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Apolipoprotein E4 compromises brain exosome production and secretion [Meeting Abstract]

Peng, K Y; Perez-Gonzalez, R; Alldred, M J; Morales-Corraliza, J; Ginsberg, S D; Saito, M; Mathews, P M; Levy, E
Background: The apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene codes for the brain's primary cholesterol carrier protein. In both humans and humanized APOE mice the Alzheimer's disease-risk APOE 4 allele (APOE4) alters the number and size of neuronal endosomes, a pathology common to several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease. Given that exosomes derive from the endosomal system, we investigated the impact of APOE4 on brain-derived exosomes. Methods: Extracellular vesicles (EV) were isolated from brain tissue of neuropathologically normal humans and of APOE targeted-replacement mice at 6, 12 and 18 months of age. Antibodies against TSG101 and ALIX were used to identify the exosome population within these samples. Protein, mRNA and lipid analyses were performed on both EV and whole-brain samples. Results: We found lower exosome levels in the brains of neuropathologically normal human APOE4 carriers compared to individuals homozygous for the risk-neutral 3 allele (APOE3). In APOE4 compared with APOE3 mice, brain exosome levels were lower in an age-dependent manner: lower levels were observed at 12 and 18 but not at 6 months of age. Protein and mRNA expressions of the exosome pathway regulators TSG101 and Rab35 were also lower in APOE4 compared with APOE3 mouse brains at 12 months of age, arguing for decreased exosome biosynthesis and secretion, respectively, from the endosomal pathway. Cholesterol and ganglioside levels were higher in brain exosomes isolated from 12-month-old APOE4 compared with APOE3 mice. Summary/Conclusion: Our findings show an APOE4-driven downregulation of brain exosome biosynthesis and release that is associated with altered lipid homeostasis. Failure to maintain proper functioning of the interdependent endosomal-exosomal pathways during aging, which is essential for diverse homeostatic and catabolic cellular processes, is likely to contribute to neuronal vulnerability in neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease
ISSN: 2001-3078
CID: 3160372

A Method for Isolation of Extracellular Vesicles and Characterization of Exosomes from Brain Extracellular Space

Perez-Gonzalez, Rocio; Gauthier, Sebastien A; Kumar, Asok; Saito, Mitsuo; Saito, Mariko; Levy, Efrat
Extracellular vesicles (EV), including exosomes, secreted vesicles of endocytic origin, and microvesicles derived from the plasma membrane, have been widely isolated and characterized from conditioned culture media and bodily fluids. The difficulty in isolating EV from tissues, however, has hindered their study in vivo. Here, we describe a novel method designed to isolate EV and characterize exosomes from the extracellular space of brain tissues. The purification of EV is achieved by gentle dissociation of the tissue to free the brain extracellular space, followed by sequential low-speed centrifugations, filtration, and ultracentrifugations. To further purify EV from other extracellular components, they are separated on a sucrose step gradient. Characterization of the sucrose step gradient fractions by electron microscopy demonstrates that this method yields pure EV preparations free of large vesicles, subcellular organelles, or debris. The level of EV secretion and content are determined by assays for acetylcholinesterase activity and total protein estimation, and exosomal identification and protein content are analyzed by Western blot and immuno-electron microscopy. Additionally, we present here a method to delipidate EV in order to improve the resolution of downstream electrophoretic analysis of EV proteins.
PMID: 27943212
ISSN: 1940-6029
CID: 2363332

