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Natural history of renal artery aneurysms

Zhang, Jason; Harish, Keerthi; Speranza, Giancarlo; Hartwell, Charlotte A; Garg, Karan; Jacobowitz, Glenn R; Sadek, Mikel; Maldonado, Thomas; Kim, Danny; Rockman, Caron B
OBJECTIVE:The existing renal artery aneurysm (RAA) literature is largely composed of reports of patients who underwent intervention. The objective of this study was to review the natural history of RAA. METHODS:This single-institution retrospective analysis studied all patients with RAA diagnosed by computed tomography imaging between 2015 and 2019, identified by our institutional radiology database. Imaging, demographic, and clinical data were obtained via the electronic medical record. He growth rate was calculated for all patients with radiological follow-up. RESULTS:The cohort consists of 331 patients with 338 RAAs. Most patients were female (61.3%), with 11 (3.3%) of childbearing age. The mean age at diagnosis was 71.5 years (range, 24-99 years). Medical comorbidities included hypertension (73.7%), prior smoking (34.4%), and connective tissue disease (3.9%). Imaging indications included abdominal pain (33.5%), unrelated follow-up (29.6%), and follow-up of an RAA initially diagnosed before the study period (10.7%). Right RAA (61.9%) was more common than left (35.1%); 3% of patients had bilateral RAA. The mean diameter at diagnosis was 12.9 ± 5.9 mm. Size distribution included lesions measuring less than <15 mm (69.9%), 15 to 25 mm (27.1%), and more than 25 mm (3.0%). Anatomic locations included the distal RA (26.7%), renal hilum (42.4%), and mid-RA (13.1%). The majority were true aneurysms (98%); of these, 72.3% were fusiform and 27.7% were saccular. Additional characteristics included calcification (82.2%), thrombus (15.9%), and dissection (0.9%). Associated findings included aortic atherosclerosis (65.6%), additional visceral aneurysms (7.3%), and abdominal aortic aneurysm (5.7%). The mean clinical follow-up among 281 patients was 41.0 ± 24.0 months. The mean radiological follow-up among 137 patients was 26.0 ± 21.4 months. Of these, 43 patients (31.4%) experienced growth, with mean growth rate of 0.23 ± 4.7 mm/year; the remainder remained stable in size. Eight patients eventually underwent intervention (5 endovascular), with the most common indications including size criteria (4/8) and symptom development (3/8). No patient developed rupture. On multivariate analysis, obesity (P = .04) was significantly associated with growth. An initial diameter of more than 25 mm was significantly associated with subsequent intervention (P = .006), but was not significantly associated with growth. Four of five RAAs with an initial diameter 30 mm or greater did not undergo intervention. The mean clinical follow-up for these patients was 24 months; none developed rupture and two remained stable in size. CONCLUSIONS:This large institutional cohort found that the majority of RAAs remained stable in size, with few patients meeting indications for repair based on societal guidelines. Current guidelines recommending intervention for asymptomatic aneurysms more than 30 mm seem to be appropriate given their slow progression.
PMID: 36375725
ISSN: 1097-6809
CID: 5384752

