Multimodal single-cell analysis of cutaneous T cell lymphoma reveals distinct sub-clonal tissue-dependent signatures
Cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a heterogeneous group of mature T cell neoplasms characterized by the accumulation of clonal malignant CD4+ T cells in the skin. The most common variant of CTCL, Mycosis Fungoides, is confined to the skin in early stages but can be accompanied by extracutaneous dissemination of malignant T cells to the blood and lymph nodes in advanced stages of disease. SÃ©zary Syndrome, a leukemic form of disease is characterized by significant blood involvement. Little is known about the transcriptional and genomic relationship between skin and blood residing malignant T cells in CTCL. To identify and interrogate malignant clones in matched skin and blood from leukemic MF and SS patients, we combine T cell receptor clonotyping, with quantification of gene expression and cell surface markers at the single cell level. Our data reveals clonal evolution at a transcriptional and genetic level within the malignant populations of individual patients. We highlight highly consistent transcriptional signatures delineating skin-derived and blood-derived malignant T cells. Analysis of these two populations suggests that environmental cues, along with genetic aberrations, contribute to transcriptional profiles of malignant T cells. Our findings indicate that the skin microenvironment in CTCL promotes a transcriptional response supporting rapid malignant expansion, as opposed to the quiescent state observed in the blood, potentially influencing efficacy of therapies. These results provide insight into tissue-specific characteristics of cancerous cells and underscore the need to address the patients' individual malignant profiles at the time of therapy to eliminate all sub-clones.
Methotrexate hampers immunogenicity to BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in immune-mediated inflammatory disease
Editorial: Rheumatology at the center of coronavirus disease 2019: pathogenesis, treatment, and clinical care [Editorial]
Moving the Goalpost Towards Remission: The Case for Combination Immunomodulatory Therapies in Psoriatic Arthritis
Following the pivotal manuscript that outlined unique disease features half a century ago, investigators in the field of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) have extrapolated clinical trial data and molecular insights from the more expansive experience in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). As a result, many of the diagnostic approaches, imaging modalities, therapeutics and outcome measures paralleled (and at times became identical to) those developed for RA.
New Frontiers in Psoriatic Disease Research, Part I: Genetics, Environmental Triggers, Immunology, Pathophysiology, and Precision Medicine
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by systemic immune dysregulation. Over the past several years, advances in genetics, microbiology, immunology, and mouse models have revealed the complex interplay between the heritable and microenvironmental factors that drive the development of psoriatic inflammation. In the first of this two-part review series, the authors will discuss the newest insights into the pathogenesis of psoriatic disease and highlight how the evolution of these scientific fields has paved the way for a more personalized approach to psoriatic disease treatment.
Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a complex inflammatory disease with heterogeneous clinical features, which complicates psoriasis in 30% of patients. There are no diagnostic criteria or tests available. Diagnosis is most commonly made by identifying inflammatory musculoskeletal features in joints, entheses or the spine in the presence of skin and/or nail psoriasis and in the usual absence of rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide. The evolution of psoriasis to PsA may occur in stages, although the mechanisms are unclear. In many patients, there may be little or no relationship between severity of musculoskeletal inflammation and severity of skin or nail psoriasis. The reason for this disease heterogeneity may be explained by differences in genotype, especially in the HLA region. New targeted therapies for PsA have been approved with additional therapies in development. These developments have substantially improved both short-term and long-term outcomes including a reduction in musculoskeletal and skin manifestations and in radiographic damage. With efforts underway aimed at improving our understanding of the molecular basis for the heterogeneity of PsA, a personalized approach to treating PsA may become possible.
Evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody reactivity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: analysis of a multi-racial and multi-ethnic cohort
Background/UNASSIGNED:Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are at risk of developing COVID-19 due to underlying immune abnormalities and regular use of immunosuppressant medications. We aimed to evaluate the presence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in patients with SLE with or without previous COVID-19-related symptoms or RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods/UNASSIGNED:For this analysis, we included patients with SLE from two cohorts based in New York City: the Web-based Assessment of Autoimmune, Immune-Mediated and Rheumatic Patients during the COVID-19 pandemic (WARCOV) study; and the NYU Lupus Cohort (a prospective registry of patients at NYU Langone Health and NYC Health + Hospitals/Bellevue). Patients in both cohorts were tested for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies via commercially available immunoassays, processed through hospital or outpatient laboratories. Patients recruited from the NYU Lupus Cohort, referred from affiliated providers, or admitted to hospital with COVID-19 were tested for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies as part of routine surveillance during follow-up clinical visits. Findings/UNASSIGNED:67 [24%] of 278). Other demographic variables, SLE-specific factors, and immunosuppressant use were not associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity. Of the 29 patients with COVID-19 previously confirmed by RT-PCR, 18 (62%) were on immunosuppressants; 24 (83%) of 29 patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. Of 17 patients who had symptoms of COVID-19 but negative concurrent RT-PCR testing, one (6%) developed an antibody response. Of 26 patients who had COVID-19-related symptoms but did not undergo RT-PCR testing, six (23%) developed an antibody response. Of 83 patients who had no symptoms of COVID-19 and no RT-PCR testing, four (5%) developed an antibody response. Among 36 patients who were initially SARS-CoV-2 IgG positive, the majority maintained reactivity serially (88% up to 10 weeks, 83% up to 20 weeks, and 80% up to 30 weeks). Seven (70%) of ten patients with confirmed COVID-19 had antibody positivity beyond 30 weeks from disease onset. Interpretation/UNASSIGNED:Most patients with SLE and confirmed COVID-19 were able to produce and maintain a serological response despite the use of a variety of immunosuppressants, providing reassurance about the efficacy and durability of humoral immunity and possible protection against re-infection with SARS-CoV-2. Funding/UNASSIGNED:National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, and Bloomberg Philanthropies COVID-19 Response Initiative Grant.
Induction of remission in biologic-naive, severe psoriasis and PsA with dual anti-cytokine combination
The Pre-treatment Gut Microbiome is Associated with Lack of Response to Methotrexate in New Onset Rheumatoid Arthritis
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Although oral methotrexate (MTX) remains the anchor drug for RA, up to 50% of patients do not achieve a clinically adequate outcome. Concomitantly, there is a lack of prognostic tools for treatment response prior to drug initiation. Here we study whether inter-individual differences in the human gut microbiome can aid in the prediction of MTX efficacy in new-onset RA (NORA). METHODS:16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic sequencing were performed on the baseline gut microbiomes of drug-naÃ¯ve, NORA patients (n=26). Results were validated in an additional independent cohort (n=21). To gain insight into potential microbial mechanisms, ex vivo experiments coupled with metabolomics analysis evaluated the association between microbiome-driven MTX depletion and clinical response. RESULTS:Our analysis revealed significant associations between the abundance of gut bacterial taxa and their genes with future clinical response, including orthologs related to purine and methotrexate metabolism. Machine learning techniques were applied to the metagenomic data, resulting in a microbiome-based model that predicts lack of response to MTX in an independent group of patients. Finally, MTX levels remaining after ex vivo incubation with distal gut samples from pre-treatment RA patients significantly correlated with the magnitude of future clinical response, suggesting a possible direct effect of the gut microbiome on MTX metabolism and treatment outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:Together, these results provide the first step towards predicting lack of response to oral MTX in NORA patients and support the value of the gut microbiome as a possible prognostic tool and as a potential target in RA therapeutics.
Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis in the Context of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Plenary Session From the GRAPPA 2020 Annual Meeting
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; caused by SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has affected the healthcare system on a global scale, and we utilized the Group for Research and Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis (GRAPPA) 2020 annual meeting to examine how COVID-19 might affect patients with psoriatic disease (PsD) and the clinicians who care for them. Pressing issues and concerns identified included whether having psoriasis increased the risk of acquiring COVID-19, vaccine safety, and the acceptability of telehealth. The general message from rheumatologists, dermatologists, infectious disease specialists, and patient research partners was that data did not suggest that having PsD or its treatment significantly increased risk of infection or more severe disease course, and that the telehealth experience was a success overall.