Social Determinants of Health Attenuate the Relationship Between Race and Ethnicity and White Matter Hyperintensity Severity but not Microbleed Presence in Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage
BACKGROUND:The association between race and ethnicity and microvascular disease in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is unclear. We hypothesized that social determinants of health (SDOHs) mediate the relationship between race and ethnicity and severity of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) and microbleeds in patients with ICH. METHODS:We performed a retrospective observational cohort study of patients with ICH at two tertiary care hospitals between 2013 and 2020 who underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were evaluated for the presence of microbleeds and WMH severity (defined by the Fazekas scale; moderate to severe WMH defined as Fazekas scores 3-6). We assessed for associations between sex, race and ethnicity, employment status, median household income, education level, insurance status, and imaging biomarkers of microvascular disease. A mediation analysis was used to investigate the influence of SDOHs on the associations between race and imaging features. We assessed the relationship of all variables with discharge outcomes. RESULTS:We identified 233 patients (mean age 62 [SD 16]; 48% female) with ICH. Of these, 19% were Black non-Hispanic, 32% had a high school education or less, 21% required an interpreter, 11% were unemployed, and 6% were uninsured. Moderate to severe WMH, identified in 114 (50%) patients, was associated with age, Black non-Hispanic race and ethnicity, highest level of education, insurance status, and history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or diabetes (pâ€‰<â€‰0.05). In the mediation analysis, the proportion of the association between Black non-Hispanic race and ethnicity and the Fazekas score that was mediated by highest level of education was 65%. Microbleeds, present in 130 (57%) patients, was associated with age, highest level of education, and history of diabetes or hypertension (pâ€‰<â€‰0.05). Age, highest level of education, insurance status, and employment status were associated with discharge modified Rankin Scale scores of 3-6, but race and ethnicity was not. CONCLUSIONS:The association between Black non-Hispanic race and ethnicity and moderate to severe WMH lost significance after we adjusted for highest level of education, suggesting that SDOHs may mediate the association between race and ethnicity and microvascular disease.
Stroke Treatment Delay Limits Outcome After Mechanical Thrombectomy: Stratification by Arrival Time and ASPECTS
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Mechanical thrombectomy (MT) has helped many patients achieve functional independence. The effect of time-to-treatment based in specific epochs and as related to Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) has not been established. The goal of the study was to evaluate the association between last known normal (LKN)-to-puncture time and good functional outcome. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective cohort study of prospectively collected acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing MT for large vessel occlusion. We used binary logistic regression models adjusted for age, Modified Treatment in Cerebral Ischemia score, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and noncontrast CT ASPECTS to assess the association between LKN-to-puncture time and favorable outcome defined as Modified Rankin Score 0-2 on discharge. RESULTS:Among 421 patients, 328 were included in analysis. Increased LKN-to-puncture time was associated with decreased probability of good functional outcome (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] ratio per 15-minute delay = .98; 95% confidence interval [CI], .97-.99; P = .001). This was especially true when LKN-puncture time was 0-6 hours (aOR per 15-minute delay = .94; 95% CI, .89-.99; P = .05) or ASPECTS 8-10 (aOR = .98; 95% CI, .97-.99; P = .002) as opposed to when LKN-puncture time was 6-24 hours (aOR per 15-minute delay = .99; 95% CI, .97-1.00; P = .16) and ASPECTS <8 (aOR = .98; 95% CI, .93-1.03; P = .37). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Decreased LKN-groin puncture time improves outcome particularly in those with good ASPECTS presenting within 6 hours. Strategies to decrease reperfusion times should be investigated, particularly in those in the early time window and with good ASPECTS.