Ethanol-Induced Neurodegeneration and Glial Activation in the Developing Brain

Saito, Mariko; Chakraborty, Goutam; Hui, Maria; Masiello, Kurt; Saito, Mitsuo
Ethanol induces neurodegeneration in the developing brain, which may partially explain the long-lasting adverse effects of prenatal ethanol exposure in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). While animal models of FASD show that ethanol-induced neurodegeneration is associated with glial activation, the relationship between glial activation and neurodegeneration has not been clarified. This review focuses on the roles of activated microglia and astrocytes in neurodegeneration triggered by ethanol in rodents during the early postnatal period (equivalent to the third trimester of human pregnancy). Previous literature indicates that acute binge-like ethanol exposure in postnatal day 7 (P7) mice induces apoptotic neurodegeneration, transient activation of microglia resulting in phagocytosis of degenerating neurons, and a prolonged increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes. In our present study, systemic administration of a moderate dose of lipopolysaccharides, which causes glial activation, attenuates ethanol-induced neurodegeneration. These studies suggest that activation of microglia and astrocytes by acute ethanol in the neonatal brain may provide neuroprotection. However, repeated or chronic ethanol can induce significant proinflammatory glial reaction and neurotoxicity. Further studies are necessary to elucidate whether acute or sustained glial activation caused by ethanol exposure in the developing brain can affect long-lasting cellular and behavioral abnormalities observed in the adult brain.
PMID: 27537918
ISSN: 2076-3425
CID: 2219442

Developmental Ethanol Exposure-induced Sleep fragmentation Predicts Adult Cognitive Impairment

Wilson, D A; Masiello, K; Lewin, M P; Hui, M; Smiley, J F; Saito, M
Developmental ethanol exposure can lead to long-lasting cognitive impairment, hyperactivity, and emotional dysregulation among other problems. In healthy adults, sleep plays an important role in each of these behavioral manifestations. Here we explored circadian rhythms (activity, temperature) and slow-wave sleep in adult mice that had received a single day of ethanol exposure on postnatal day 7 and saline littermate controls. We tested for correlations between slow-wave activity and both contextual fear conditioning and hyperactivity. Developmental ethanol resulted in adult hyperactivity within the home cage compared to controls but did not significantly modify circadian cycles in activity or temperature. It also resulted in reduced and fragmented slow-wave sleep, including reduced slow-wave bout duration and increased slow-wave/fast-wave transitions over 24 hour periods. In the same animals, developmental ethanol exposure also resulted in impaired contextual fear conditioning memory. The impairment in memory was significantly correlated with slow-wave sleep fragmentation. Furthermore, ethanol treated animals did not display a post-training modification in slow-wave sleep which occurred in controls. In contrast to the memory impairment, sleep fragmentation was not correlated with the developmental ethanol-induced hyperactivity. Together these results suggest that disruption of slow-wave sleep and its plasticity are a secondary contributor to a subset of developmental ethanol exposure's long-lasting consequences.
PMID: 26892295
ISSN: 1873-7544
CID: 1949852

Selective reduction of cerebral cortex GABA neurons in a late gestation model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

Smiley, John F; Saito, Mariko; Bleiwas, Cynthia; Masiello, Kurt; Ardekani, Babak; Guilfoyle, David N; Gerum, Scott; Wilson, Donald A; Vadasz, Csaba
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are associated with cognitive and behavioral deficits, and decreased volume of the whole brain and cerebral cortex. Rodent models have shown that early postnatal treatments, which mimic ethanol toxicity in the third trimester of human pregnancy, acutely induce widespread apoptotic neuronal degeneration and permanent behavioral deficits. However, the lasting cellular and anatomical effects of early ethanol treatments are still incompletely understood. This study examined changes in neocortex volume, thickness, and cellular organization that persist in adult mice after postnatal day 7 (P7) ethanol treatment. Post mortem brain volumes, measured by both MRI within the skull and by fluid displacement of isolated brains, were reduced 10-13% by ethanol treatment. The cerebral cortex showed a similar reduction (12%) caused mainly by lower surface area (9%). In spite of these large changes, several features of cortical organization showed little evidence of change, including cortical thickness, overall neuron size, and laminar organization. Estimates of total neuron number showed a trend level reduction of about 8%, due mainly to reduced cortical volume but unchanged neuron density. However, counts of calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV) subtypes of GABAergic neurons showed a striking >30% reduction of neuron number. Similar ethanol effects were found in male and female mice, and in C57BL/6By and BALB/cJ mouse strains. Our findings indicate that the cortex has substantial capacity to develop normal cytoarchitectonic organization after early postnatal ethanol toxicity, but there is a selective and persistent reduction of GABA cells that may contribute to the lasting cognitive and behavioral deficits in FASD.
PMID: 26252988
ISSN: 1873-6823
CID: 1709332

