurrence, but surgical-site infection seems to be less prominent than previously anticipated. The low hernia recurrence rate and the safety of this procedure support its current implementation in abdominal wall reconstruction.
PMID: 32221233
ISSN: 1529-4242
CID: 4371182

Free-Flap Reconstruction for Diabetic Lower Extremity Limb Salvage

Lee, Z-Hye; Daar, David A; Stranix, John T; Anzai, Lavinia; Levine, Jamie P; Saadeh, Pierre B; Thanik, Vishal D
BACKGROUND:Microsurgical free tissue transfer is an important treatment option for nonhealing lower extremity diabetic wounds. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that affect flap survival and wound complications. METHODS:A retrospective review was conducted of 806 lower extremity free-flap reconstructions performed from 1979 to 2016. A total of 33 free flaps were used for coverage of nonhealing lower-extremity diabetic ulcers. Primary outcome measures were perioperative complications and long-term wound breakdown. RESULTS:The average age was 54 ± 12.3 y. 15.2% of patients were smokers, 12.1% had coronary artery disease and 12.1% had end-stage renal disease. Muscle flaps predominated (75.8%) compared to fasciocutaneous flaps (24.2%). There were 7 patients (21.2%) that underwent a revascularization procedure before (71.4%) or at the same time (28.6%) as the free flap. Immediate complications occurred in 7 flaps (21.2%) with 4 partial losses (12.1%) and 3 total flap failures (9.1%). Major wound complications occurred in 18.2% of patients. An end-to-side (E-S) anastomosis for the artery was used in 63.6% (n = 22) of flaps compared with an end-to-end (E-E) anastomosis. E-S anastomosis was associated with a significantly lower risk of wound complications compared with an arterial E-E anastomosis (0% versus 45.5%, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:The use of microvascular free flaps can be used successfully to cover lower-extremity diabetic wounds. E-E arterial anastomosis should be avoided if possible as it is associated with higher rates of wound breakdown, likely by impairing perfusion to a distal limb with an already compromised vasculature. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Level III.
PMID: 31923832
ISSN: 1095-8673
CID: 4257782

Risk factors for microvascular free flaps in pediatric lower extremity trauma

Lee, Z-Hye; Daar, David A; Stranix, John T; Anzai, Lavinia; Thanik, Vishal D; Saadeh, Pierre B; Levine, Jamie P
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:There is a dearth of literature dedicated to specifically evaluating the use of free flap reconstruction in pediatric lower extremity traumas. This study aims to identify specific risk factors for flap failure in pediatric lower extremity trauma reconstruction. METHODS:Retrospective review of 53 free flaps in our lower extremity database (1979-2017) identified all free flaps performed for traumatic reconstruction in children <18 years of age at our institution. RESULTS:analysis (P = 0.041). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Free flap reconstruction in the pediatric trauma population is safe with similar survival outcomes when compared to the adult population. Arterial injury and vessel size mismatch were associated with significantly higher flap failure rates in this population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Level III.
PMID: 30675735
ISSN: 1098-2752
CID: 3610602

Knowledge and Skills Acquisition by Plastic Surgery Residents Through Digital Simulation Training: A Prospective Randomized Blinded Trial

Kantar, Rami S; Alfonso, Allyson R; Ramly, Elie P; Cohen, Oriana; Rifkin, William J; Maliha, Samantha G; Diaz-Siso, J Rodrigo; Eisemann, Bradley S; Saadeh, Pierre B; Flores, Roberto L
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Simulation is a standard component of residency training in many surgical subspecialties, yet its impact on knowledge and skills acquisition in plastic surgery training remains poorly defined. We evaluated the potential benefits of simulation-based cleft surgery learning in plastic surgery resident education through a prospective, randomized, blinded trial. METHODS:Thirteen plastic surgery residents were randomized to a digital simulator or textbook demonstrating unilateral cleft lip (UCL) repair. The following parameters were evaluated before (pre-intervention) and after (post-intervention) randomization: knowledge of surgical steps, procedural confidence, markings performance on a three-dimensional (3D) stone model, and surgical performance using a hands-on/high-fidelity 3D haptic model. Participant satisfaction with either educational tool was also assessed. Two expert reviewers blindly graded markings and surgical performance. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated. Wilcoxon signed-rank and Mann-Whitney U tests were used. RESULTS:Interrater reliability was strong for pre-intervention and post-intervention grading of markings (ICC=0.97; p<0.001 and ICC=0.96; p<0.001) and surgical (ICC=0.83; p=0.002 and ICC=0.81; p=0.004) performance. Post-intervention surgical knowledge (40.3±4.4 vs. 33.5±3.7; p=0.03), procedural confidence (24.0±7.0 vs. 14.7±2.3; p=0.03), markings performance (8.0±2.5 vs. 2.9±3.1; p=0.03), and surgical performance (12.3±2.5 vs. 8.2±2.3; p=0.04) significantly improved in the digital simulation group compared to pre-intervention, but not in the textbook group. All participants were more satisfied with the digital simulator as an educational tool (27.7±2.5 vs. 14.4±4.4; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:We present evidence suggesting that digital cognitive simulators lead to significant improvement in surgical knowledge, procedural confidence, markings performance, as well as surgical performance.
PMID: 31609286
ISSN: 1529-4242
CID: 4140222