The Natural History of Carotid Artery Occlusions Diagnosed on Duplex Ultrasound

Speranza, Giancarlo; Harish, Keerthi; Rockman, Caron; Gordon, Ryan; Sadek, Mikel; Jacobowitz, Glenn; Chang, Heepeel; Garg, Karan; Maldonado, Thomas S
BACKGROUND:There is a paucity of literature on the natural history of extracranial carotid artery occlusion (CAO). This study reviews the natural history of this patient cohort. METHODS:This single-institution retrospective analysis studied patients with CAO diagnosed by duplex ultrasound between 2010 and 2021. Patients were identified by searching our office-based Intersocietal Accreditation Commission accredited vascular laboratory database. Imaging and clinical data were obtained via our institutional electronic medical record. Outcomes of interest included ipsilateral stroke, attributable neurologic symptoms, and ipsilateral intervention after diagnosis. RESULTS:The full duplex database consisted of 5,523 patients who underwent carotid artery duplex examination during the study period. The CAO cohort consisted of 139 patients; incidence of CAO was 2.5%. Mean age at diagnosis was 69.7 years; 31.4% were female. Hypertension (72.7%), hyperlipidemia (64.7%), and prior smoking (43.9%) were the most common comorbid conditions. Of the CAO cohort, 61.3% (n = 85) of patients were asymptomatic at diagnosis; 38.8% (n = 54) were diagnosed after a stroke or transient ischemic attack occurring within 6 months prior to diagnosis, with 21.6% occurring ipsilateral to the CAO and 10.1% occurring contralateral to the CAO. 7.2% (n = 10) had unclear symptoms or laterality at presentation. Of the CAO cohort, 95 patients (68.3%) had duplex imaging follow-up (mean 42.7 ± 31.3 months). Of those with follow-up studies, 7 patients (5.0%) developed subsequent stroke ipsilateral to the CAO with mean occurrence 27.8 ± 39.0 months postdiagnosis. In addition, 5 patients (3.6%) developed other related symptoms, including global hypoperfusion (2.4%) and transient ischemic attack (1.2%). Of those, 95 patients with follow-up duplex ultrasound imaging, 6 (4.3%) underwent eventual ipsilateral intervention, including carotid endarterectomy (n = 4), transfemoral carotid artery stent (n = 1), and carotid bypass (n = 1), with mean occurrence 17.7 ± 23.7 months postdiagnosis. The aggregate rate of ipsilateral cerebrovascular accident, attributable neurologic symptoms, or ipsilateral intervention was 11.5%. Of 95 patients with follow-up duplex ultrasound imaging, 5 underwent subsequent duplex studies demonstrating ipsilateral patency, resulting in a 5.3% discrepancy rate between sequential duplex studies. All 6 patients undergoing intervention received periprocedural cross-sectional imaging (magnetic resonance angiography or computed tomography angiography). In 5 of these 6 patients, cross-sectional demonstrated severe stenosis rather than CAO, disputing prior duplex ultrasound findings. CONCLUSIONS:In this large, institutional cohort of patients with a CAO diagnosis on duplex ultrasound, a clinically meaningful subset of patients experienced cerebrovascular accident, related symptoms, or intervention. We also found a notable rate of temporal duplex discrepancies among patients with CAO diagnoses and discrepancies between CAO diagnosis per duplex ultrasound and findings on cross-sectional imaging for those patients who underwent intervention. These results suggest that use of a single duplex ultrasound as a sole diagnostic tool in CAO may not be sufficient and that physicians should consider close duplex ultrasound surveillance of these patients, potentially in conjunction with additional confirmatory imaging modalities. Further investigation into optimal workup and surveillance protocols for CAO is needed.
PMID: 36574830
ISSN: 1615-5947
CID: 5409612

Young Patients Undergoing Carotid Endarterectomy Have Increased Rates of Recurrent Disease and Late Neurologic Events