Ganglioside accumulation in activated glia in the developing brain: comparison between WT and GalNAcT KO mice

Saito, Mariko; Wu, Gusheng; Hui, Maria; Masiello, Kurt; Dobrenis, Kostantin; Ledeen, Robert W; Saito, Mitsuo
Our previous studies have shown accumulation of GM2 ganglioside during ethanol-induced neurodegeneration in the developing brain, and GM2 elevation has also been reported in other brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. Using GM2/GD2 synthase KO mice lacking GM2/GD2 and downstream gangliosides, the current study explored the significance of GM2 elevation in WT mice. Immunohistochemical studies indicated that ethanol-induced acute neurodegeneration in postnatal day 7 (P7) WT mice was associated with GM2 accumulation in the late endosomes/lysosomes of both phagocytic microglia and increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes. However, in KO mice, although ethanol induced robust neurodegeneration and accumulation of GD3 and GM3 in the late endosomes/lysosomes of phagocytic microglia, it did not increase the number of GFAP-positive astrocytes, and the accumulation of GD3/GM3 in astrocytes was minimal. Not only ethanol, but also DMSO, induced GM2 elevation in activated microglia and astrocytes along with neurodegeneration in P7 WT mice, while lipopolysaccharide, which did not induce significant neurodegeneration, caused GM2 accumulation mainly in lysosomes of activated astrocytes. Thus, GM2 elevation is associated with activation of microglia and astrocytes in the injured developing brain, and GM2, GD2, or other downstream gangliosides may regulate astroglial responses in ethanol-induced neurodegeneration.
PMID: 26063460
ISSN: 0022-2275
CID: 1698142

Defective macroautophagic turnover of brain lipids in the TgCRND8 Alzheimer mouse model: prevention by correcting lysosomal proteolytic deficits

Yang, Dun-Sheng; Stavrides, Philip; Saito, Mitsuo; Kumar, Asok; Rodriguez-Navarro, Jose A; Pawlik, Monika; Huo, Chunfeng; Walkley, Steven U; Saito, Mariko; Cuervo, Ana M; Nixon, Ralph A
Autophagy, the major lysosomal pathway for the turnover of intracellular organelles is markedly impaired in neurons in Alzheimer's disease and Alzheimer mouse models. We have previously reported that severe lysosomal and amyloid neuropathology and associated cognitive deficits in the TgCRND8 Alzheimer mouse model can be ameliorated by restoring lysosomal proteolytic capacity and autophagy flux via genetic deletion of the lysosomal protease inhibitor, cystatin B. Here we present evidence that macroautophagy is a significant pathway for lipid turnover, which is defective in TgCRND8 brain where lipids accumulate as membranous structures and lipid droplets within giant neuronal autolysosomes. Levels of multiple lipid species including several sphingolipids (ceramide, ganglioside GM3, GM2, GM1, GD3 and GD1a), cardiolipin, cholesterol and cholesteryl esters are elevated in autophagic vacuole fractions and lysosomes isolated from TgCRND8 brain. Lipids are localized in autophagosomes and autolysosomes by double immunofluorescence analyses in wild-type mice and colocalization is increased in TgCRND8 mice where abnormally abundant GM2 ganglioside-positive granules are detected in neuronal lysosomes. Cystatin B deletion in TgCRND8 significantly reduces the number of GM2-positive granules and lowers the levels of GM2 and GM3 in lysosomes, decreases lipofuscin-related autofluorescence, and eliminates giant lipid-containing autolysosomes while increasing numbers of normal-sized autolysosomes/lysosomes with reduced content of undigested components. These findings have identified macroautophagy as a previously unappreciated route for delivering membrane lipids to lysosomes for turnover, a function that has so far been considered to be mediated exclusively through the endocytic pathway, and revealed that autophagic-lysosomal dysfunction in TgCRND8 brain impedes lysosomal turnover of lipids as well as proteins. The amelioration of lipid accumulation in TgCRND8 by removing cystatin B inhibition on lysosomal proteases suggests that enhancing lysosomal proteolysis improves the overall environment of the lysosome and its clearance functions, which may be possibly relevant to a broader range of lysosomal disorders beyond Alzheimer's disease.
PMID: 25270989
ISSN: 0006-8950
CID: 1360292

