Development of a multisystem point of care ultrasound skills assessment checklist
BACKGROUND:Many institutions are training clinicians in point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS), but few POCUS skills checklists have been developed and validated. We developed a consensus-based multispecialty POCUS skills checklist with anchoring references for basic cardiac, lung, abdominal, and vascular ultrasound, and peripheral intravenous line (PIV) insertion. METHODS:A POCUS expert panel of 14 physicians specializing in emergency, critical care, and internal/hospital medicine participated in a modified-Delphi approach to develop a basic POCUS skills checklist by group consensus. Three rounds of voting were conducted, and consensus was defined by â‰¥â€‰80% agreement. Items achieving <â€‰80% consensus were discussed and considered for up to two additional rounds of voting. RESULTS:Thirteen POCUS experts (93%) completed all three rounds of voting. Cardiac, lung, abdominal, and vascular ultrasound checklists included probe location and control, basic machine setup, image quality and optimization, and identification of anatomical structures. PIV insertion included additional items for needle tip tracking. During the first round of voting, 136 (82%) items achieved consensus, and after revision and revoting, an additional 21 items achieved consensus. A total of 153 (92%) items were included in the final checklist. CONCLUSIONS:We have developed a consensus-based, multispecialty POCUS checklist to evaluate skills in image acquisition and anatomy identification for basic cardiac, lung, abdominal, and vascular ultrasound, and PIV insertion.
Design and comparison of a hybrid to a traditional in-person point-of-care ultrasound course
BACKGROUND:Traditional introductory point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) courses are resource intensive, typically requiring 2-3Â days at a remote site, consisting of lectures and hands-on components. Social distancing requirements resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic led us to create a novel hybrid course curriculum consisting of virtual and in-person components. METHODS:Faculty, chief residents, fellows and advanced practice providers (APPs) in the Department of Medicine were invited to participate in the hybrid curriculum. The course structure included 4 modules of recorded lectures, quizzes, online image interpretation sessions, online case discussions, and hands-on sessions at the bedside of course participant's patients. The components of the course were delivered over approximately 8Â months. Those participants who completed a minimum of 3 modules over the year were invited for final assessments. Results from the hybrid curriculum cohort were compared to the year-end data from a prior traditional in-person cohort. RESULTS:Participant knowledge scores were not different between traditional (nâ€‰=â€‰19) and hybrid (nâ€‰=â€‰24) groups (81% and 84%, respectively, Pâ€‰=â€‰0.9). There was no change in POCUS skills as measured by the hands-on test from both groups at end-of-course (76% and 76%, respectively, Pâ€‰=â€‰0.93). Confidence ratings were similar across groups from 2.73 traditional to 3.0 hybrid (out of possible 4, Pâ€‰=â€‰0.46). Participants rated the course highly, with an average overall rating of 4.6 out 5. CONCLUSIONS:A hybrid virtual and in-person POCUS course was highly rated and as successful as a traditional course in improving learner knowledge, hands-on skill and confidence at 8Â months after course initiation. These results support expanding virtual elements of POCUS educational curricula.
Lung Ultrasound Imaging: A Primer for Echocardiographers
Lung ultrasound (LUS) has gained considerable acceptance in emergency and critical care medicine but is yet to be fully implemented in cardiology. Standard imaging protocols for LUS in acute care settings have allowed the rapid and accurate diagnosis of dyspnea, respiratory failure, and shock. LUS is greatly additive to echocardiography and is superior to auscultation and chest radiography, particularly when the diagnosis of acute decompensated heart failure is in question. In this review, the authors describe LUS techniques, interpretation, and clinical applications, with the goal of informing cardiologists on the imaging modality. Additionally, the authors review LUS findings associated with various disease states most relevant to cardiac care. Although there is extensive literature on LUS in the acute care setting, there is a dearth of reviews directly focused for practicing cardiologists. Current evidence demonstrates that this modality is an important adjunct to echocardiography, providing valuable clinical information at the bedside.
Derived Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio as a Potential Biomarker for Lung Cancer Survival [Meeting Abstract]
RATIONALE: Derived neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (dNLR) of peripheral blood, a marker of host inflammation and cytokine activation, may be a surrogate for more aggressive disease. It is a biomarker that has been associated with survival and response to immunotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), although an optimal threshold value has not been established. We had previously found in a NSCLC cohort that a dNLR cutoff of 2 was an optimal cutoff to predict survival at 6 months in patients with NSCLC; median survival was significantly shorter in patients with a >=2 dNLR (7.0 months) versus those with a <2 dNLR (64.5 months; p = 0.004). Here we present an interim analysis aiming to validate the use of this biomarker in a second cohort.