Acute stroke care in a New York City comprehensive stroke center during the COVID-19 pandemic
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused unprecedented demand and burden on emergency health care services in New York City. We aim to describe our experience providing acute stroke care at a comprehensive stroke center (CSC) and the impact of the pandemic on the quality of care for patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). METHODS:We retrospectively analyzed data from a quality improvement registry of consecutive AIS patients at New York University Langone Health's CSC between 06/01/2019-05/15/2020. During the early stages of the pandemic, the acute stroke process was modified to incorporate COVID-19 screening, testing, and other precautionary measures. We compared stroke quality metrics including treatment times and discharge outcomes of AIS patients during the pandemic (03/012020-05/152020) compared with a historical pre-pandemic group (6/1/2019-2/29/2020). RESULTS:A total of 754 patients (pandemic-120; pre-pandemic-634) were admitted with a principal diagnosis of AIS; 198 (26.3%) received alteplase and/or mechanical thrombectomy. Despite longer median door to head CT times (16 vs 12 minutes; pÂ =Â 0.05) and a trend towards longer door to groin puncture times (79.5 vs. 71Â min, pâ€¯=â€¯0.06), the time to alteplase administration (36 vs 35Â min; pâ€¯=â€¯0.83), door to reperfusion times (103 vs 97Â min, pâ€¯=â€¯0.18) and defect-free care (95.2% vs 94.7%; pâ€¯=â€¯0.84) were similar in the pandemic and pre-pandemic groups. Successful recanalization rates (TICIâ‰¥2b) were also similar (82.6% vs. 86.7%, pâ€¯=â€¯0.48). After adjusting for stroke severity, age and a prior history of transient ischemic attack/stroke, pandemic patients had increased discharge mortality (adjusted OR 2.90 95% CI 1.77 - 7.17, pâ€¯=â€¯0.021) CONCLUSION: Despite unprecedented demands on emergency healthcare services, early multidisciplinary efforts to adapt the acute stroke treatment process resulted in keeping the stroke quality time metrics close to pre-pandemic levels. Future studies will be needed with a larger cohort comparing discharge and long-term outcomes between pre-pandemic and pandemic AIS patients.
Keeping the team together: Transformation of an inpatient neurology service at an urban, multi-ethnic, safety net hospital in New York City during COVID-19
The COVID-19 pandemic dramatically affected the operations of New York City hospitals during March and April of 2020. This article describes the transformation of a neurology division at a 450-bed tertiary care hospital in a multi-ethnic community in Brooklyn during this initial wave of COVID-19. In lieu of a mass redeployment of staff to internal medicine teams, we report a novel method for a neurology division to participate in a hospital's expansion of care for patients with COVID-19 while maintaining existing team structures and their inherent supervisory and interpersonal support mechanisms.
SARS2-CoV-2 and Stroke in a New York Healthcare System
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:With the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during the current worldwide pandemic, there is mounting evidence that patients affected by the illness may develop clinically significant coagulopathy with thromboembolic complications including ischemic stroke. However, there is limited data on the clinical characteristics, stroke mechanism, and outcomes of patients who have a stroke and COVID-19. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients with ischemic stroke who were hospitalized between March 15, 2020, and April 19, 2020, within a major health system in New York, the current global epicenter of the pandemic. We compared the clinical characteristics of stroke patients with a concurrent diagnosis of COVID-19 to stroke patients without COVID-19 (contemporary controls). In addition, we compared patients to a historical cohort of patients with ischemic stroke discharged from our hospital system between March 15, 2019, and April 15, 2019 (historical controls). RESULTS:<0.001). When compared with contemporary controls, COVID-19 positive patients had higher admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score and higher peak D-dimer levels. When compared with historical controls, COVID-19 positive patients were more likely to be younger men with elevated troponin, higher admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, and higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Patients with COVID-19 and stroke had significantly higher mortality than historical and contemporary controls. CONCLUSIONS:We observed a low rate of imaging-confirmed ischemic stroke in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Most strokes were cryptogenic, possibly related to an acquired hypercoagulability, and mortality was increased. Studies are needed to determine the utility of therapeutic anticoagulation for stroke and other thrombotic event prevention in patients with COVID-19.
