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Impact of Visit Volume on the Effectiveness of Electronic Tools to Improve Heart Failure Care

Mukhopadhyay, Amrita; Reynolds, Harmony R; King, William C; Phillips, Lawrence M; Nagler, Arielle R; Szerencsy, Adam; Saxena, Archana; Klapheke, Nathan; Katz, Stuart D; Horwitz, Leora I; Blecker, Saul
BACKGROUND:Electronic health record (EHR) tools can improve prescribing of guideline-recommended therapies for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), but their effectiveness may vary by physician workload. OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:This paper aims to assess whether physician workload modifies the effectiveness of EHR tools for HFrEF. METHODS:This was a prespecified subgroup analysis of the BETTER CARE-HF (Building Electronic Tools to Enhance and Reinforce Cardiovascular Recommendations for Heart Failure) cluster-randomized trial, which compared effectiveness of an alert vs message vs usual care on prescribing of mineralocorticoid antagonists (MRAs). The trial included adults with HFrEF seen in cardiology offices who were eligible for and not prescribed MRAs. Visit volume was defined at the cardiologist-level as number of visits per 6-month study period (high = upper tertile vs non-high = remaining). Analysis at the patient-level used likelihood ratio test for interaction with log-binomial models. RESULTS:Among 2,211 patients seen by 174 cardiologists, 932 (42.2%) were seen by high-volume cardiologists (median: 1,853; Q1-Q3: 1,637-2,225 visits/6 mo; and median: 10; Q1-Q3: 9-12 visits/half-day). MRA was prescribed to 5.5% in the high-volume vs 14.8% in the non-high-volume groups in the usual care arm, 10.3% vs 19.6% in the message arm, and 31.2% vs 28.2% in the alert arm, respectively. Visit volume modified treatment effect (P for interaction = 0.02) such that the alert was more effective in the high-volume group (relative risk: 5.16; 95% CI: 2.57-10.4) than the non-high-volume group (relative risk: 1.93; 95% CI: 1.29-2.90). CONCLUSIONS:An EHR-embedded alert increased prescribing by >5-fold among patients seen by high-volume cardiologists. Our findings support use of EHR alerts, especially in busy practice settings. (Building Electronic Tools to Enhance and Reinforce Cardiovascular Recommendations for Heart Failure [BETTER CARE-HF]; NCT05275920).
PMID: 38043045
ISSN: 2213-1787
CID: 5597482

Cluster-Randomized Trial Comparing Ambulatory Decision Support Tools to Improve Heart Failure Care

Mukhopadhyay, Amrita; Reynolds, Harmony R; Phillips, Lawrence M; Nagler, Arielle R; King, William C; Szerencsy, Adam; Saxena, Archana; Aminian, Rod; Klapheke, Nathan; Horwitz, Leora I; Katz, Stuart D; Blecker, Saul
BACKGROUND:Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA) are under-prescribed for patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). OBJECTIVE:To compare effectiveness of two automated, electronic health record (EHR)-embedded tools vs. usual care on MRA prescribing in eligible patients with HFrEF. METHODS:BETTER CARE-HF (Building Electronic Tools To Enhance and Reinforce CArdiovascular REcommendations for Heart Failure) was a three-arm, pragmatic, cluster-randomized trial comparing the effectiveness of an alert during individual patient encounters vs. a message about multiple patients between encounters vs. usual care on MRA prescribing. We included adult patients with HFrEF, no active MRA prescription, no contraindication to MRA, and an outpatient cardiologist in a large health system. Patients were cluster-randomized by cardiologist (60 per arm). RESULTS:The study included 2,211 patients (alert: 755, message: 812, usual care [control]: 644), with average age 72.2 years, average EF 33%, who were predominantly male (71.4%) and White (68.9%). New MRA prescribing occurred in 29.6% of patients in the alert arm, 15.6% in the message arm, and 11.7% in the control arm. The alert more than doubled MRA prescribing compared to control (RR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.77-3.62, p<0.0001), and improved MRA prescribing compared to the message (RR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.21-2.29, p=0.002). The number of patients with alert needed to result in an additional MRA prescription was 5.6. CONCLUSIONS:An automated, patient-specific, EHR-embedded alert increased MRA prescribing compared to both a message and usual care. Our findings highlight the potential for EHR-embedded tools to substantially increase prescription of life-saving therapies for HFrEF. (NCT05275920).
PMID: 36882134
ISSN: 1558-3597
CID: 5430312

Design and pilot implementation for the BETTER CARE-HF trial: A pragmatic cluster-randomized controlled trial comparing two targeted approaches to ambulatory clinical decision support for cardiologists