Ratner, Molly; Garg, Karan; Chang, Heepeel; Johnson, William; Sadek, Mikel; Maldonado, Thomas; Cayne, Neal; Siracuse, Jeffrey; Jacobowitz, Glenn; Rockman, Caron
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:There is a paucity of data regarding outcomes of patients with premature cerebrovascular disease (age ≤ 55 years) who undergo carotid endarterectomy (CEA). The objective of this study was to analyze the demographics, presentation, perioperative and later outcomes of younger patients undergoing CEA. METHODS:The Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Quality Initiative was queried for CEA cases between 2012-2022. Patients were stratified based on age ≤ 55 or age > 55 years. Primary endpoints were periprocedural stroke, death, myocardial infarction and composite outcomes. Secondary endpoints included restenosis (≥80%) or occlusion, late neurologic events and re-intervention. RESULTS:Of 120,549 patients undergoing CEA, 7,009 (5.5%) were ≤ 55 years old (mean age of 51.3 years). Younger patients were more likely to be African American (7.7% vs 4.5%, p < .001), female (45.2% vs 38.9%, p < .001) and active smokers (57.3% vs 24.1%, p < .001). They were less likely than older patients to have hypertension (82.5% vs 89.7%, p < .001), coronary artery disease (25% vs 27.3%, p < .001) and CHF (7.8% vs 11.4%, p<.001). Younger patients were significantly less likely than older patients to be on aspirin, anti-coagulation, statins, or beta-blockers but were more likely to be taking P2Y12 inhibitors (37.2 vs 33.7%, p <.001). Younger patients were more likely to present with symptomatic disease (35.1% vs 27.6%, p<.001) and were more likely to undergo non-elective CEA (19.2% vs 12.8%; P < .001). Younger and older patients had similar rates of perioperative stroke/death (2% vs 2%, p= NS) and post-operative neurologic events (1.9% vs 1.8%, p = NS). However, younger patients had lower rates of overall postoperative complications compared to their older counterparts (3.7% vs 4.7%, p<.001). 72.6% of patients had recorded follow-up (mean 13 months). During follow-up, younger patients were significantly more likely than older patients to experience a late failure, defined as significant (≥80%) restenosis or complete occlusion of the operated artery (2.4% vs 1.5%, p <.001) and were more likely to experience any neurologic event (3.1% vs 2.3%, p<.001). Re-intervention rates did not significantly differ between the two cohorts. After controlling for co-variates using a logistic regression model, age ≤ 55 years was independently associated with increased odds of late re-stenosis/occlusion (OR 1.591, 95% CI 1.221-2.073, p<.001) as well as late neurologic events (OR 1.304, 95% CI 1.079-1.576, p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS:Young patients undergoing CEA are more likely to be African American, female, and active smokers. They are more likely to present symptomatically and undergo non-elective CEA. Although perioperative outcomes are similar, younger patients are more likely to experience carotid occlusion or restenosis as well as subsequent neurological events, during relatively short follow-up. These data suggest that younger CEA patients may require more diligent follow-up, and a continued aggressive approach to medical management of atherosclerosis to prevent future events related to the operated artery, given the particularly aggressive nature of premature atherosclerosis.
PMID: 36870458
ISSN: 1097-6809
CID: 5432472

Relationship between iliofemoral venous stenting and femoropopliteal deep venous reflux