METHOD(S): A veteran cohort (n=42) from the VA New York Harbor Healthcare System, who underwent diagnostic bronchoscopy and found to have NSCLC, was used as a validation cohort. Peripheral blood was obtained pre-treatment and at or near the time of diagnosis. The dNLR was calculated as ANC/(W
Lower airway dysbiosis affects lung cancer progression
In lung cancer, enrichment of the lower airway microbiota with oral commensals commonly occurs and ex vivo models support that some of these bacteria can trigger host transcriptomic signatures associated with carcinogenesis. Here, we show that this lower airway dysbiotic signature was more prevalent in group IIIB-IV TNM stage lung cancer and is associated with poor prognosis, as shown by decreased survival among subjects with early stage disease (I-IIIA) and worse tumor progression as measured by RECIST scores among subjects with IIIB-IV stage disease. In addition, this lower airway microbiota signature was associated with upregulation of IL-17, PI3K, MAPK and ERK pathways in airway transcriptome, and we identified Veillonella parvula as the most abundant taxon driving this association. In a KP lung cancer model, lower airway dysbiosis with V. parvula led to decreased survival, increased tumor burden, IL-17 inflammatory phenotype and activation of checkpoint inhibitor markers.
Design and evaluation of the I-SCAN faculty POCUS program
BACKGROUND:Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is becoming widely adopted with increasing accessibility of courses. Little is known about the optimal design of the introductory course or longitudinal training programs targeting hospitalists that are critical to success. METHODS:Hospitalists at four academic sites participated in a two-day introductory course and a longitudinal phase comprising clinical POCUS practice, clip uploading with online feedback, hands-on teaching, and monthly ultrasound conferences. Assessments were performed immediately before and after the two-day course and after 1 year. RESULTS:Knowledge increased from baseline to post two-day course (median score 58 and 85%, respectively, pâ€‰<â€‰0.001) and decreased slightly at 1 year (median score 81%, pâ€‰=â€‰0.012). After the two-day introductory course, the median score for hands-on image acquisition skills, the principal metric of participant success, was 75%. After 1 year, scores were similar (median score 74%). Confidence increased from baseline to post two-day course (1.5 to 3.1 on a 4 point Likert scale from Not at all confident (1) to Very confident (4), pâ€‰<â€‰0.001), and remained unchanged after 1 year (2.73). Course elements correlating with a passing score on the final hands-on test included number of clip uploads (râ€‰=â€‰0.85, p,0.001), attendance at hands-on sessions (râ€‰=â€‰0.7, pâ€‰=â€‰0.001), and attendance at monthly conferences (râ€‰=â€‰0.50, pâ€‰=â€‰0.03). CONCLUSIONS:The I-ScaN POCUS training program increased hospitalist knowledge, skill and confidence with maintained skill and confidence after 1 year. Uploading clips and attending hands-on teaching sessions were most correlative with participant success.
The impact of the coronavirus pandemic on learning and using point-of-care ultrasound by internal medicine residents [Meeting Abstract]
LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1: Describe a longitudinal curriculum to train internal medicine (IM) residents in point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS). LEARNING OBJECTIVES 2: Recognize the impact of decreased patient contact on residents' retention of POCUS skills. SETTINGAND PARTICIPANTS:Despite thewell-documented benefits of POCUS, internal medicine residents receive little formal training. We implemented a curriculumin the 2019 academic year to train 55 PGY-2 IMresidents in POCUS across four urban teaching hospitals and a method to evaluate its efficacy. As the COVID pandemic hit, we additionally sought to understand the impact of COVID on the efficacy of our curriculum and to ascertain from IM residents their barriers to using POCUS during the COVID pandemic. DESCRIPTION: The curriculum was composed of three workshops, consisting of lectures and hands-on practice covering lung, cardiac, abdominal, and lower extremity vascular views. Following the workshops, we sought to consolidate learners' knowledge with a subsequent year-long skill building phase. The skill-building phase was truncated due to the pandemic.A hands-on assessment was performed prior to the course and not repeated at course conclusion due to social distancing concerns. An online knowledge test was administered before the course, immediately following the course, and at one year. A survey assessing attitudes and barriers to POCUS was administered before the course and at one year. EVALUATION: No resident passed the pre-course hands-on assessment. Prior to the course, the average resident score was 54% on the online knowledge quiz; directly after the workshop series, the average rose to 78%. At one year, the average score on the online knowledge quiz was 74%, a statistically significant decrease (p=0.04). Ninety-one percent of residents reported performing POCUS at least once/month prior to the pandemic. During the pandemic, scanning activity decreased; 67% residents reported they scanned rarely or never. DISCUSSION/ REFLECTION / LESSONS LEARNED: Our course led to significant improvement of knowledge regarding ultrasound technology and image interpretation, however this decayed at one year, likely due to lack of skill reinforcement. Though POCUS was widely used prior to the pandemic, usage dropped at the pandemic's peak, despite its utility as both a diagnostic and therapeutic tool. The most commonly cited reason for lack of use was concern regarding contamination and infectious exposure. While the COVID pandemic disrupted our curriculum, it also highlighted opportunities to incorporate POCUS into clinical practice and reinforced the importance of continued longitudinal practice to retain learned skills
POCUS FACULTY I-SCAN PROGRAM DESCRIPTION AND ONE-YEAR EVALUATION [Meeting Abstract]
DEVELOPMENT OF A STRUCTURED POINT-OF-CARE ULTRASOUND CURRICULUM FOR INTERNAL MEDICINE RESIDENTS [Meeting Abstract]
Lung Cancer Survival and Prognosis Is Affected by Lower Airway Oral Commensal Enrichment [Meeting Abstract]