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Recurrent Liver Allograft Injury in Patients With Donor-Derived Malignancy Treated With Immunosuppression Cessation and Retransplantation

Lee, Brian T; Ganjoo, Naveen; Fiel, M Isabel; Hechtman, Jackie F; Sarkar, Suparna A; Kim-Schluger, Leona; Florman, Sander S; Schiano, Thomas D
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Donor-derived malignancy of the liver allograft is a rare but serious condition in the setting of necessary immunosuppression. Retransplantation after abrupt immunosuppression cessation has been performed with durable cancer-free survival. METHODS:We present 2 cases of patients with donor-derived malignancy who were treated with complete immunosuppression cessation, which induced rapidly progressive liver allograft rejection and failure, with a need for subsequent retransplantation. We reviewed all serial liver biopsies and explants from both patients and performed C4d immunostaining. RESULTS:Initial explants of both patients showed severe allograft rejection, with unusual features of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome and C4d positivity. Malignant tumors in the explants were necrotic, related to rejection of donor-derived cancer cells and tissue. Follow-up of both patients has shown long-term cancer-free survival but issues with recurrent allograft failure requiring a third transplant. The reasons for retransplantation in both cases were related to allograft failure from antibody-mediated rejection. CONCLUSIONS:Clinicians should be aware of a potentially increased risk of rejection and recurrent allograft failure when strategizing treatment of donor-derived malignancy with immunosuppression cessation and retransplantation.
PMID: 35285881
ISSN: 1943-7722
CID: 5182412

Primary small bowel adenocarcinoma with loss of nuclear expression of PMS2 after resection of mucinous cholangiocarcinoma [Case Report]

Mujeeb Ullah, Ateeqa; Jaysing, Anna; Hashmi, Hassan Raza; Sohail, Amir Humza; Li, Wendi; Allendorf, John D; Sarkar, Suparna A
Mucinous cholangiocarcinoma is an extremely rare form of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma that has been characterized by rapid growth, widespread metastasis and poor prognosis. These tumors have been shown to be a part of the Lynch syndrome tumor spectrum, however, the role of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency in their development is poorly understood. We present the case of a 74-year-old male with cholangiocarcinoma, who underwent Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy and extended left hepatectomy and was diagnosed with a primary small bowel adenocarcinoma 2 years later. Immunohistochemistry testing for mismatch repair proteins was significant for the loss of nuclear expression of PMS2. Taken together, the cause of both the mucinous cholangiocarcinoma and primary small bowel adenocarcinoma with PMS2 loss in the patient presented here is likely genetic, suggestive of a cancer syndrome.
PMID: 35111293
ISSN: 2042-8812
CID: 5153712

Primary small bowel adenocarcinoma with loss of nuclear expression of PMS2 after resection of mucinous cholangiocarcinoma

Ullah, Ateeqa Mujeeb; Jaysing, Anna; Hashmi, Hassan Raza; Sohail, Amir Humza; Li, Wendi; Allendorf, John D.; Sarkar, Suparna A.
ISSN: 2042-8812
CID: 5242822

COVID-19 Patients with GI Manifestations May be Associated with Extensive Microthrombosis in the Small Intestine, a Study from 13 Autopsy Cases [Meeting Abstract]

Saberi, Shahram; Lin, Lawrence; Thomas, Kristen; Chiriboga, Luis; Sarkar, Suparna; Cao, Wenqing (Wendy)
ISSN: 0023-6837
CID: 5243132

COVID-19 Patients with GI Manifestations May be Associated with Extensive Microthrombosis in the Small Intestine, a Study from 13 Autopsy Cases [Meeting Abstract]

Saberi, Shahram; Lin, Lawrence; Thomas, Kristen; Chiriboga, Luis; Sarkar, Suparna; (Wendy) Cao, Wenqing
ISSN: 0893-3952
CID: 5243262

A Case of Superinfection with Burkholderia Cepacia in a Patient with Covid-19 Pneumonia [Meeting Abstract]

Sarkar, T.; Nitol, F. A.; Sarkar, S.; Cervellione, K.; Shalonov, A.
ISSN: 1073-449x
CID: 5340272

Crohn Disease Active Inflammation Assessment with Iodine Density from Dual-Energy CT Enterography: Comparison with Histopathologic Analysis