Pergamo, Matthew; Kabnick, Lowell S; Jacobowitz, Glenn R; Rockman, Caron B; Maldonado, Thomas S; Berland, Todd L; Blumberg, Sheila; Sadek, Mikel
OBJECTIVE:Severe presentations of chronic venous insufficiency can result from reflux or obstruction at the deep venous, perforator, or superficial venous levels. Iliofemoral venous stenting can be used to address central venous obstruction; however, its effects on deep venous reflux (DVR) have remained unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of iliac vein stenting on femoropopliteal DVR with the hypothesis that ultrasound evidence of DVR would remain absent or would have improved after iliac vein stenting. METHODS:The present study was a retrospective review of patients who had undergone iliofemoral venous stenting from 2013 to 2018. The patients were divided into two cohorts according to the preprocedural presence (group A) or absence (group B) of femoropopliteal DVR. Baseline patient variables were collected, including age, gender, CEAP (clinical, etiologic, anatomic, pathophysiologic) class, presence of concomitant superficial or perforator reflux, deep vein thrombosis history, and additional venous interventions. The primary outcome evaluated was the persistent absence or resolution of DVR on the latest venous duplex ultrasound at follow-up. Other outcomes included the follow-up CEAP classification and the need for secondary deep venous interventions. RESULTS:A total of 275 consecutive patients had undergone iliofemoral venous stenting. Of the 275 patients, 58 had presented with DVR (group A). A comparison of groups A and B revealed that group A had had a greater likelihood of prior deep vein thrombosis (P = .0001) and a higher frequency of superficial venous ablation. The remaining demographic variables did not differ significantly between the two groups. Of the 58 patients in group A, DVR had resolved at follow-up in 17 (P = .0001). When stratified by level, 7 of these 17 patients had had isolated popliteal reflux. In group B, DVR had developed at follow-up in 6 of the 217 patients. The CEAP class had improved from before intervention (C0, 1.1%; C1, 0.4%; C2, 1.8%; C3, 41.4%; C4, 24.9%; C5, 5.9%; C6, 24.5%) to the latest follow up (C0, 4.9%; C1, 1.9%; C2, 5.7%; C3, 34.2%; C4, 22.8%; C5, 17.1%; C6, 13.3%). Significant improvement had occurred in C6 disease within both groups (group A, 16 of 58 [27.6%; P = .0078]; group B, 19 of 217 [8.8%; P = .0203]). CONCLUSIONS:For patients who undergo iliofemoral venous stenting, DVR could improve if present initially and is unlikely to develop if not present before stenting. A cohort of patients had experienced persistent DVR and warranted further evaluation. Prospective studies are required to corroborate the safety, efficacy, and durability of iliofemoral venous stenting for patients with DVR.
PMID: 35995328
ISSN: 2213-3348
CID: 5331522

Superficial Venous Procedures can be Performed Safely and Effectively in Patients with Deep Venous Reflux

Li, Chong; Jacobowitz, Glenn R; Rockman, Caron B; Maldonado, Thomas S; Berland, Todd L; Garg, Karan; Barfield, Michael; Sadek, Mikel
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:The finding of concurrent deep venous reflux (DVR) when interrogating superficial venous reflux is common and might be a marker for more severe chronic venous insufficiency. However, the safety, clinical and patient reported outcomes in patients undergoing superficial venous treatment in the presence of DVR remains underreported. Moreover, factors associated with persistence and disappearance of DVR after superficial vein treatments have not been evaluated. This study sought to address these questions. METHODS:This study was a review of the institutional vascular quality initiative (VQI) database from June 2016 to June 2021. Consecutive patient-limbs were identified who underwent a superficial venous intervention and had duplex evaluation. These patients were then divided into those with and without DVR. Those with DVR were further reviewed for anatomical details and persistence or resolution of DVR following the procedure. The primary outcome was the venous clinical severity score (VCSS) at follow-up greater than 3 months. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of any postoperative deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or endovenous heat-induced thrombosis (EHIT), differences in patient-reported outcomes, rate of resolution of DVR, and factors associated with DVR persistence. Both univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were applied. RESULTS:In patients who underwent superficial venous treatments 644 patient-limbs had DVR and 7812 did not, for a prevalence of 7.6%. The former group was associated with a higher burden of chronic venous insufficiency. On univariate analysis, patient-limbs, both with and without DVR, improved significantly in VCSS at less than 3 months follow-up, and were not significantly different. At greater than 3 months follow-up, the VCSS score again improved significantly compared to less than 3 months follow-up, but the two groups differed significantly at the longer interval. The magnitude of improvement in VCSS between the two groups at the longer follow-up were statistically similar (3.17±3.11 vs 3.03±2.93, P =0.739). HASTI score similarly improved significantly in both groups, but remained significantly higher in the DVR group on follow-up. On multivariate logistic regression, DVR was not associated with an increased VCSS at greater than 3 months follow-up. There was no intergroup difference in postoperative DVT or EHIT. 40.8% of limbs with DVR no longer had evidence of detectable DVR at the latest follow-up venous duplex, and DVR limited to single segment were more likely to be no longer detectable versus multi-segments. CONCLUSIONS:Superficial venous procedures are safe and effective in patients with DVR, leading to improvements in clinical and patient reported outcomes as they would for those without DVR. In a large proportion of the treated limbs, especially in those with DVR in a single segment, there is no longer evidence of DVR following superficial venous intervention. Although patients with DVR have a higher burden of chronic venous insufficiency, they appear to still derive significant benefit from superficial venous treatments.
PMID: 36368475
ISSN: 2213-3348
CID: 5357632

