Left Atrial Appendage Tilt-Up-and-Turn-Left Maneuver: A Novel Three-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography Imaging Maneuver to Characterize the Left Atrial Appendage and to Improve Transcatheter Closure Guidance [Case Report]
• Precise LAA anatomy must be established for LAA occlusion device selection. • We have developed the TUPLE maneuver, an acronym for “tilt up and turn left”. • The TUPLE maneuver facilitates LAA device selection and intraprocedural guidance.
Concordance of Pericardial Effusion Size Between Computed Tomography and Echocardiography
Discrepancy between computed tomography (CT) and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) regarding pericardial effusion (PEff) size is common, but there is limited data regarding the correlation between these 2 imaging methods. The aim of this study is to examine the real-world concordance of observed PEff size between CT and TTE. We performed a retrospective analysis of all imaging reports available from 2013 to 2019 and identified patients with a PEff who underwent both a chest CT and TTE within a 24-hour period. We evaluated the agreement between CT and TTE in assessing PEff size. Of 1,118 patients included in the study, mean age was 66 (±17 years) and 54% were female. The median time interval between the 2 studies was 9.4 hours (interquartile range 3.5 to 16.6). Patients within a half-grade or full-grade of agreement were 71.9% and 97.2%, respectively. The mean difference in grade of agreement (TTE minus CT) between the 2 imaging methods was -0.1 (±0.6, p <0.0001). CT was more likely to report a higher grade (i.e. larger PEff size) when compared with TTE (261 patients vs 157 patients, p <0.001). The weighted kappa was 0.73 (95% confidence interval 0.69 to 0.76). After excluding patients with trace/no effusion, 42.3% and 94.1% of patients' studies were within a half-grade or full-grade of agreement, respectively. Of the 18 patients who had large discrepancies, 9 patients had loculated effusions, 2 patients had large pleural effusions, and 6 patients had suboptimal TTEs images. In conclusion, TTE and CT showed relatively strong agreement in estimation of PEff size, with CT sizes larger than TTE, on average. Large discrepancies in size may be related to reduced image quality, large pleural effusions, and loculated PEff.
The Double-Orifice Left Atrial Appendage: Multimodality and Virtual Transillumination Imaging [Case Report]
• LAA membranes are exceedingly rare with variable morphologies. • Thromboembolic risk with LAA membranes remains unknown. • Use of 3D TEE transillumination may assist in visualization and understanding.
The (Heart and) Soul of a Human Creation: Designing Echocardiography for the Big Data Age [Editorial]
Device-Associated Thrombus with Watchman FLX Left Atrial Appendage Closure Device: A Report of Two Cases [Case Report]
• Individual cases of Watchman FLX DAT are scare in literature. • The Watchman FLX has shown lower rates of DAT than the Watchman 2.0. • Thrombus formation is still possible in rare instances with the Watchman FLX.
Apical Aneurysms and Mid-Left Ventricular Obstruction in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
BACKGROUND:Apical left ventricular (LV) aneurysms in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) are associated with adverse outcomes. The reported frequency of mid-LV obstruction has varied from 36% to 90%. OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The authors sought to ascertain the frequency of mid-LV obstruction in HCM apical aneurysms. METHODS:The authors analyzed echocardiographic and cardiac magnetic resonance examinations of patients with aneurysms from 3 dedicated programs and compared them with 63 normal controls and 47 controls with apical-mid HCM who did not have aneurysms (22 with increased LV systolic velocities). RESULTS:]; P = 0.004). Complete emptying occurs circumferentially around central PMs that contribute to obstruction. Late gadolinium enhancement was always brightest and the most transmural apical of, or at the level of, complete emptying. CONCLUSIONS:The great majority (95%) of patients in the continuum of apical aneurysms have associated mid-LV obstruction. Further research to investigate obstruction as a contributing cause to apical aneurysms is warranted.
Recommendations for Special Competency in Echocardiographic Guidance of Structural Heart Disease Interventions: From the American Society of Echocardiography
Transcatheter therapies for structural heart disease continue to grow at a rapid pace, and echocardiography is the primary imaging modality used to support such procedures. Transesophageal echocardiographic guidance of structural heart disease procedures must be performed by highly skilled echocardiographers who can provide rapid, accurate, and high-quality image acquisition and interpretation in real time. Training standards are needed to ensure that interventional echocardiographers have the necessary expertise to perform this complex task. This document provides guidance on all critical aspects of training for cardiology and anesthesiology trainees and postgraduate echocardiographers who plan to specialize in interventional echocardiography. Core competencies common to all transcatheter therapies are reviewed in addition to competencies for each specific transcatheter procedure. A core principle is that the length of interventional echocardiography training or achieved procedure volumes are less important than the demonstration of procedure-specific competencies within the milestone domains of knowledge, skill, and communication.
Transesophageal Echocardiographic Screening for Structural Heart Interventions
PURPOSE OF REVIEW/OBJECTIVE:Percutaneous structural interventions have provided patients with an effective therapeutic option, and its growth has been aided by echocardiography. We describe the vital role that transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) plays in screening patients prior to their procedure. RECENT FINDINGS/RESULTS:A multimodality imaging approach is employed by the valve team, but TEE plays a unique role in diagnosis and planning. Utilization of all TEE views and features such as biplane, 3D imaging, and multiplanar reconstruction ensures accurate assessment of the structural lesion of interest. The role of TEE remains essential in the planning of structural interventions, and these studies should be performed in a systematic and comprehensive manner.
Congenital anatomy, acquired pathology - A synergistic approach to echocardiographic evaluation of the adult with congenital heart disease [Comment]
A Case Report of Cardiac Arrest After Intravenous Administration of Sulfur Hexafluoride (Lumason®) Ultrasound Enhancing Agent
Ultrasound enhancing agents (UEAs) are medications that enable clear visualization of ultrasound images. While large studies have demonstrated the safety of these agents, case reports of life-threatening reactions temporally associated with their use have been published and reported to the Food and Drug Administration. Current literature describes the most serious adverse reactions due to UEAs to be allergic in nature; however, embolic phenomena may play a role as well. Here, we report a case of unexplained cardiac arrest following the administration of sulfur hexafluoride (Lumason®) in an adult inpatient undergoing echocardiography where resuscitative efforts were ultimately unsuccessful, and review possible mechanisms of cardiac arrest based on prior published literature.