Segmented Linear Mixed Model Analysis Reveals Association of the APOEÉ›4 Allele with Faster Rate of Alzheimer's Disease Dementia Progression
BACKGROUND:APOEÉ›4 allele carriers present with increased risk for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD), show cognitive symptoms at earlier age, and are more likely to transition from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia but despite this, it remains unclear whether or not the É›4 allele controls the rate of disease progression. OBJECTIVE:To determine effects of the É›4 allele on rates of cognitive decline and brain atrophy during MCI and dementia stages of AD. METHODS:A segmented linear mixed model was chosen for longitudinal modeling of cognitive and brain volumetric data of 73 É›3/É›3, 99 É›3/É›4, and 39 É›4/É›4 Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative participants who transitioned during the study from MCI to AD dementia. RESULTS:É›4 carriers showed faster decline on MMSE, ADAS-11, CDR-SB, and MoCA scales, with the last two measures showing significant É›4 allele-dose effects after dementia transition but not during MCI. The É›4 effect was more prevalent in younger participants and in females. É›4 carriers also demonstrated faster rates of atrophy of the whole brain, the hippocampus, the entorhinal cortex, the middle temporal gyrus, and expansion of the ventricles after transitioning to dementia but not during MCI. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Possession of the É›4 allele is associated with a faster progression of dementia due to AD. Our observations support the notion that APOE genotype not only controls AD risk but also differentially regulates mechanisms of neurodegeneration underlying disease advancement. Furthermore, our findings carry significance for AD clinical trial design.
Peroxiredoxin 6 mediates protective function of astrocytes in AÎ² proteostasis
BACKGROUND:) activities involved in repair of oxidatively damaged cell membrane lipids and cellular signaling. In the CNS, PRDX6 is uniquely expressed by astrocytes and its exact function remains unexplored. METHODS:AD transgenic mice were once crossed to mice overexpressing wild-type Prdx6 allele or to Prdx6 knock out mice. AÎ² pathology and associated neuritic degeneration were assessed in mice aged 10â€‰months. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to characterize AÎ² plaque morphology and activation of plaque-associated astrocytes and microglia. Effect of Prdx6 gene dose on plaque seeding was assessed in mice aged six months. RESULTS:AD transgenic mice promotes selective enticement of astrocytes to AÎ² plaques and penetration of plaques by astrocytic processes along with increased number and phagocytic activation of periplaque microglia. This effects suppression of nascent plaque seeding and remodeling of mature plaques consequently curtailing brain AÎ² load and AÎ²-associated neuritic degeneration. Conversely, Prdx6 haplodeficiency attenuates astro- and microglia activation around AÎ² plaques promoting AÎ² deposition and neuritic degeneration. CONCLUSIONS:We identify here PRDX6 as an important factor regulating response of astrocytes toward AÎ² plaques. Demonstration that phagocytic activation of periplaque microglia vary directly with astrocytic PRDX6 expression level implies previously unappreciated astrocyte-guided microglia effect in AÎ² proteostasis. Our showing that upregulation of PRDX6 attenuates AÎ² pathology may be of therapeutic relevance for AD.
Detection of Cerebrovascular Loss in the Normal Aging C57BL/6 Mouse Brain Using in vivo Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography
Microvascular rarefaction, or the decrease in vascular density, has been described in the cerebrovasculature of aging humans, rats, and, more recently, mice in the presence and absence of age-dependent diseases. Given the wide use of mice in modeling age-dependent human diseases of the cerebrovasculature, visualization, and quantification of the global murine cerebrovasculature is necessary for establishing the baseline changes that occur with aging. To provide in vivo whole-brain imaging of the cerebrovasculature in aging C57BL/6 mice longitudinally, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) was employed using a house-made gadolinium-bearing micellar blood pool agent. Enhancement in the vascular space permitted quantification of the detectable, or apparent, cerebral blood volume (aCBV), which was analyzed over 2 years of aging and compared to histological analysis of the cerebrovascular density. A significant loss in the aCBV was detected by CE-MRA over the aging period. Histological analysis via vessel-probing immunohistochemistry confirmed a significant loss in the cerebrovascular density over the same 2-year aging period, validating the CE-MRA findings. While these techniques use widely different methods of assessment and spatial resolutions, their comparable findings in detected vascular loss corroborate the growing body of literature describing vascular rarefaction aging. These findings suggest that such age-dependent changes can contribute to cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, which are modeled using wild-type and transgenic laboratory rodents.
