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Death in a Carbon Dioxide Therapy Bath: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

Samuel, Julian; Georgievskaya, Zhanna
Carbon dioxide (CO2) therapy is the subcutaneous or transcutaneous administration of CO2 for therapeutic purposes. Carbon dioxide therapy is used for localized lipolysis, to treat chronic skin conditions, and is a safe treatment. Full-body CO2 baths are offered in European spa centers, in which the clients are placed into full body bags infused with CO2 at an optimal concentration range between 1000 and 1400 mg/L (516 000-722 500 ppm). Commercially manufactured, air-tight bags and accompanying apparatus designed to provide CO2 baths can be purchased for home use. Few human CO2-related deaths have been reported. They have been mostly accidental, consisting of persons trapped in a closed environment in the presence of "dry ice" or solid CO2. There have been no reported deaths of a human undergoing a CO2 therapy at home. We present a case of a middle-aged male found at home completely inside an air-sealed bag wrapped tightly around his body. The bag was connected to a working pump and a CO2 gas tank. The pump was connected through an inflow and outflow circuit to the bag. The inflow tubing for CO2 gas delivery was partially disrupted, while the outflow tubing was intact. The autopsy and toxicology were unremarkable. The cause of death was determined to be asphyxia by vitiated atmosphere as evident by the displacement of oxygen by CO2 and low pressure created inside a "CO2 therapy bath." The manner of death was accidental.
PMID: 34394794
ISSN: 1925-3621
CID: 5068422

Advantages and Benefits of a Pathology Program-Specific Website [Meeting Abstract]

Mahabir, Roshan; Matloob, Ammar; Samuel, Julian; Mubasher, Adnan; Friedman, Mark
ISSN: 0002-9173
CID: 4038712

Gastric Glomus Tumor: A Rare Gastric Tumor Featuring Small Round Blue Cell; Diagnostic Pitfall for Carcinoid Tumor [Meeting Abstract]

Dhorajiva, Poojaben; Samuel, Julian; Mahabir, Roshan; Sharabi, Abdelsalam
ISSN: 0002-9173
CID: 4038692

Novel JK allele background associated with production of anti-JK3 during pregnancy [Case Report]

Samuel, Julian; Vege, Sunitha; Aeschlimann, Judith; Lomas-Francis, Christine; Westhoff, Connie M; Friedman, Mark; Annen, Kyle
PMID: 29399811
ISSN: 1537-2995
CID: 3980362

A Review of the \July Effect\ and Autopsy Statistics in Three Teaching Hospitals in New York City [Meeting Abstract]

Mahabir, Roshan; Samuel, Julian; Raza, Roshan; Vu, Mai; Modica, Ippolito
ISSN: 0893-3952
CID: 3979962