Key lessons learned from the INDIGO global network on mental health related stigma and discrimination
Clozapine prescription pattern in patients with schizophrenia in Asia: The REAP survey (2016)
Clozapine is an effective antipsychotic medication for treatment resistant schizophrenia and is widely used in Asian countries. This study investigated clozapine prescription patterns and their associated factors in Asian countries and territories based on the database of the Research on Asian Psychotropic prescription study (REAP) conducted in 2016. Demographic and clinical information of 3744 schizophrenia patients in 15 Asian countries and territories was collected with a standardized data collection form. In total, 18.4% of the sample received clozapine, ranging from 2.6% in Japan to 32.3% in Hong Kong. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that higher antipsychotic dose (ORÂ =Â 1.002, PÂ <Â 0.001), less frequent first admission in the sample (ORÂ =Â 0.6, PÂ <Â 0.001), more severe negative symptoms (ORÂ =Â 1.4, Pâ€¯=â€¯0.001) and less first generation antipsychotics (FGAs) (ORÂ =Â 0.2, PÂ <Â 0.001) were independently and significantly associated with clozapine prescription. Clozapine is frequently and increasingly prescribed for schizophrenia in Asia, with large variation across countries and territories. Given the diverse prescription patterns of clozapine found in Asian countries/territories, the clinical rationale of clozapine prescription needs careful consideration in Asia with more local input.
Child and adolescent psychiatry in the Far East: A 5-year follow up on the Consortium on Academic Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in the Far East (CACAP-FE) study
AIM/OBJECTIVE:Data pertaining to child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) training systems are limited as extant research has mostly been derived from one-time data collection. This 5-year follow-up survey collects updated information on CAP training systems in the Far East, allowing for the tracking of system changes over the past 5â€‰years. METHODS:Data were obtained from 18 countries, or functionally self-governing areas, in the Far East, 17 of which were also included in the original study. An online questionnaire was completed by leading CAP professionals in each country. Questions were expanded in the present study to capture the contents of CAP training. RESULTS:When compared to data from the original study, there has been progress in CAP training systems in the last 5â€‰years. Specifically, there has been an increase in the number of countries with CAP training programs and national guidelines for the training. In addition, the number of CAP departments/divisions affiliated with academic institutions/universities has increased. Findings from 12 of 18 countries in the present study provide data on clinical contents. All informants of the present study reported the need for more child and adolescent psychiatrists and allied professionals. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Despite progress in CAP training systems over the last 5â€‰years, the need for more professionals in child and adolescent mental health care in all the relevant areas in this region have yet to be adequately addressed. Continued national efforts and international collaborations are imperative to developing and sustaining new CAP training systems while facilitating improvements in existing programs.
Psychotropic drug-prescribing correlates of disorganized speech in Asians with schizophrenia: The REAP-AP study
Background/UNASSIGNED:Although disorganized speech is seen as one of the nuclear features of schizophrenia, there have been few reports of disorganized speech-associated psychotropic drug-prescribing patterns in large samples of schizophrenia patients. Objective/UNASSIGNED:We aimed to examine the prevalence of disorganized speech and its correlates in terms of psychotropic drug prescribing, using the data from the Research on Asian Psychotropic Patterns for Antipsychotics (REAP-AP) study. Method/UNASSIGNED:A total of 3744 patients with the ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia were enrolled from 71 survey centers in 15 Asian countries/areas. An essential criterion of disorganized speech was that it was "severe enough to impair substantially effective communication" as defined in the DSM-5. A binary logistic model was fitted to identify the psychotropic drug-prescribing correlates of disorganized speech. Results/UNASSIGNED:â€¯<â€¯0.0001). Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:The association between disorganized speech and adjunctive use of mood stabilizers could perhaps be understood in the context of a relationship with impulsiveness/aggressiveness, or in terms of deconstructing the Kraepelinian dualism.
The effect of chronic physical illnesses on psychiatric hospital admission in patients with recurrent major depression
People with major depressive disorder (MDD) have an increased burden of chronic physical illnesses (CPI). However, information about the effect of CPIs on recurrent MDD treatment outcome is limited. The objective of this study was to explore whether the number of CPIs in patients with recurrent MDD was associated with higher rate of psychiatric admissions. Data were collected for a consecutive sample of 190 patients diagnosed with recurrent MDD. The key outcome was the number of psychiatric admissions following psychiatric diagnosis. The independent variable was the number of CPIs. The effects of different clinical, sociodemographic, and lifestyle confounding factors were controlled using robust regression. The patients with CPI had significantly more psychiatric admissions than the patients without CPI, and the number of CPIs was significantly associated with the number of psychiatric admissions. The results of our study largely confirmed that more than two CPIs in patients diagnosed with recurrent MDD are associated with higher rates of psychiatric admission, independent of psychiatric comorbidities and other clinical and sociodemographic factors. These findings indicate that to improve treatment outcome and to reduce recurrence, it is crucial to enhance early recognition and treatment of physical comorbidity.