Anti-prion Protein Antibody 6D11 Restores Cellular Proteostasis of Prion Protein Through Disrupting Recycling Propagation of PrPSc and Targeting PrPSc for Lysosomal Degradation
PrPSc is an infectious and disease-specific conformer of the prion protein, which accumulation in the CNS underlies the pathology of prion diseases. PrPSc replicates by binding to the cellular conformer of the prion protein (PrPC) expressed by host cells and rendering its secondary structure a likeness of itself. PrPC is a plasma membrane anchored protein, which constitutively recirculates between the cell surface and the endocytic compartment. Since PrPSc engages PrPC along this trafficking pathway, its replication process is often referred to as "recycling propagation." Certain monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against prion protein can abrogate the presence of PrPSc from prion-infected cells. However, the precise mechanism(s) underlying their therapeutic propensities remains obscure. Using N2A murine neuroblastoma cell line stably infected with 22L mouse-adapted scrapie strain (N2A/22L), we investigated here the modus operandi of the 6D11 clone, which was raised against the PrPSc conformer and has been shown to permanently clear prion-infected cells from PrPSc presence. We determined that 6D11 mAb engages and sequesters PrPC and PrPSc at the cell surface. PrPC/6D11 and PrPSc/6D11 complexes are then endocytosed from the plasma membrane and are directed to lysosomes, therefore precluding recirculation of nascent PrPSc back to the cell surface. Targeting PrPSc by 6D11 mAb to the lysosomal compartment facilitates its proteolysis and eventually shifts the balance between PrPSc formation and degradation. Ongoing translation of PrPC allows maintaining the steady-state level of prion protein within the cells, which was not depleted under 6D11 mAb treatment. Our findings demonstrate that through disrupting recycling propagation of PrPSc and promoting its degradation, 6D11 mAb restores cellular proteostasis of prion protein.
Two Year Outcomes, Cognitive and Behavioral Markers of Decline in Healthy, Cognitively Normal Older Persons with Global Deterioration Scale Stage 2 (Subjective Cognitive Decline with Impairment)
BACKGROUND:Little is known with respect to behavioral markers of subjective cognitive decline (SCD), a condition initially described in association with Global Deterioration Scale (GDS) stage 2. OBJECTIVE:Two-year interval behavioral markers were investigated herein. METHODS:Subjects from a published 7-year outcome study of GDS stage 2 subjects were selected. This study had demonstrated a hazard ratio of 4.5 for progression of GDS stage 2, in comparison with GDS stage 1 (no subjective or objective cognitive decline) subjects, after controlling for demographic and temporal variables. Because GDS 2 subjects have previously demonstrated impairment in comparison with healthy persons free of complaints, we herein suggest the terminology "SCD(I)" for these persons. 98 SCD(I) persons, 63 women and 35 men, mean baseline age, 67.12Â±8.75 years, with a mean educational background of 15.55Â±2.60 years, and mean baseline MMSE scores of 28.9Â±1.24 were followed for 2.13Â±0.30 years. RESULTS:Observed annual decline on the GDS was 6.701% per annum, very close to a 1986 published estimate. At follow up, the MMSE, and 7 of 8 psychometric tests did not decline significantly. Of 21 Hamilton Depression Scale items, 2 improved and the remainder were unchanged. Anxieties declined from multiple perspectives. The Brief Cognitive Rating Scale (BCRS) declined significantly (pâ€Š<â€Š0.001), with component declines in Remote memory (pâ€Š<â€Š0.01), and Functioning/self-care (pâ€Š=â€Š0.01). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:SCD(I) persons decline at an annual rate of approximately 6.7% /year from several recent studies. The BCRS assessments and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test can be sensitive measures for future studies of progression mitigation.