Direct Oral Anticoagulants May Be Safe in Patients Undergoing Endovenous Radiofrequency and Laser Ablation

Chang, Heepeel; Sadek, Mikel; Barfield, Michael E; Rockman, Caron B; Maldonado, Thomas S; Cayne, Neal S; Berland, Todd L; Garg, Karan; Jacobowitz, Glenn R
OBJECTIVE:Studies assessing the effect of anticoagulants on endovenous thermal ablation (ETA) are limited to patients on warfarin. As such, the aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of ETA in patients taking direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). We hypothesized that the outcome of ETA in patients taking DOAC is not superior to the outcome in patients taking DOAC. METHODS:A retrospective review was performed to identify patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) with 1470 nm diode laser fibers for symptomatic great or small saphenous venous reflux from 2018 to 2020. Patients were dichotomized into those receiving therapeutic dose of DOACs peri-procedurally and those not receiving anticoagulants (control). Outcomes of interest included the rates of treated vein closure at 7-days and 9-months, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), endothermal heat-induced thrombosis (EHIT) and bleeding peri-procedurally. RESULTS:There were 87 procedures performed in 69 patients receiving DOACs and 295 procedures in 232 control patients. Patients receiving DOACs were more often older (mean, 65 years vs 55 years; P<.001) and male (70% vs 37%; P<.001), with higher prevalence of venous thromboembolism and more severe CEAP classification (5 or 6), compared to control patients. Those receiving DOAC were more likely to have history of DVT (44% vs 6%; P<.001), PE (13% vs 0%; P<.001) and phlebitis (32% vs 15%; P<.001). Procedurally, RFA was used more frequently in the control group (92% vs 84%; P=.029), with longer segments of vein treated (mean 38 mm vs 35 mm, respectively; P=.028). No major or minor bleeding events nor any EHITs occurred in either group. Two patients (0.7%) in the control group developed DVT whereas no DVT was observed in the those receiving DOAC (P=.441). At 9-months, the treated vein remained ablated after 94.4% of procedures performed in patients receiving DOACs and 98.4% of controls (P=.163). On multivariable analysis, DOAC was not associated with an increased risk of vein recanalization (hazard ratio, 5.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-58.64; P=.139). An increased pre-procedural vein diameter and EVLA were associated with an increased risk of recanalization. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In this study of patients undergoing ETA for symptomatic saphenous venous reflux, peri-procedural use of DOAC did not adversely affect the efficacy of endovenous ablation to at least 9-months. Furthermore, it did not confer additional risk of bleeding, DVT and EHIT peri-procedurally. As such, the early outcome of ETA in patients not taking DOAC may not be superior to the outcome in patients taking DOAC.
PMID: 35872143
ISSN: 2213-3348
CID: 5276102

Mid- and Long-Term Outcomes Following Dedicated Endovenous Nitinol Stent Placement for Symptomatic Iliofemoral Venous Obstruction: 3 to 5 Year Results of the VIRTUS Study