Editorial: Reducing the Mortality Gap in People With Severe Mental Disorders: The Role of Lifestyle Psychosocial Interventions [Comment]
More anxious than depressed: prevalence and correlates in a 15-nation study of anxiety disorders in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Background/UNASSIGNED:Anxiety disorder, one of the highly disabling, prevalent and common mental disorders, is known to be more prevalent in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) than the general population, and the comorbid presence of anxiety disorders is known to have an impact on the diabetes outcome and the quality of life. However, the information on the type of anxiety disorder and its prevalence in persons with T2DM is limited. Aims/UNASSIGNED:To assess the prevalence and correlates of anxiety disorder in people with type 2 diabetes in different countries. Methods/UNASSIGNED:People aged 18-65 years with diabetes and treated in outpatient settings were recruited in 15 countries and underwent a psychiatric interview with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Demographic and medical record data were collected. Results/UNASSIGNED:A total of 3170 people with type 2 diabetes (56.2% women; with mean (SD) duration of diabetes 10.01 (7.0) years) participated. The overall prevalence of anxiety disorders in type 2 diabetic persons was 18%; however, 2.8% of the study population had more than one type of anxiety disorder. The most prevalent anxiety disorders were generalised anxiety disorder (8.1%) and panic disorder (5.1%). Female gender, presence of diabetic complications, longer duration of diabetes and poorer glycaemic control (HbA1c levels) were significantly associated with comorbid anxiety disorder. A higher prevalence of anxiety disorders was observed in Ukraine, Saudi Arabia and Argentina with a lower prevalence in Bangladesh and India. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:Our international study shows that people with type 2 diabetes have a high prevalence of anxiety disorders, especially women, those with diabetic complications, those with a longer duration of diabetes and poorer glycaemic control. Early identification and appropriate timely care of psychiatric problems of people with type 2 diabetes is warranted.
Trends of Polypharmacy and Prescription Patterns of Antidepressants in Asia
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Little is known regarding the trend of polypharmacy in Asia. We used data from 5 Asian countries to examine the patterns of antidepressant (AD) prescription and trends of psychotropic polypharmacy over time. METHODS:We used the cross-sectional, pharmacoepidemiological data from 2004 and 2013 REAP-AD (Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antidepressants) to examine the patterns of AD prescriptions in clinical settings in China, Japan, Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan. We compared the trend in polypharmacy (ie, concomitant use of â‰¥2 classes of psychotropic) among individuals receiving AD prescriptions in 2004 and 2013 using multivariable logistic regression models in different diagnostic categories. RESULTS:The proportion of patients with psychotropic polypharmacy decreased from 2004 to 2013 in all 3 diagnostic categories, including mood disorders (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.44 [0.35-0.56]; P < 0.001), anxiety disorders (aOR, 0.58 [0.36-0.94]; P = 0.028), and psychotic disorders (aOR, 0.18 [0.05-0.60]; P = 0.006). Among individuals with AD prescriptions, concomitant use of anxiolytics (including sedative-hypnotics) decreased in patients with mood disorders (aOR, 0.34 [0.27-0.42]; P < 0.001) and anxiety disorders (aOR, 0.43 [0.27-0.67]; P < 0.001). In contrast, concomitant use of antipsychotics in patients with mood disorders increased (aOR, 1.43 [1.15-1.77]; P = 0.001), and concomitant use of mood stabilizers in patients with psychotic disorders also increased (aOR, 3.49 [1.50-8.14]; P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS:This is the first study examining trends in psychotropic polypharmacy in East Asia. We found a generally decreasing trend of psychotropic polypharmacy in contrast to the increasing trend reported from Western countries. These findings could offer significant implications for health system reform or policy making.
Patterns of chronic physical multimorbidity in psychiatric and general population
OBJECTIVE:A growing body of evidence has demonstrated the high prevalence and complexity of chronic physical multimorbidity defined as â‰¥2 chronic physical illness in people with psychiatric disorders. The present study aimed to assess differences in the prevalence and patterns of self-reported chronic physical illness and multimorbidity in the general and psychiatric populations. METHODS:We performed a latent class analysis of 15 self-reported chronic physical illnesses on a sample of 1060 psychiatric patients and 837 participants from the general population. RESULTS:17% - 23%). CONCLUSIONS:These findings indicate that mental disorders are associated with an increased risk of a wide range of chronic physical illnesses and multimorbidity. There is an urgent need for the development of the guidelines regarding the physical healthcare of all individuals with mental disorders with multimorbidity in focus.
Differences in High Dose Antipsychotic Prescriptions in Patients with Schizophrenia in Asian Countries/Areas: Findings from the REAP-AP Study
The REAP-AP study recruited 3,746 patients with schizophrenia, in March and April 2016, from 71 centers in 15 Asian countries/territories namely Bangladesh, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam. Our findings reveal a trend according to which high dose antipsychotic prescription is more prevalent in Eastern Asia (especially, Japan and Korea) than in other regions of Asia. This historical factor may be associated with our finding of an Eastern Asian preponderance of high dose antipsychotic prescription.