Mukhopadhyay, Amrita; Reynolds, Harmony R; Xia, Yuhe; Phillips, Lawrence M; Aminian, Rod; Diah, Ruth-Ann; Nagler, Arielle R; Szerencsy, Adam; Saxena, Archana; Horwitz, Leora I; Katz, Stuart D; Blecker, Saul
BACKGROUND:Beart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. However, shortfalls in prescribing of proven therapies, particularly mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) therapy, account for several thousand preventable deaths per year nationwide. Electronic clinical decision support (CDS) is a potential low-cost and scalable solution to improve prescribing of therapies. However, the optimal timing and format of CDS tools is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS/RESULTS:We developed two targeted CDS tools to inform cardiologists of gaps in MRA therapy for patients with HFrEF and without contraindication to MRA therapy: (1) an alert that notifies cardiologists at the time of patient visit, and (2) an automated electronic message that allows for review between visits. We designed these tools using an established CDS framework and findings from semistructured interviews with cardiologists. We then pilot tested both CDS tools (n = 596 patients) and further enhanced them based on additional semistructured interviews (n = 11 cardiologists). The message was modified to reduce the number of patients listed, include future visits, and list date of next visit. The alert was modified to improve noticeability, reduce extraneous information on guidelines, and include key information on contraindications. CONCLUSIONS:The BETTER CARE-HF (Building Electronic Tools to Enhance and Reinforce CArdiovascular REcommendations for Heart Failure) trial aims to compare the effectiveness of the alert vs. the automated message vs. usual care on the primary outcome of MRA prescribing. To our knowledge, no study has directly compared the efficacy of these two different types of electronic CDS interventions. If effective, our findings can be rapidly disseminated to improve morbidity and mortality for patients with HFrEF, and can also inform the development of future CDS interventions for other disease states. (Trial registration: NCT05275920).
PMID: 36640860
ISSN: 1097-6744
CID: 5403312

Novel Note Templates to Enhance Signal and Reduce Noise in Medical Documentation: Prospective Improvement Study

Feldman, Jonah; Goodman, Adam; Hochman, Katherine; Chakravartty, Eesha; Austrian, Jonathan; Iturrate, Eduardo; Bosworth, Brian; Saxena, Archana; Moussa, Marwa; Chenouda, Dina; Volpicelli, Frank; Adler, Nicole; Weisstuch, Joseph; Testa, Paul
Background: The introduction of electronic workflows has allowed for the flow of raw uncontextualized clinical data into medical documentation. As a result, many electronic notes have become replete of "noise" and deplete clinically significant "signals." There is an urgent need to develop and implement innovative approaches in electronic clinical documentation that improve note quality and reduce unnecessary bloating. Objective: This study aims to describe the development and impact of a novel set of templates designed to change the flow of information in medical documentation. Methods: This is a multihospital nonrandomized prospective improvement study conducted on the inpatient general internal medicine service across 3 hospital campuses at the New York University Langone Health System. A group of physician leaders representing each campus met biweekly for 6 months. The output of these meetings included (1) a conceptualization of the note bloat problem as a dysfunction in information flow, (2) a set of guiding principles for organizational documentation improvement, (3) the design and build of novel electronic templates that reduced the flow of extraneous information into provider notes by providing link outs to best practice data visualizations, and (4) a documentation improvement curriculum for inpatient medicine providers. Prior to go-live, pragmatic usability testing was performed with the new progress note template, and the overall user experience was measured using the System Usability Scale (SUS). Primary outcome measures after go-live include template utilization rate and note length in characters. Results: In usability testing among 22 medicine providers, the new progress note template averaged a usability score of 90.6 out of 100 on the SUS. A total of 77% (17/22) of providers strongly agreed that the new template was easy to use, and 64% (14/22) strongly agreed that they would like to use the template frequently. In the 3 months after template implementation, general internal medicine providers wrote 67% (51,431/76,647) of all inpatient notes with the new templates. During this period, the organization saw a 46% (2768/6191), 47% (3505/7819), and 32% (3427/11,226) reduction in note length for general medicine progress notes, consults, and history and physical notes, respectively, when compared to a baseline measurement period prior to interventions. Conclusions: A bundled intervention that included the deployment of novel templates for inpatient general medicine providers significantly reduced average note length on the clinical service. Templates designed to reduce the flow of extraneous information into provider notes performed well during usability testing, and these templates were rapidly adopted across all hospital campuses. Further research is needed to assess the impact of novel templates on note quality, provider efficiency, and patient outcomes.
ISSN: 2561-326x
CID: 5499932

Leveraging clinical decision support tools to improve guideline-directed medical therapy in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease at hospital discharge