Dane, Bari; Sarkar, Suparna; Nazarian, Matthew; Galitzer, Hayley; O'Donnell, Thomas; Remzi, Feza; Chang, Shannon; Megibow, Alec
Background Dual-energy CT enterography (DECTE) has been shown to be useful in characterizing Crohn disease activity compared with clinical markers of inflammation but, to the knowledge of the authors, comparison has not been made with histopathologic specimens. Purpose To compare mucosal iodine density obtained at DECTE from Crohn disease-affected bowel with histopathologic specimens from surgically resected ileocolectomy bowel segments or terminal ileum colonoscopic biopsies in the same patients. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study. Bowel segments in adults with Crohn disease who underwent DECTE from January 2017 to April 2019 within 90 days of ileocolectomy or colonoscopy were retrospectively evaluated with prototype software allowing the semiautomatic determination of inner hyperdense bowel wall (mucosal) mean iodine density, normalized to the aorta. Mean normalized iodine density and clinical activity indexes (Crohn Disease Activity Index [CDAI] and Harvey-Bradshaw Index [HBI]) were compared with histologic active inflammation grades by using two-tailed t tests. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated for mean normalized iodine density, CDAI, and HBI to determine sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. A P value less than .05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Results The following 16 patients were evaluated (mean age, 41 years ± 14 [standard deviation]): 10 patients (five men, five women; mean age, 41 years ± 15) with 19 surgical resection specimens and six patients with terminal ileum colonoscopic mucosal biopsies (four men, two women; mean age, 43 years ± 14). Mean normalized iodine density was 16.5% ± 5.7 for bowel segments with no active inflammation (n = 8) and 34.7% ± 9.7 for segments with any active inflammation (n = 17; P < .001). A 20% mean normalized iodine density threshold had sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 17 of 17 (100%; 95% CI: 80.5, 100), six of eight (75%; 95% CI: 35, 97), and 23 of 25 (92%; 95% CI: 74, 99), respectively, for active inflammation. Clinical indexes were similar for patients with and without active inflammation at histopathologic analysis (CDAI score, 261 vs 251, respectively [P = .77]; HBI score, 7.8 vs 6.4, respectively [P = .36]). Conclusion Iodine density from dual-energy CT enterography may be used as a radiologic marker of Crohn disease activity as correlated with histopathologic analysis. © RSNA, 2021 See also the editorial by Ohliger in this issue.
PMID: 34342502
ISSN: 1527-1315
CID: 4988602

Cholangiopathy After Severe COVID-19: Clinical Features and Prognostic Implications

Faruqui, Saamia; Okoli, Fidelis C; Olsen, Sonja K; Feldman, David M; Kalia, Harmit S; Park, James S; Stanca, Carmen M; Figueroa Diaz, Viviana; Yuan, Sarah; Dagher, Nabil N; Sarkar, Suparna A; Theise, Neil D; Kim, Sooah; Shanbhogue, Krishna; Jacobson, Ira M
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus, is a predominantly respiratory tract infection with the capacity to affect multiple organ systems. Abnormal liver tests, mainly transaminase elevations, have been reported in hospitalized patients. We describe a syndrome of cholangiopathy in patients recovering from severe COVID-19 characterized by marked elevation in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) accompanied by evidence of bile duct injury on imaging. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective study of COVID-19 patients admitted to our institution from March 1, 2020, to August 15, 2020, on whom the hepatology service was consulted for abnormal liver tests. Bile duct injury was identified by abnormal liver tests with serum ALP > 3x upper limit of normal and abnormal findings on magnetic resonance cholangiopacreatography. Clinical, laboratory, radiological, and histological findings were recorded in a Research Electronic Data Capture database. RESULTS:Twelve patients were identified, 11 men and 1 woman, with a mean age of 58 years. Mean time from COVID-19 diagnosis to diagnosis of cholangiopathy was 118 days. Peak median serum alanine aminotransferase was 661 U/L and peak median serum ALP was 1855 U/L. Marked elevations of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and D-dimers were common. Magnetic resonance cholangiopacreatography findings included beading of intrahepatic ducts (11/12, 92%), bile duct wall thickening with enhancement (7/12, 58%), and peribiliary diffusion high signal (10/12, 83%). Liver biopsy in 4 patients showed acute and/or chronic large duct obstruction without clear bile duct loss. Progressive biliary tract damage has been demonstrated radiographically. Five patients were referred for consideration of liver transplantation after experiencing persistent jaundice, hepatic insufficiency, and/or recurrent bacterial cholangitis. One patient underwent successful living donor liver transplantation. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:Cholangiopathy is a late complication of severe COVID-19 with the potential for progressive biliary injury and liver failure. Further studies are required to understand pathogenesis, natural history, and therapeutic interventions.
PMID: 33993134
ISSN: 1572-0241
CID: 4876442

Single Cell Transcriptional Survey of Ileal-Anal Pouch Immune Cells from Ulcerative Colitis Patients