Razavi, Mahmood K; Gagne, Paul; Black, Stephen; Sadek, Mikel; Nicolini, Philippe; Weinberg, Ido; Marston, William
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Assess the mid-term patency and long-term safety of dedicated venous stent placement to treat venous lesions of the iliofemoral outflow tract. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:Patients with unilateral obstructive disease of the iliofemoral veins and Clinical, Etiological, Anatomical, Pathophysiological (CEAP) Class ≥3 or Venous Clinical Severity Score ≥2 were enrolled in this prospective, multicenter, single arm study at 23 sites in the U.S.A. and Europe. Patients were followed for 36 months post index procedure for patency and up to 60 months for safety. Clinical outcomes for 11 patients with stent fracture were assessed. RESULTS:A total of 200 patients enrolled in two cohorts (i.e., Feasibility N=30, Pivotal N=170), were combined for this analysis. The 36-month primary patency rate was 71.7% (86/120) overall; and 96.4% (27/28) for the non-thrombotic group and 64.1% (59/92) for the post-thrombotic group, respectively. Freedom from major adverse events was 81.2% (53/65) through 60 months. The 60-month Kaplan-Meier estimate of freedom from target vessel revascularization was 84.3%. In 9 of the 11 patients who had stent fractures identified at 12-months (1 non-thrombotic, 10 post-thrombotic), stents extended into the common femoral vein. Target vessel revascularization rates and clinical outcomes among patients with or without stent fracture were similar. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The VIRTUS results demonstrate good mid-term patency and long-term safety following placement of a dedicated venous stent for iliofemoral obstruction.
PMID: 36067976
ISSN: 1535-7732
CID: 5336982

Retro Jugular, Retro Sternocleidomastoid Approach for Subclavian Artery to Common Carotid Artery Bypass Using a Radial Artery Interposition Graft: 2-Dimensional Operative Video

Haynes, Joseph; Sadek, Mikel; Raz, Eytan; Levine, Jamie; Shapiro, Maksim; Delavari, Nader; Riina, Howard A; Nelson, Peter Kim; Favate, Albert; Nossek, Erez
PMID: 35972106
ISSN: 2332-4260
CID: 5299872

Severity of stenosis in symptomatic patients undergoing carotid interventions may influence perioperative neurologic events

Garg, Karan; Chang, Heepeel; Siracuse, Jeffrey J; Jacobowitz, Glenn R; Torres, Jose; Veith, Frank J; Patel, Virendra I; Maldonado, Thomas S; Sadek, Mikel; Cayne, Neal S; Rockman, Caron B
OBJECTIVE:Carotid artery plaque burden, indirectly measured by the degree of stenosis, quantifies future embolic risk. In natural history studies, patients with moderate degrees of stenosis have a lower stroke risk than those with severe stenosis. However, patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis who have experienced TIA or stroke are found to have both moderate and severe degrees of stenosis. We sought to examine the association carotid artery stenosis severity with outcomes in symptomatic patients undergoing carotid interventions including carotid endarterectomy (CEA), transfemoral carotid artery stenting (CAS) and transcervical carotid artery revascularization (TCAR). METHODS:The Society for Vascular Surgery Quality Initiative database was queried for all patients undergoing CAS, CEA and TCAR between 2003 and 2020. Patients were stratified into two groups based on the severity of stenosis - non-severe (0 - 69%) and severe (≥ 70%). Primary endpoints were periprocedural neurologic events (strokes and transient ischemic attacks (TIAs)). Secondary endpoints were periprocedural death, myocardial infarction (MI) and composite outcomes of stroke/death and stroke/death/MI per reporting standards for carotid interventions. RESULTS:Of 29,614 symptomatic patients included in the analysis, 5,296 (17.9%) patients underwent TCAR, 7,844 (26.5%) underwent CAS, and 16,474 (55.6%) underwent CEA for symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. In the CEA cohort, the neurologic event rate was similarly significantly lower in patients with severe stenosis when compared to those with non-severe stenosis (2.6% vs. 3.2%, P=.024). In the TCAR cohort, the periprocedural neurologic even rate was lower in patients with severe stenosis when compared to those with non-severe stenosis (3% vs. 4.3%, P=.033). There was no similar difference noted in the CAS cohort, with periprocedural neurologic event rates of 3.8% in the severe group versus 3.5% in the non-severe group (P=.518). On multivariable analysis, severe stenosis was associated with significantly decreased odds of post procedural neurologic events in patients undergoing CEA (odds ratio [OR] 0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.6 - 0.92; P=.007) and TCAR (OR .83; CI, .69 - 0.99; P=.039), but not CAS. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Severe carotid stenosis as opposed to more moderate degrees of stenosis was associated with decreased rates of periprocedural stroke and TIAs in symptomatic patients undergoing TCAR and CEA, but not CAS. The finding of increased rates of periprocedural neurologic events in symptomatic patients with lesser degrees of stenosis undergoing TCAR and CEA warrants further evaluation with a particular focus on plaque morphology and brain physiology, and their inherent risks with carotid revascularization procedures.
PMID: 35272001
ISSN: 1097-6809
CID: 5183632

