Vaccination updates and special considerations for systemic lupus erythematosus patients
PURPOSE OF REVIEW/OBJECTIVE:We review the latest guidelines and note special considerations for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients when approaching vaccination against SARS-CoV-2, influenza, pneumococcus, herpes zoster, and potentially respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine in the future. RECENT FINDINGS/RESULTS:SLE patients have unique infectious risks due to newer treatments and the nature of the disease itself. It is important to balance the benefit of additional protective immunity from updated vaccines against the possible risk of disease activity exacerbations. SUMMARY/CONCLUSIONS:It is important to continuously evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of updated vaccines specifically for SLE patients. Additionally, the newly approved RSV vaccine should be considered for this population to reduce severe respiratory illness.
Clinical implications of discordance between anti-dsDNA antibodies by multiplex flow immunoassay and Crithidia luciliae assay in a multiethnic racial cohort of patients with SLE
OBJECTIVE:immunofluorescence test (CLIFT). To address the clinical impact of measuring these antibodies by two different assays, this study leveraged a well-phenotyped multiethnic/racial cohort. METHODS:All patients fulfilled the classification criteria for SLE by at least one of the validated schemes: American College of Rheumatology, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus International Collaborating Clinics and/or American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism classification criteria. Patients with one or more simultaneously paired anti-dsDNA by multiplex EIA and CLIFT were identified. Analysis of concordance or discordance, titre comparability of assays and association with hybrid SLE Disease Activity Index score, prevalence of lupus nephritis (LN), ability to predict a flare and classification criteria was performed. RESULTS:207 patients were simultaneously tested by EIA and CLIFT at least once for anti-dsDNA, generating 586 paired results. 377 pairs were concordant and 209 were discordant. 41 of 207 patients always had discordant paired results and 39 patients always had results with titre discordance. In 100 patients with LN, 60 were positive by EIA and 72 by CLIFT. Sensitivities and specificities for patients with LN versus patients without LN were EIA 60% and 47%, and CLIFT 72% and 37%, respectively. 42 patients had flare assessment within 90 days of their paired result. Six of seven patients with mild flares and all four patients with severe flares had concordant positive results. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Our data demonstrate that discordance of positivity between both assays for anti-dsDNA is relatively common, occurring in a fifth of patients overall and a third of visits. EIA positivity is associated with LN less often than CLIFT positivity. With the significant discordance of results between anti-dsDNA assays, obtaining both CLIFT and EIA assays may be beneficial for classification and routine monitoring of SLE.
Knowledge is power: regarding SMFM Consult Series #64: Systemic lupus erythematosus in pregnancy [Editorial]
Cutaneous neonatal lupus in patients with skin of color: A retrospective cohort study from a national registry
Molnupiravir and Nirmatelvir/Ritonavir in the Treatment of Patients With Systemic Autoimmune Rheumatic Disease With SARS-CoV-2 [Editorial]
SARS-CoV-2 has certainly been at the forefront of medical discussion and research for the past 3 years. While many are adjusting back to "normal," thanks to the rapid advancements in prevention and treatment, high-risk groups, such as adults with systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs), still require careful monitoring and care.
Safety and efficacy of long-term voclosporin treatment for lupus nephritis in the Phase 3 AURORA 2 clinical trial
OBJECTIVE:AURORA 2 evaluated the long-term safety, tolerability, and efficacy of voclosporin compared to placebo in patients with lupus nephritis (LN) receiving an additional two years of treatment following completion of the one-year AURORA 1 study. METHODS:Enrolled patients continued their double-blinded treatment of voclosporin or placebo randomly assigned in AURORA 1, in combination with mycophenolate mofetil and low-dose glucocorticoids. The primary objective was safety assessed with adverse events (AEs), biochemical and hematological assessments. Efficacy was measured by renal response. RESULTS:(95% CI -8.4, -2.3) in the control group. Improved proteinuria persisted across three years of treatment leading to more frequent complete renal responses in voclosporin-treated patients (50.9% vs 39.0%; odds ratio 1.74; 95% CI 1.00, 3.03). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Data demonstrate the safety and efficacy of long-term voclosporin treatment over 3 years of follow-up in patients with LN.
Update on the Efficacy and Safety Profile of Voclosporin: An Integrated Analysis of Clinical Trials in Lupus Nephritis
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:This integrated analysis evaluates the efficacy and safety of voclosporin, a novel calcineurin inhibitor, at 23.7 mg twice daily in combination with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and oral glucocorticoids in lupus nephritis (LN) using pooled data from two large phase 2 and phase 3 clinical trials. The purpose was to expand the pool of patients for safety analyses and to increase power for efficacy analyses in patient subpopulations. METHODS:AURA-LV (phase 2) and AURORA 1 (phase 3) were randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials with similar designs and endpoints comparing voclosporin to control in combination with MMF and oral glucocorticoids for the treatment of LN. The primary efficacy outcome of the integrated analysis was complete renal response (CRR) at approximately 1 year (Week 48 data from AURA-LV and Week 52 from AURORA 1). Safety was assessed throughout the trials. RESULTS:Overall, 534 patients (voclosporin 268, control 266) were included in the integrated analysis. Significantly more patients achieved a CRR at 1 year in the voclosporin than control group (43.7% vs. 23.3%, OR 2.76; 95% CI 1.88, 4.05 p<0.0001). The incidence of adverse events (AEs) was similar; 91.4% voclosporin and 87.2% control. Most AEs were mild to moderate in severity; the most commonly reported AEs were classified as infections and infestations (62.2% voclosporin, 54.9% control) and gastrointestinal disorders (45.3% voclosporin, 35.3% placebo). No new or unexpected safety signals were detected. CONCLUSIONS:This integrated analysis demonstrates the efficacy and safety of voclosporin in the treatment of LN across the diverse racial and ethnic groups studied. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Knowledge is power: regarding SMFM Consult Series #64: Systemic lupus erythematosus in pregnancy
Contribution of S100A4-expressing fibroblasts to anti-SSA/Ro-associated atrioventricular nodal calcification and soluble S100A4 as a biomarker of clinical severity
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Fibrosis and dystrophic calcification disrupting conduction tissue architecture are histopathological lesions characterizing cardiac manifestations of neonatal lupus (cardiac-NL) associated with maternal anti-SSA/Ro antibodies. OBJECTIVES/UNASSIGNED:Increased appreciation of heterogeneity in fibroblasts encourages re-examination of existing models with the consideration of multiple fibroblast subtypes (and their unique functional differences) in mind. This study addressed fibroblast heterogeneity by examining expression of α-Smooth Muscle Actin (myofibroblasts) and of S100 Calcium-Binding Protein A4 (S100A4). METHODS/UNASSIGNED:, supported by the evaluation of cord blood from cardiac-NL neonates and their healthy (anti-SSA/Ro-exposed) counterparts, and autopsy tissue from fetuses dying with cardiac-NL, the current study was initiated to more clearly define and distinguish the S100A4-positive fibroblast in the fetal cardiac environment. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:fibroblasts expressed pro-angiogenic cytokines and proteases that degrade collagen. Cord blood levels of S100A4 in anti-SSA/Ro-exposed neonates tracked disease severity and, in discordant twins, distinguished affected from unaffected. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:fibroblast alongside the canonical myofibroblast in the pathogenesis of cardiac-NL. Neonatal S100A4 levels support a novel biomarker of poor prognosis.
Breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections, morbidity, and seroreactivity following initial COVID-19 vaccination series and additional dose in patients with SLE in New York City