18F-florbetapir Positron Emission Tomography-determined Cerebral beta-Amyloid Deposition and Neurocognitive Performance after Cardiac Surgery
BACKGROUND:Amyloid deposition is a potential contributor to postoperative cognitive dysfunction. The authors hypothesized that 6-week global cortical amyloid burden, determined by F-florbetapir positron emission tomography, would be greater in those patients manifesting cognitive dysfunction at 6 weeks postoperatively. METHODS:Amyloid deposition was evaluated in cardiac surgical patients at 6 weeks (n = 40) and 1 yr (n = 12); neurocognitive function was assessed at baseline (n = 40), 6 weeks (n = 37), 1 yr (n = 13), and 3 yr (n = 9). The association of 6-week amyloid deposition with cognitive dysfunction was assessed by multivariable regression, accounting for age, years of education, and baseline cognition. Differences between the surgical cohort with cognitive deficit and the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohorts (normal and early/late mild cognitive impairment) was assessed, adjusting for age, education, and apolipoprotein E4 genotype. RESULTS:The authors found that 6-week abnormal global cortical amyloid deposition was not associated with cognitive dysfunction (13 of 37, 35%) at 6 weeks postoperatively (median standard uptake value ratio [interquartile range]: cognitive dysfunction 0.92 [0.89 to 1.07] vs. 0.98 [0.93 to 1.05]; P = 0.455). In post hoc analyses, global cortical amyloid was also not associated with cognitive dysfunction at 1 or 3 yr postoperatively. Amyloid deposition at 6 weeks in the surgical cohort was not different from that in normal Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative subjects, but increased over 1 yr in many areas at a rate greater than in controls. CONCLUSIONS:In this study, postoperative cognitive dysfunction was not associated with 6-week cortical amyloid deposition. The relationship between cognitive dysfunction and regional amyloid burden and the rate of postoperative amyloid deposition merit further investigation.
Biomarker pattern of ARIA-E participants in phase 3 randomized clinical trials with bapineuzumab
OBJECTIVE:To evaluate whether amyloid-related imaging abnormalities with edema/effusion (ARIA-E) observed in bapineuzumab clinical trials was associated with specific biomarker patterns. METHODS:Bapineuzumab, an anti-ÃŽÂ²-amyloid monoclonal antibody, was evaluated in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease. Amyloid PET imaging, CSF biomarkers, or volumetric MRI (vMRI) were assessed. RESULTS:. CONCLUSIONS:Baseline biomarkers largely do not predict risk for developing ARIA-E. ARIA-E was associated with significant longitudinal changes in several biomarkers, with larger reductions in amyloid PET and CSF p-tau and t-tau concentrations, and paradoxically greater hippocampal volume reduction and ventricular enlargement, suggesting that ARIA-E in bapineuzumab-treated cases may be related to increased AÃŽÂ² efflux from the brain and affecting downstream pathogenic processes.
Statistical tests and identifiability conditions for pooling and analyzing multisite datasets
When sample sizes are small, the ability to identify weak (but scientifically interesting) associations between a set of predictors and a response may be enhanced by pooling existing datasets. However, variations in acquisition methods and the distribution of participants or observations between datasets, especially due to the distributional shifts in some predictors, may obfuscate real effects when datasets are combined. We present a rigorous statistical treatment of this problem and identify conditions where we can correct the distributional shift. We also provide an algorithm for the situation where the correction is identifiable. We analyze various properties of the framework for testing model fit, constructing confidence intervals, and evaluating consistency characteristics. Our technical development is motivated by Alzheimer's disease (AD) studies, and we present empirical results showing that our framework enables harmonizing of protein biomarkers, even when the assays across sites differ. Our contribution may, in part, mitigate a bottleneck that researchers face in clinical research when pooling smaller sized datasets and may offer benefits when the subjects of interest are difficult to recruit or when resources prohibit large single-site studies.
Pattern Discovery in Brain Imaging Genetics via SCCA Modeling with a Generic Non-convex Penalty
Brain imaging genetics intends to uncover associations between genetic markers and neuroimaging quantitative traits. Sparse canonical correlation analysis (SCCA) can discover bi-multivariate associations and select relevant features, and is becoming popular in imaging genetic studies. The L1-norm function is not only convex, but also singular at the origin, which is a necessary condition for sparsity. Thus most SCCA methods impose [Formula: see text]-norm onto the individual feature or the structure level of features to pursuit corresponding sparsity. However, the [Formula: see text]-norm penalty over-penalizes large coefficients and may incurs estimation bias. A number of non-convex penalties are proposed to reduce the estimation bias in regression tasks. But using them in SCCA remains largely unexplored. In this paper, we design a unified non-convex SCCA model, based on seven non-convex functions, for unbiased estimation and stable feature selection simultaneously. We also propose an efficient optimization algorithm. The proposed method obtains both higher correlation coefficients and better canonical loading patterns. Specifically, these SCCA methods with non-convex penalties discover a strong association between the APOE e4 rs429358 SNP and the hippocampus region of the brain. They both are Alzheimer's disease related biomarkers, indicating the potential and power of the non-convex methods in brain imaging genetics.
Translational Control of APP Expression for Alzheimer Disease Therapy [Editorial]