Risk of COVID-19 infection and severe disease in MS patients on different disease-modifying therapies
BACKGROUND:The risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and severity with disease modifying therapies (DMTs) in multiple sclerosis (MS) remains unclear, with some studies demonstrating increased risks of infection with B-cell-depleting (anti-CD20) therapies and severity, while others fail to observe an association. Most existing studies are limited by a reliance on 'numerator' data (i.e., COVID-19 cases) only. OBJECTIVE:To assess the risks of COVID-19 by DMT, this study aimed to assess both 'numerator' (patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection) and 'denominator' data (all patients treated with DMTs of interest) to determine if any DMTs impart an increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection or disease severity. METHODS:We systematically reviewed charts and queried patients during clinic encounters in the NYU MS Comprehensive Care Center (MSCCC) for evidence of COVID-19 in all patients who were on the most commonly used DMTs in our clinic (sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor (S1P) modulators (fingolimod/siponimod), rituximab, ocrelizumab, fumarates (dimethyl fumarate/diroximel fumarate), and natalizumab). COVID-19 status was determined by clinical symptoms (CDC case definition) and laboratory testing where available (SARS-CoV-2 PCR, SARS-CoV-2 IgG). Multivariable analyses were conducted to determine predictors of infection and severe disease (hospitalization or death) using SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals per DMT group and all individuals on a given DMT as denominator. RESULTS:We identified 1,439 MS patients on DMTs of interest, of which 230 had lab-confirmed (nâ€¯=â€¯173; 75.2%) or suspected (nâ€¯=â€¯57; 24.8%) COVID-19. Infection was most frequent in those on rituximab (35/138; 25.4%), followed by fumarates (39/217; 18.0%), S1P modulators (43/250; 17.2%), natalizumab (36/245; 14.7%), and ocrelizumab (77/589; 13.1%). There were 14 hospitalizations and 2 deaths. No DMT was found to be significantly associated with increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Rituximab was a predictor of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection among patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection (OR 6.7; 95% CI 1.1-41.7) but did not reach statistical significance when the entire patient population on DMT was used (OR 2.8; 95% CI 0.6-12.2). No other DMT was associated with an increased risk of severe COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS:Analysis of COVID-19 risk among all patients on the commonly used DMTs did not demonstrate increased risk of infection with any DMT. Rituximab was associated with increased risk for severe disease.
Adverse childhood experiences predict reaction to multiple sclerosis diagnosis
Objective/UNASSIGNED:At the time of multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnosis, identifying those at risk for poorer health-related quality of life and emotional well-being can be a critical consideration for treatment planning. This study aimed to test whether adverse childhood experiences predict MS patients' health-related quality of life and emotional functioning at time of diagnosis and initial course of disease. Methods/UNASSIGNED:We recruited patients at the time of new MS diagnosis to complete self-report surveys at baseline and a one-year follow-up. Questionnaires included the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), as well as the MS Knowledge Questionnaire (MSKQ), the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and Self-Management Screening (SeMaS). Results/UNASSIGNED: Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:Childhood adversity predicts health-related quality of life and emotional well-being at time of MS diagnosis and over the initial course of the disease. Measured using a brief screening inventory (ACEs), routine administration may be useful for identifying patients in need of increased supportive services.
COVID-19 outcomes in MS: Observational study of early experience from NYU Multiple Sclerosis Comprehensive Care Center
OBJECTIVE:To report outcomes on patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and related disorders with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) illness. METHODS:From March 16 to April 30, 2020, patients with MS or related disorders at NYU Langone MS Comprehensive Care Center were identified with laboratory-confirmed or suspected COVID-19. The diagnosis was established using a standardized questionnaire or by review of in-patient hospital records. RESULTS:We identified 76 patients (55 with relapsing MS, of which 9 had pediatric onset; 17 with progressive MS; and 4 with related disorders). Thirty-seven underwent PCR testing and were confirmed positive. Of the entire group, 64 (84%) patients were on disease-modifying therapy (DMT) including anti-CD20 therapies (n = 34, 44.7%) and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulators (n = 10, 13.5%). The most common COVID-19 symptoms were fever and cough, but 21.1% of patients had neurologic symptom recrudescence preceding or coinciding with the infection. A total of 18 (23.7%) were hospitalized; 8 (10.5%) had COVID-19 critical illness or related death. Features more common among those hospitalized or with critical illness or death were older age, presence of comorbidities, progressive disease, and a nonambulatory status. No DMT class was associated with an increased risk of hospitalization or fatal outcome. CONCLUSIONS:Most patients with MS with COVID-19 do not require hospitalization despite being on DMTs. Factors associated with critical illness were similar to the general at-risk patient population. DMT use did not emerge as a predictor of poor COVID-19 outcome in this preliminary sample.