Devlin, Joseph C; Axelrad, Jordan; Hine, Ashley M; Chang, Shannon; Sarkar, Suparna; Lin, Jian-Da; Ruggles, Kelly V; Hudesman, David; Cadwell, Ken; Loke, P'ng
BACKGROUND & AIMS/OBJECTIVE:Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is a surgical procedure in patients with ulcerative colitis refractory to medical therapies. Pouchitis, the most common complication, is inflammation of the pouch of unknown etiology. To define how the intestinal immune system is distinctly organized during pouchitis, we analyzed tissues from patients with and without pouchitis and from patients with ulcerative colitis using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq). METHODS:We examined pouch lamina propria CD45+ hematopoietic cells from intestinal tissues of ulcerative colitis patients with (n=15) and without an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (n=11). Further in silico meta-analysis was performed to generate transcriptional interaction networks and identify biomarkers for patients with inflamed pouches. RESULTS:In addition to tissue-specific signatures, we identified a population of IL1B/LYZ+ myeloid cells and FOXP3/BATF+ T cells that distinguish inflamed tissues which we further validated in other single cell RNA-seq datasets from IBD patients. Cell type specific transcriptional markers obtained from single-cell RNA-sequencing was used to infer representation from bulk RNA sequencing datasets, which further implicated myeloid cells expressing IL1B and S100A8/A9 calprotectin as interacting with stromal cells, and Bacteroidiales and Clostridiales bacterial taxa. We found that non-responsiveness to anti-integrin biologic therapies in ulcerative colitis patients was associated with the signature of IL1B+/LYZ+ myeloid cells in a subset of patients. CONCLUSIONS:Features of intestinal inflammation during pouchitis and ulcerative colitis are similar, which may have clinical implications for the management of pouchitis. scRNA-seq enables meta-analysis of multiple studies, which may facilitate the identification of biomarkers to personalize therapy for IBD patients.
PMID: 33359089
ISSN: 1528-0012
CID: 4731302

The histopathologic characteristics of the gastrointestinal system in SARS-COV-2 infected patients who underwent biopsy or resection [Meeting Abstract]

Ahmed, S; Hoskoppal, D; Lin, L; Suarez, Y; Liu, W; Cho, M; Thomas, K; Guzzetta, M; Hajdu, C; Theise, N; Jour, G; Sarkar, S; Cao, W
Background: In addition to respiratory distress, GI symptoms have been reported in COVID-19 patients at various stages of the disease. Among the GI symptoms that have been reported, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and GI bleeding were often seen. Age and comorbid conditions such as obesity, HTN, DM and/or CAD have been considered as risk factors for COVID-19 patients for severe disease. GI manifestations in COVID-19 patients appeared to act as a sign for a serious condition. The virus has been identified in the stool and in rectal swabs of some infected patients, even after a negative nasopharyngeal test. There is a lack of reports on pathological alterations of the GI tract in COVID-19 infected patients.
Design(s): 16 PCR confirmed COVID-19 patients (11 males and 5 females) were included in the study. Biopsy or resection specimens were taken from the esophagus (4), stomach (6), small intestine (5), appendix (3), colon (5) and gallbladder (3). Clinical information including demographics, comorbidities, GI symptoms, related laboratory tests were collected. Histopathologic evaluation was performed and correlated with clinical properties.
Result(s): The age of the patients ranged from 10 to 84 years old, with an average of 47 years. Eight (50%) patients had at least one comorbid condition, two patients (12.5%) had prior history of cancer, and six patients had no significant medical history. Abdominal pain and GI bleeding were the most common presenting symptoms. Histologically, acute and chronic inflammation was seen in 14 of 16, and 15 of 16 cases, respectively. Eight cases showed severe acute inflammation with ulceration. The mucosal changes included nonspecific reactive change, hypermucinous, atrophic/ischemic changes, and necrosis, were indiscriminately noticed in these cases. Four cases showed intraepithelial lymphocytosis. Viral like inclusions were found in four cases. Microthrombi were identified in 5 cases with an average patient age of 60 years. Notably, microthrombi were seen in about 5 out of 8 (62%) patients with comorbidities. The patients with microthrombi had a higher D dimer test value than those without thrombus. Three patients died shortly after operation, and two of them showed microthrombi in the tissue specimens.
Conclusion(s): Acute and chronic inflammation were indiscriminately seen in these cases. Microthrombi were dominantly found in aging patients with comorbidities, suggesting microthrombi in the GI tract may be a histologic indication for severe COVID-19 patients with GI symptoms
ISSN: 1530-0307
CID: 4857062