Pediatric versus adult magnetic resonance imaging patterns in acute high ankle sprains
BACKGROUND:There is a paucity of literature describing MRI patterns of high ankle sprains in pediatric patients. Radiologists should understand MRI patterns of these injuries in both adults and children. OBJECTIVE:To describe normal MRI appearance of pediatric syndesmotic ligaments and compare MRI patterns of high ankle sprains in children versus adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:We reviewed consecutive ankle MRIs performed over 3Â years and divided them into three cohorts: a normal pediatric (â‰¤16Â years) cohort, and pediatric and adult cohorts with acute/subacute ankle syndesmosis injuries. Our retrospective review assessed interobserver agreement (Cohen kappa coefficient) and normal pediatric syndesmotic anatomy. We compared patterns of high ankle sprains (Fisher exact test) including ligament tears, periosteal stripping, avulsions and fractures. RESULTS:Of the 582 ankle MRIs, we included 25 in the normal pediatric cohort, 20 in the pediatric injury cohort and 23 in the adult injury cohort. The anterior and posterior tibiofibular ligaments all attached to cortex or cartilaginous precursor, while the interosseous ligament/membrane complex attached to the fibrous periosteum in 22/25 (88%) normal pediatric cases. Tibial periosteal stripping at the interosseous ligament/membrane complex attachment occurred in 7/20 (35%) pediatric and 1/23 (4%) adult injury cases (P=0.02). No other statistically significant differences were found. Interobserver agreement ranged from kappa=0.46 to kappa=0.82 (ligament tears), 0.38 to 0.45 (avulsions) and 0.69 to 0.77 (periosteal stripping). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The normal interosseous ligament/membrane complex typically attaches to fibrous periosteum rather than bony cortex. Tibial periosteal stripping, usually without tibial fracture, is significantly more common among pediatric high ankle sprains. MRI patterns of high ankle sprains are otherwise not significantly different between children and adults.
The smoke sign: a secondary sign of unsuspected acute pectoralis major tendon injury on routine shoulder MRI
OBJECTIVE:To study the diagnostic utility of the "smoke sign" to detect unsuspected acute pectoralis major tendon injury on routine shoulder MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:Retrospective study of 52 shoulder MRI in patients with (38) and without (14) acute pectoralis major injury confirmed on imaging. Two readers independently reviewed shoulder MRI for the presence of the "smoke sign"-feathery soft tissue edema lateral or anterior to short head biceps/coracobrachialis on fluid-sensitive coronal-oblique and sagittal-oblique images, respectively. RESULTS:The smoke sign was present on shoulder MRI in 24/24 (100%) humeral avulsions, 4/4 (100%) tendon tears, 4/8 (50%) of myotendinous junction injuries, and 0/2 (0%) intramuscular injuries. The smoke sign was present in 0/14 examinations without acute pectoralis major injury. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:While dedicated pectoralis MRI remains the preferred method for imaging pectoralis injury, the "smoke sign" can serve as an easy to recognize finding on routine shoulder MRI that can raise the suspicion of an acute pectoralis major tendon injury. Its detection should prompt evaluation of the pectoralis major tendon and recommendation for dedicated imaging to confirm and evaluate the full extent of injury.
Does Magnetic Resonance Imaging After Diagnostic Ultrasound for Soft Tissue Masses Change Clinical Management?
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To evaluate whether a follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan performed after initial ultrasound (US) to evaluate soft tissue mass (STM) lesions of the musculoskeletal system provides additional radiologic diagnostic information and alters clinical management. METHODS:A retrospective chart review was performed of patients undergoing initial US evaluations of STMs of the axial or appendicular skeleton between November 2012 and March 2019. Patients who underwent US examinations followed by MRI for the evaluation of STM lesions were identified. For inclusion, the subsequent pathologic correlation was required from either a surgical or image-guided biopsy. Imaging studies with pathologic correlations were then reviewed by 3 musculoskeletal radiologists, who were blinded to the pathologic diagnoses. The diagnostic utility of MRI was then assessed on the basis of a 5-point grading scale, and inter-reader agreements were determined by the Fleiss Îº statistic. RESULTS:Ninety-two patients underwent MRI after US for STM evaluations. Final pathologic results were available in 42 cases. Samples were obtained by surgical excision or open biopsy (n = 34) or US-guided core biopsy (n = 8). The most common pathologic diagnoses were nerve sheath tumors (n = 9), lipomas (n = 5), and leiomyomas (n = 5). Imaging review showed that the subsequent MRI did not change the working diagnosis in 73% of cases, and the subsequent MRI was not considered to narrow the differential diagnosis in 68% of cases. There was slight inter-reader agreement for the diagnostic utility of MRI among individual cases (Îº = 0.10) between the 3 readers. CONCLUSIONS:The recommendation of MRI to further evaluate STM lesions seen with US frequently fails to change the working diagnosis or provide significant diagnostic utility.