Distinct neurobehavioral dysfunction based on the timing of developmental binge-like alcohol exposure

Sadrian, B; Lopez-Guzman, M; Wilson, D A; Saito, M
Gestational exposure to alcohol can result in long-lasting behavioral deficiencies generally described as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). FASD-modeled rodent studies of acute ethanol exposure typically select one developmental window to simulate a specific context equivalent of human embryogenesis, and study consequences of ethanol exposure within that particular developmental epoch. Exposure timing is likely a large determinant in the neurobehavioral consequence of early ethanol exposure, as each brain region is variably susceptible to ethanol cytotoxicity and has unique sensitive periods in their development. We made a parallel comparison of the long-term effects of single-day binge ethanol at either embryonic day 8 (E8) or postnatal day 7 (P7) in male and female mice, and here demonstrate the differential long-term impacts on neuroanatomy, behavior and in vivo electrophysiology of two systems with very different developmental trajectories. The significant long-term differences in odor-evoked activity, local circuit inhibition, and spontaneous coherence between brain regions in the olfacto-hippocampal pathway that were found as a result of developmental ethanol exposure, varied based on insult timing. Long-term effects on cell proliferation and interneuron cell density were also found to vary by insult timing as well as by region. Finally, spatial memory performance and object exploration were affected in P7-exposed mice, but not E8-exposed mice. Our physiology and behavioral results are conceptually coherent with the neuroanatomical data attained from these same mice. Our results recognize both variable and shared effects of ethanol exposure timing on long-term circuit function and their supported behavior.
PMID: 25241068
ISSN: 0306-4522
CID: 1368762

New glutamatergic target for alcohol and substance use disorder medications

Vadasz, Csaba; Saito, Mariko
PMID: 24619644
ISSN: 0033-3158
CID: 836342

G9a-mediated histone methylation regulates ethanol-induced neurodegeneration in the neonatal mouse brain

Subbanna, Shivakumar; Shivakumar, Madhu; Umapathy, Nagavedi S; Saito, Mariko; Mohan, Panaiyur S; Kumar, Asok; Nixon, Ralph A; Verin, Alexander D; Psychoyos, Delphine; Basavarajappa, Balapal S
Rodent exposure to binge-like ethanol during postnatal day 7 (P7), which is comparable to the third trimester of human pregnancy, induces neuronal cell loss. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these neuronal losses are still poorly understood. Here, we tested the possibility of histone methylation mediated by G9a (lysine dimethyltransferase) in regulating neuronal apoptosis in P7 mice exposed to ethanol. G9a protein expression, which is higher during embryogenesis and synaptogenic period compared to adult brain, is entirely confined to the cell nuclei in the developing brain. We found that ethanol treatment at P7, which induces apoptotic neurodegeneration in neonatal mice, enhanced G9a activity followed by increased histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me2) and 27 (H3K27me2) dimethylation. In addition, it appears that increased dimethylation of H3K9 makes it susceptible to proteolytic degradation by caspase-3 in conditions in which ethanol induces neurodegeneration. Further, pharmacological inhibition of G9a activity prior to ethanol treatment at P7 normalized H3K9me2, H3K27me2 and total H3 proteins to basal levels and prevented neurodegeneration in neonatal mice. Together, these data demonstrate that G9a mediated histone H3K9 and K27 dimethylation critically regulates ethanol-induced neurodegeneration in the developing brain. Furthermore, these findings reveal a novel link between G9a and neurodegeneration in the developing brain exposed to postnatal ethanol and may have a role in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.
PMID: 23396011
ISSN: 0969-9961
CID: 369642