Vani, Anish; Kan, Karen; Iturrate, Eduardo; Levy-Lambert, Dina; Smilowitz, Nathaniel R; Saxena, Archana; Radford, Martha J; Gianos, Eugenia
BACKGROUND:Guidelines recommend moderate to high-intensity statins and antithrombotic agents in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). However, guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) remains suboptimal. METHODS:In this quality initiative, best practice alerts (BPA) in the electronic health record (EHR) were utilized to alert providers to prescribe to GDMT upon hospital discharge in ASCVD patients. Rates of GDMT were compared for 5 months pre- and post-BPA implementation. Multivariable regression was used to identify predictors of GDMT. RESULTS:In 5985 pre- and 5568 post-BPA patients, the average age was 69.1 ± 12.8 years and 58.5% were male. There was a 4.0% increase in statin use from 67.3% to 71.3% and a 3.1% increase in antithrombotic use from 75.3% to 78.4% in the post-BPA cohort. CONCLUSIONS:This simple EHR-based initiative was associated with a modest increase in ASCVD patients being discharged on GDMT. Leveraging clinical decision support tools provides an opportunity to influence provider behavior and improve care for ASCVD patients, and warrants further investigation.
PMID: 32986236
ISSN: 1897-5593
CID: 4616532

Protocolized Urine Sampling is Associated with Reduced Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections: A Pre- and Post-intervention Study

Frontera, Jennifer A; Wang, Erwin; Phillips, Michael; Radford, Martha; Sterling, Stephanie; Delorenzo, Karen; Saxena, Archana; Yaghi, Shadi; Zhou, Ting; Kahn, D Ethan; Lord, Aaron S; Weisstuch, Joseph
BACKGROUND:Standard urine sampling and testing techniques do not mitigate against detection of colonization, resulting in false positive catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI). We aim to evaluate if a novel protocol for urine sampling and testing reduces rates of CAUTI. METHODS:A pre-intervention and post-intervention study with a contemporaneous control group was conducted at two campuses (test and control) of the same academic medical center. The test campus implemented a protocol requiring urinary catheter removal prior to urine sampling from a new catheter or sterile straight catheterization, along with urine bacteria and pyuria screening prior to culture. Primary outcomes were test campus CAUTI rates compared between each 9-month pre- and post-intervention epoch. Secondary outcomes included the percent reductions in CAUTI rates compared between the test campus and a propensity-score matched cohort at the control campus. RESULTS:  A total of 7,991 patients from the test campus were included in the primary analysis, and 4,264 were included in the propensity-score matched secondary analysis. In primary analysis, CAUTI/1000-patients was reduced by 77% (6.6 to 1.5), CAUTI/1000-catheter days by 63% (5.9 to 2.2) and urinary catheter days/patient by 37% (1.1 to 0.69, all P≤0.001). In propensity score-matched analysis, CAUTI/1000-patients was reduced by 82% at the test campus versus 57% at the control campus, CAUTI/1000 catheter-days declined by 68% versus 57% and catheter-days/patient decreased by 44% versus 1% (all P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Protocolized urine sampling and testing aimed at minimizing contamination by colonization was associated with significantly reduced CAUTI infection rates and urinary catheter days.
PMID: 32776142
ISSN: 1537-6591
CID: 4556052


Frontera, Jennier; Weisstuch, Joseph; Phillips, Michael; Radford, Martha; Sterling, Stephanie; Delorenzo, Karen; Saxena, Archana; Wang, Erwin
ISSN: 0090-3493
CID: 4227692

Methylprednisolone-induced transient ventricular dysfunction [Letter]

Bhatt, Hemal; Apergis, George; Saxena, Archana
PMID: 25873813
ISSN: 1526-6702
CID: 1740322

Resident physicians using modern practices for excellent documentation and care in heart failure (PUMPED CHF)

Patel, Jay; Cotorruelo-Martinez, Annia; Gill-Duncan, Nicole; Leveille, Philippe; Pearson, Julie M; Julliard, Kell; Saxena, Archana
The most common indication for readmission among Medicare patients is congestive heart failure (CHF). Prior studies underscore the use of residents to bolster hospital-wide programs and reduce CHF readmissions. The authors assessed the effectiveness of a novel online training program designed to improve resident documentation and knowledge related to CHF. The findings suggest that despite a significant increase in knowledge scores following the online educational course, there was only a slight increase in documentation scores. Additional teaching modalities need to be identified to foster resident education and create sustained behavior change.
PMID: 25529788
ISSN: 0018-5868
CID: 1740352


Cotorruelo-Martinez, Annia; Patel, Jay N; Gill-Duncan, Nicole; Leveille, Philippe; Pearson, Julie M; Julliard, Kell; Saxena, Archana
ISSN: 1525-1497
CID: 2399002