Fibular Tip Periostitis: New Radiographic Sign Predictive of Chronic Peroneal Tendon Subluxation-Dislocation in Pes Planovalgus
Does image-guided biopsy of discitis-osteomyelitis provide meaningful information to impact clinical management?
OBJECTIVE:The aims of this study are to assess the diagnostic yield of image-guided biopsy for discitis-osteomyelitis (DO), identify factors associated with biopsy yield (laboratory, pre-defined MRI findings, and biopsy technique), and impact of biopsy on management of patients appropriately selected according to the Infectious Disease Society of America guidelines (IDSA). MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:This is a retrospective review of patients who underwent biopsy for suspected DO from 2011 to 2019. Reference standards to establish diagnosis of DO in order were histopathology/microbiology from biopsy or subsequent surgical sampling, positive blood culture or serology, and imaging/clinical follow-up. Laboratory markers, pre-biopsy antibiotics and MRI features, procedural-related variables, and impact of biopsy on management were assessed. Multivariable logistic regression was also performed. RESULTS:Out of 97 included patients, 78 were diagnosed with DO. Overall sensitivity of biopsy for detecting DO was 41.0% (32/78), including 10 patients with positive histopathology only, 14 with positive biopsy culture only, and 8 with both. Elevated ESR (p < 0.001) and epidural collection on MRI (p = 0.008) were associated with higher biopsy yield (63.6% and 68.6%, respectively) in a multivariable model. Procedural variables were not associated with yield. Biopsy results impacted the management in 19/77 (24.7%) patients, of whom 15/19 (78.9%) had treatment de-escalation and 4/19 (21.0%) had treatment escalation including starting new anti-tuberculous and anti-fungal regimens. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Sensitivity of biopsy for detecting DO was 41.0%. When IDSA guidelines are followed, biopsy provided impactful information that changed the management in 24.7% of patients. Evaluation for elevated ESR and epidural collection can help improve yield and patient selection for biopsy.
The Femoroacetabular Impingement Resection (FAIR) Arc: An Intraoperative Aid for Assessing Bony Resection During Hip Arthroscopy
Symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement is one of the most common hip pathologies in young athletes. Intraoperative fluoroscopy is commonly used during hip arthroscopy to aid with portal placement and resection of the cam and pincer lesions. However, there are currently no universally agreed-on tools to allow for the assessment of adequacy of femoral and acetabular osteoplasty. Despite the general lack of consensus among hip arthroscopists, the senior author recommends using the femoroacetabular impingement resection arc to guide the adequacy of cam and pincer resection in hip arthroscopy. Using intraoperative fluoroscopy, one should aim to create a continuous "Shenton's line"-type arc along the inferior aspect of the anterior-inferior iliac spine and superolateral femoral neck base by resecting any bone that causes a break in the continuity of this arc.
Generalized Joint Hypermobility Is Associated With Decreased Hip Labrum Width: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Study
Purpose/UNASSIGNED:To explore the relationship between generalized joint hypermobility and hip labrum width. Methods/UNASSIGNED:and Fisher exact testing as well as linear regression. Results/UNASSIGNED:Â = .004). Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:Patients with a BTS â‰¥4 were found to have significantly thinner labra than those with a BTS of <4. Level of Evidence/UNASSIGNED:III, retrospective comparative trial.
