Novel APP/AÎ² mutation K16N produces highly toxic heteromeric AÎ² oligomers
Here, we describe a novel missense mutation in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) causing a lysine-to-asparagine substitution at position 687 (APP770; herein, referred to as K16N according to amyloid-Î² (AÎ²) numbering) resulting in an early onset dementia with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. The K16N mutation is located exactly at the Î±-secretase cleavage site and influences both APP and AÎ². First, due to the K16N mutation APP secretion is affected and a higher amount of AÎ² peptides is being produced. Second, AÎ² peptides carrying the K16N mutation are unique in that the peptide itself is not harmful to neuronal cells. Severe toxicity, however, is evident upon equimolar mixture of wt and mutant peptides, mimicking the heterozygous state of the subject. Furthermore, AÎ²42 K16N inhibits fibril formation of AÎ²42 wild-type. Even more, AÎ²42 K16N peptides are protected against clearance activity by the major AÎ²-degrading enzyme neprilysin. Thus the mutation characterized here harbours a combination of risk factors that synergistically may contribute to the development of early onset Alzheimer disease.
The impact of co-morbid peripheral vascular disease on mortality in a racially balanced cohort with congestive heart failure [Meeting Abstract]
A triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein ratio > or = 3.5 is associated with an increased burden of coronary artery disease on cardiac catheterization
An elevated triglyceride (TG)/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio has been described as a predictor of insulin resistance and cardiovascular events. We evaluated whether a TG/HDL ratio > or = 3.5 was associated with the burden of coronary artery disease (CAD) on cardiac catheterization. A retrospective chart review of 156 consecutive adults presenting to the Montefiore Medical Center Emergency Department with symptoms of unstable angina and no known history of CAD who underwent cardiac catheterization as part of their index hospitalization was performed. TG and HDL data were available in 100 patients within 6 months prior to admission and no more than 24 hours after presentation. A priori, a burden of CAD score was developed. On multivariate analysis, a TG/HDL ratio > or = 3.5 was associated with the burden of CAD (odds ratio, 2.87; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-7.96; p = 0.04). Further study is warranted.
Tetrapeptide derivatives of [D-Pen(2),D-Pen(5)]-enkephalin (DPDPE) lacking an N-terminal tyrosine residue are agonists at the mu-opioid receptor
The Phe(1) cyclic tetrapeptide Phe-c[D-Cys-Phe-D-Pen]NH(2) (Et) (JH-54) has been shown previously to exhibit high affinity and selectivity for the mu-opioid receptor. To examine the role of the Phe(1) residue in the unexpected high affinity of this peptide, 11 analogs of JH-54 have been synthesized and evaluated for opioid ligand binding and for efficacy using the [(35)S]GTPgammaS assay. Alteration of the bridging groups between the D-Cys(2) and D-Pen(4) residues of JH-54 from dithioether to disulfide revealed the importance of the relative position of the aromatic rings of the first and third residues in determining mu- and delta-affinities. The one carbon distance between the alpha carbon and phenyl ring in the N-terminal residue was critical. Additional steric bulk in the N-terminal Phe(1) residue was accommodated without large reductions in affinity in two naphthyl analogs, but not with 3, 3-(diphenyl)alanine. Conformational restriction of the Calpha-Cbeta and/or Cbeta-Cgamma bonds had little effect on affinities in two peptides with 2-amino-2-carboxytetralin in position 1, but it abolished activity in an isoquinoline analog and differentially altered activity in four phenylproline(1)-containing peptides. Most surprisingly, replacement of the Phe(1) aromatic ring with cyclohexyl resulted in a peptide of moderate affinity (K(i) = 32.5 nM) and potency (EC(50) = 58.8 nM). Thus, the tyrosyl para-hydroxyl substituent and even aromaticity in the N-terminal amino acid of these tetrapeptides are shown to be important, but not critical, features for mu-opioid receptor affinity, agonist potency, and efficacy.