Carotid intimal sarcoma causing stroke and intracranial metastasis via tumor embolization
OBJECTIVE:To present the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings of a patient with carotid intimal sarcoma. METHODS:Detailed medical interview, neurologic examination, and diagnostic evaluation including CT angiography head and neck, MRI brain and neck, digital subtraction angiography, and biopsy of the mass were performed. RESULTS:We report a patient who presented with symptoms of multifocal, bilateral strokes over weeks caused by an enlarging tumor thrombus associated with an intimal sarcoma of the carotid artery. The presence of a carotid space mass encasing the left internal carotid artery was initially not recognized on imaging and was mistakenly attributed to soft atheromatous plaque rather than tumor thrombus. Rapid disease progression resulted in multiple intracranial metastases from tumor embolization. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Clinical and radiologic findings of intimal sarcoma may be similar to those of thrombotic disease. However, patients with sarcoma may show an associated perivascular soft tissue mass and an unusual distribution of vessel stenosis. Reevaluation of imaging should be considered in patients presenting with initial imaging findings suggestive of rapidly progressive thrombotic disease who have a poor response to antithrombotic therapy and do not follow an expected clinical course.
TIME IS BRAIN in mechanical thrombectomy Particularly in Those Arriving within 6 hours and have good ASPECTS score [Meeting Abstract]
Association Between Functional Outcomes of Stroke Patients Receiving Mechanical Thrombectomy and CT Perfusion Imaging Acquisition [Meeting Abstract]
Etiologic Subtypes of Ischemic Stroke in SARS-CoV-2 Patients in a Cohort of New York City Hospitals
Objective: To describe the ischemic stroke subtypes related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a cohort of New York City hospitals and explore their etiopathogenesis. Background: Most neurological manifestations are non-focal, but few have reported the characteristics of ischemic strokes or investigated its pathophysiology. Methods: Data were collected prospectively April 1-April 15, 2020 from two centers in New York City to review possible ischemic stroke types seen in COVID-19-positive patients. Patient presentation, demographics, related vascular risk factors, associated laboratory markers, as well as imaging and outcomes were collected. Results: The age of patients ranged between 27 and 82 years. Approximately 81% of patients had known vascular risk factors, the commonest being hypertension (75%) followed by diabetes (50%) coronary disease or atrial fibrillation. Eight patients presented with large vessel occlusion (LVO) with median age 55 years (27-82) and all were male. Eight patients presented with non-LVO syndromes, with median age 65.5 years (59-82) and most were female (62.5%). Both groups were 50% African Americans and 37.5% South Asian. Both groups had similar D-dimer levels although other acute phase reactants/disease severity markers (Ferritin, CRP, procalcitonin) were higher in the LVO group. The LVO group also had a significantly higher mortality compared to the non-LVO group. The most common etiology was cryptogenic (6 patients) followed by small vessel occlusion (3 patients) and undetermined-unclassified (3 patients). For the remaining 4 patients, 2 were identified as cardioembolic and 2 with large artery atherosclerosis. Conclusion: COVID-19-related ischemic events can present as small vessel occlusions, branch emboli or large vessel occlusions. The most common etiology is cryptogenic. Patients with LVO syndromes tend to be younger, male and may have elevated acute inflammatory markers.
Zika Virus-Associated Guillain-BarrÃ© Syndrome in a Returning US Traveler
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been associated with Guillain-BarrÃ© Syndrome (GBS). Roughly 60% of people in countries such as the U.S. live in areas at risk for seasonal spread of ZIKV. ZIKV belongs to a class of diseases that is not typically seen in hospital settings across the U.S. and Europe. We describe the case presentation, management, and treatment of ZIKV infection complicated by GBS. A 64-year-old woman with recent travel to the Dominican Republic presented with rash followed by an acute, ascending polyneuropathy consistent with GBS. She was confirmed to have an acute ZIKV infection by detection of ZIKV nucleic acid by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. She met Brighton Collaboration criteria level 1 evidence for GBS. She received two courses of intravenous immunoglobulin and slowly improved, though still had weakness at discharge. More research is needed to identify the pathophysiology behind ZIKV-associated GBS and its optimal treatment. Prevention is fundamental to limiting infection and spread of ZIKV.