Improved Functional Outcome Scores Associated with Greater Reduction in Cam Height Using the Femoroacetabular Impingement Resection Arc During Hip Arthroscopy
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the association between postoperative cam lesion measured by the "femoroacetabular impingement resection (FAIR) arc" and 2-year patient outcomes following hip arthroscopy. METHODS:A retrospective review of prospectively gathered data from 2013-2017 was performed. All patients who underwent hip arthroscopy for FAI with â‰¥ 2-year follow-up were included. Cam FAIR arc measurements were made pre and postoperatively on a 45Â° Dunn view radiograph. The clinical effect of postoperative cam maximal radial distance (MRD) was assessed using the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS) and Non-Arthritic Hip Score (NAHS). Patients were divided into subgroups based on relationship to the mean and standard deviations for cam MRD. One half standard deviation above the mean was found to be 3.15 mm. RESULTS:=0.004). Subgroup analysis demonstrated that patients in the cam MRD < 3.15 mm group had significantly higher mHHS (89.7 vs 70.0 p<0.001) and NAHS scores (90.5 vs 72.9, p<0.001) than those in the >3.15 mm group. Additionally, more patients in the <3.15 mm group reached the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) (95.2% vs 78.9%, p=0.048) and were above patient acceptable symptomatic state (PASS) (95.2% vs 52.6%, p<0.001) compared to the >3.15 mm group. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Patients with a lower postoperative cam MRD relative to the FAIR arc demonstrated significantly improved outcomes as compared to those with higher postoperative MRD at two-year follow-up.
The Limited Reliability of Physical Examination and Imaging for Diagnosis of Iliopsoas Tendinitis
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To determine if any association exists between physical examination and/or imaging findings [ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] and IPT in order to characterize the reliability of these diagnostic modalities. METHODS:Patients who had undergone US-guided iliopsoas tendon sheath injection (of lidocaine and a corticosteroid agent) as well as MRI performed within one year of injection between 2014-2019 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic data, response to physical exam maneuvers, and response to injection were queried from patient records. US and MRIs were reviewed by 2 independent musculoskeletal-trained radiologists. Response to injection was considered positive if the patient improved by >2 points on a 0-10 VAS score. Chi-square and Fischer exact testing was utilized to assess for any associations. Sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values were calculated. RESULTS:Sixty-three patients, with mean age 52.3 years +/- 17.3, with average BMI 27.4 +/- 4.3, and average follow-up was 33.6 months +/- 20.6 met inclusion criteria. No physical exam maneuvers, sonographic features, or MRI findings were significantly associated with response to iliopsoas tendon injection (p>0.05). Groin pain had a sensitivity of 100%, though a specificity of 7%. Snapping hip had a specificity of 82%, though a sensitivity of 24%. Pain with resisted SLR (sensitivity 62%, specificity 25%), and weakness with resisted SLR (sensitivity 15%, specificity 71%) both were non-reliable. Sonographic bursal distension and tendinosis had low sensitivities (67% and 63%, respectively) and specificities (35% and 32%, respectively). Bursal distension on MRI had sensitivity and specificity of 64% and 45% respectively. Tendon thickening had sensitivity and specificity of 55% and 60%, respectively, while heterogeneity had sensitivity and specificity of 52% and 65%, respectively. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Neither physical examination, nor US, nor MRI findings were associated with a positive response to peritendinous iliopsoas corticosteroid injections in patients with suspected IPT.
Imaging-based patient-reported outcomes (PROs) database: How we do it
Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) provide an essential understanding of the impact a condition or treatment has on a patient, while complementing other, more traditional outcomes information like survival and time to symptom resolution. PROs have become increasingly important in medicine with the push toward patient-centered care. The creation of a PROs database within an institution or practice provides a way to collect, understand, and use this kind of patient feedback to inform quality improvement and develop the evidence base for medical decision-making and on a larger scale could potentially help determine national standards of care and treatment guidelines. This paper provides a first-hand account of our experience setting up an imaging-based PROs database at our institution and is organized into steps the reader can follow for creating a PROs database of their own. Given the limited use of PROs within both diagnostic and interventional radiology, we hope our paper stimulates a new interest among radiologists who may have never considered outcomes work in the past.