Screening Predictors of Psychological Reaction to Multiple Sclerosis Diagnosis [Meeting Abstract]
Nocturia in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis
The prevalence of nocturia in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is high, ranging from 20.9% to 48.8% in this population. Its underlying pathophysiology is complex and different from the non-neurogenic population. In the MS population, the pathophysiology may involve neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) such as detrusor overactivity (NDO), detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia, or detrusor underactivity resulting in reduced bladder capacity. Nocturnal polyuria is also a significant contributor to the pathogenesis of nocturia in MS patients and may be the result of specific mechanisms such as nocturnal hypertension through autonomic cardiovascular dysfunction or lack of diurnal variation of antidiuretic hormone production (ADH) due to demyelinating lesions of the spinal cord. Nocturia might be particularly burdensome in MS patients by contributing to fatigue, a common and highly debilitating symptom in this population. There is likely a complex and multidirectional relationship between nocturia, other sleep disorders, and fatigue in the MS population that has yet to be explored. The assessment of nocturia in MS should rely upon a thorough history and physical examination. Urinalysis should be done to rule out urinary tract infection, a frequency-volume chart might help elucidating the underlying mechanisms, and post-void residual volume may be of interest to screen for urinary retention that could be asymptomatic in MS patients. Other tests such as urodynamics or polysomnography are indicated in selected patients. The treatment should be tailored to the underlying cause. The first steps involve behavioral interventions and treatment of cofactors. When possible, the predominant mechanism should be addressed first. In case of predominant NDO, antimuscarinics and beta-3 agonists should be offered as a first-line treatment and intradetrusor injections of botulinum toxin as a second-line treatment. In cases of incomplete bladder emptying, clean-intermittent self-catheterization is often used as part of multiple other interventions. In cases of nocturnal polyuria, desmopressin may be offered, inclusive of use of newer formulations (desmopressin acetate nasal spray, desmopressin orally disintegrated tablet) in countries where they are approved.
Exploring the bowel and bladder dysfunction relationship in a multiple sclerosis population [Meeting Abstract]
Management Strategies to Facilitate Optimal Outcomes for Patients Treated with Delayed-release Dimethyl Fumarate
Delayed-release dimethyl fumarate is an oral disease-modifying therapy that has demonstrated significant efficacy in adults with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Incidences of flushing and gastrointestinal adverse events are common in the first month after delayed-release dimethyl fumarate initiation. Our objective was to propose mitigation strategies for adverse events related to initiation of delayed-release dimethyl fumarate in the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis. Studies of individually developed mitigation strategies and chart reviews were evaluated. Those results, as well as mitigation protocols developed at multiple sclerosis care centers, are summarized. Key steps to optimize the effectiveness of delayed-release dimethyl fumarate treatment include education prior to and at the time of delayed-release dimethyl fumarate initiation, initiation dose protocol gradually increasing to maintenance dose, dietary suggestions for co-administration with food, gastrointestinal symptom management with over-the-counter medications, flushing symptom management with aspirin, and temporary dose reduction. Using the available evidence from clinical trials and evaluations of post-marketing studies, these strategies to manage gastrointestinal and flushing symptoms can be effective and helpful to the patient when initiating delayed-release dimethyl fumarate.
Efficacy and tolerability of dimethyl fumarate in White-, African- and Hispanic- Americans with multiple sclerosis
BACKGROUND: Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) based on two phase III randomized clinical trials (RCTs). There were not enough non-White patients enrolled in these RCTs to allow for subgroup analysis based on race. Efficacy and tolerability of DMF therapy across various racial groups is unknown. METHODS: Retrospective chart review was performed on all patients with RRMS who were started on DMF in two tertiary multiple sclerosis (MS) clinics. Efficacy and tolerability of DMF was compared across three self-identified racial groups: White-American (WA), African-American (AA) and Hispanic-American (HA). RESULTS: A total of 390 RRMS patients were included in the study: 261 (66.9%) WA, 69 (17.7%) AA and 52 (13.3%) HA. When comparing 'pre-DMF' (1 year) and 'on DMF' (mean follow up of 14 months) periods, statistically significant reduction in rates of annualized relapses (WA from 0.44 to 0.19, AA from 0.39 to 0.15, and HA from 0.39 to 0.14; no differences between groups), new T2 lesions (WA from 45% to 23%, AA from 39% to 23%, HA from 52% to 26%; no difference between groups), and Gd+ lesions (WA from 25% to 13%, AA from 24% to 7%, HA from 23% to 12%; no difference between groups) were seen. DMF was relatively well tolerated across all groups, with an overall discontinuation rate of 20% (no difference between the three groups). CONCLUSION: Efficacy of DMF in our clinic population did not differ across three major ethnic groups, WA, AA and HA, and was comparable with results observed in the pivotal studies. These 'real-life' data suggest that race is not a factor that needs to be taken into account when initiating DMF.
EFFICACY AND TOLERABILITY OF MIRABEGRON IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS: A PROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS [Meeting Abstract]
EFFICACY AND TOLERABILITY OF MIRABEGRON IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS: A PROSPECTIVE [Meeting Abstract]