Protocolized Urine Sampling is Associated with Reduced Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections: A Pre- and Post-intervention Study
BACKGROUND:Standard urine sampling and testing techniques do not mitigate against detection of colonization, resulting in false positive catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI). We aim to evaluate if a novel protocol for urine sampling and testing reduces rates of CAUTI. METHODS:A pre-intervention and post-intervention study with a contemporaneous control group was conducted at two campuses (test and control) of the same academic medical center. The test campus implemented a protocol requiring urinary catheter removal prior to urine sampling from a new catheter or sterile straight catheterization, along with urine bacteria and pyuria screening prior to culture. Primary outcomes were test campus CAUTI rates compared between each 9-month pre- and post-intervention epoch. Secondary outcomes included the percent reductions in CAUTI rates compared between the test campus and a propensity-score matched cohort at the control campus. RESULTS:Â A total of 7,991 patients from the test campus were included in the primary analysis, and 4,264 were included in the propensity-score matched secondary analysis. In primary analysis, CAUTI/1000-patients was reduced by 77% (6.6 to 1.5), CAUTI/1000-catheter days by 63% (5.9 to 2.2) and urinary catheter days/patient by 37% (1.1 to 0.69, all Pâ‰¤0.001). In propensity score-matched analysis, CAUTI/1000-patients was reduced by 82% at the test campus versus 57% at the control campus, CAUTI/1000 catheter-days declined by 68% versus 57% and catheter-days/patient decreased by 44% versus 1% (all P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Â Protocolized urine sampling and testing aimed at minimizing contamination by colonization was associated with significantly reduced CAUTI infection rates and urinary catheter days.
Leveraging clinical decision support tools to improve guideline-directed medical therapy in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease at hospital discharge
BACKGROUND:Guidelines recommend moderate to high-intensity statins and antithrombotic agents in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). However, guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) remains suboptimal. METHODS:In this quality initiative, best practice alerts (BPA) in the electronic health record (EHR) were utilized to alert providers to prescribe to GDMT upon hospital discharge in ASCVD patients. Rates of GDMT were compared for 5 months pre- and post-BPA implementation. Multivariable regression was used to identify predictors of GDMT. RESULTS:In 5985 pre- and 5568 post-BPA patients, the average age was 69.1 Â± 12.8 years and 58.5% were male. There was a 4.0% increase in statin use from 67.3% to 71.3% and a 3.1% increase in antithrombotic use from 75.3% to 78.4% in the post-BPA cohort. CONCLUSIONS:This simple EHR-based initiative was associated with a modest increase in ASCVD patients being discharged on GDMT. Leveraging clinical decision support tools provides an opportunity to influence provider behavior and improve care for ASCVD patients, and warrants further investigation.
PROTOCOLIZED URINE SAMPLING REDUCES CAUTI RATES [Meeting Abstract]
Methylprednisolone-induced transient ventricular dysfunction [Letter]
Resident physicians using modern practices for excellent documentation and care in heart failure (PUMPED CHF)
The most common indication for readmission among Medicare patients is congestive heart failure (CHF). Prior studies underscore the use of residents to bolster hospital-wide programs and reduce CHF readmissions. The authors assessed the effectiveness of a novel online training program designed to improve resident documentation and knowledge related to CHF. The findings suggest that despite a significant increase in knowledge scores following the online educational course, there was only a slight increase in documentation scores. Additional teaching modalities need to be identified to foster resident education and create sustained behavior change.
PHYSICIANS USING MODERN PRACTICES FOR EXCELLENT DOCUMENTATION AND CARE IN HEART FAILURE (PUMPED CHF) [Meeting Abstract]
Implementation of a heart failure readmission reduction program: a role for medical residents
BACKGROUND: Congestive heart failure (CHF) is one of the leading causes of hospital readmissions within 30 days of discharge. Due to the substantial costs associated with these readmissions, several interventions to reduce CHF readmissions have been developed and implemented. METHODS: To reduce CHF readmissions at our community teaching hospital, the Smooth Transitions Equal Less Readmission (STELR) program was developed. Utilizing the Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle for quality improvement, resident physicians tracked patients enrolled in the STELR program. The resident contribution to the program was substantial in that they were able to quantify the improvement in both physician practices and patient readmissions. This provided insight into program areas requiring further modification, which the hospital would not have obtained without resident participation. RESULTS: The readmission rate for patients diagnosed with heart failure decreased from 32% prior to program implementation, to 24% hospital wide (including patients who were not tracked in the STELR program), and 21% among patients tracked by the residents. CONCLUSION: This effective CHF readmission reduction program requires less financial resources compared to government funded programs. The resident involvement in the STELR program helped to assess and improve the program and also allowed the residents to gain an awareness of the resources available to their patients to facilitate their transition home. The program exposed the residents to systems-based practice, a fundamental element of their residency training and, more generally, community care.
Regulation of xanthine oxidoreductase protein expression by hydrogen peroxide and calcium
OBJECTIVE: We have previously demonstrated that endothelial xanthine oxidase (XO) levels are dependent on the NADPH oxidase. We postulated that H2O2 may modulate the irreversible conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) to XO and sought to examine mechanisms involved. METHODS AND RESULTS: H2O2 (100 micromol/L) decreased bovine aortic endothelial cell (BAEC) XDH protein expression, and metabolic labeling studies indicated that H2O2 stimulated conversion of XDH to XO. The decline in XDH was mimicked by the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating compounds SIN-1 and Menadione, as well as by stimulating BAECs with angiotensin II (200 nmol/L). BAPTA-AM prevented the decline in XDH by H2O2, indicating that it was calcium-dependent. In keeping with calcium acting downstream of H2O2, the calcium ionophore A23187 (1 micromol/L) caused XDH-to-XO conversion, and this was not prevented by the antioxidants. In addition, XDH-to-XO conversion was blocked by 2-APB and NO donors and induced by thapsigargin and M-3M3FBS, implicating phospholipase C and endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores in this process. CONCLUSIONS: Endothelial XO and XDH expression are strongly dependent on H2O2 and calcium. Stimulation of XDH conversion to XO may represent a feed-forward mechanism whereby H2O2 can stimulate further production of ROS.