A Single-Center Experience of Anterior Accessory Saphenous Vein Endothermal Ablation Demonstrates Safety and Efficacy

Charitable, John; Speranza, Giancarlo; Rockman, Caron; Jacobowitz, Glenn; Kabnick, Lowell; Garg, Karan; Maldonado, Thomas; Berland, Todd; Cayne, Neal; Barfield, Michael; Sadek, Mikel
OBJECTIVE:Endothermal ablation is well established for the treatment of the great and small saphenous veins. Data are lacking for treatment of the Anterior Accessory Saphenous Vein (AASV). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of AASV treatment using endothermal ablation. METHODS:This was a retrospective review of 314 limbs at a single academic institution from 2016-2018 using the institutional Vascular Quality Initiative database. All limbs had documented AASV reflux. Baseline characteristics were evaluated including age, sex, ethnicity, CEAP (clinical, etiology, anatomy, pathophysiology) classification, Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS), and vein diameter. Outcomes relating to procedure safety and efficacy included treatment modality and length, successful ablation on post-operative imaging, post-procedural clinical outcomes, incidence of endothermal heat induced thrombosis (EHIT), and any post-procedural complication. RESULTS:A total of 314 consecutive limbs were identified from 2016-2018. Pre-procedure VCSS scores were available for 312 limbs and averaged 6.13 ± 3.33. History of varicose veins were reported in all limbs with 49.4% (n=155) having previously undergone a procedure. The most common presenting symptom was mild edema in 52.5% (n=165). Vein diameter and assessment of reflux were obtained by venous duplex ultrasound (DUS). The largest AASV diameter was available for 304 limbs, averaging 7.93 ± 2.69 mm. Treatment modalities included radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in 59.2% (n=186), endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) in 37.9% (n=119), and isolated microphlebectomy in 2.9% (n=9). 38.5% (N=121) of limbs underwent concomitant microphlebectomy at the time of EVLA. Total treatment length was obtained in 297 limbs, averaging 23.0 cm ± 12.0. Post-operatively, 94.6% (n=297) of limbs were prescribed compression stockings. Post-operative DUS was performed in 312 limbs, revealing successful ablation in 96.5% (n=303) with 2 limbs (0.6%) developing an EHIT, both treated with therapeutic enoxaparin for one week. Repeat DUS revealed thrombus resolution in one limb, while the other patient was lost to follow-up. VCSS scores post-procedure were available for 145 limbs and averaged 4.45 ± 2.31. This was a statistically significant decrease from pre-procedure VCSS scores (p<0.01). Average duration of follow-up was 2.2 years, with two limbs lost to follow-up. Of the 9 limbs (3.5%) whose initial procedure failed, 5 (56%) were treated using RFA and 4 (44%) were treated using EVLA. There were no other post-operative complications. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Our experience over a three-year period for treating the AASV shows it to be safe and effective in a broad range of disease severity with an improvement in VCSS and a low incidence of EHIT. Additionally, RFA and EVLA exhibit similar treatment efficacy. Long-term follow-up data are needed.
PMID: 35218957
ISSN: 2213-3348
CID: 5172682