Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Urachal Excision in Children
OBJECTIVE:To report the first exclusively pediatric series of robot-assisted urachal remnant excisions in children. METHODS:We reviewed the medical records of all children who underwent robot-assisted excision of urachal remnants from 2010 to 2016. For the procedure, a 3-port approach was performed in all cases. Excision of the urachus was performed, along with partial cystectomy if there was clear or suspected bladder involvement. Outcomes and complications were reviewed. RESULTS:Sixteen cases of robotic urachal excision were performed during the study period in patients aged 0.8-16.5 years. Complete excision was accomplished in all cases with no conversions. Partial cystectomy was performed in 11 cases, in which a urinary catheter was left for 1 day in all cases (no catheter was left in the absence of partial cystectomy). The only complication was a bladder leak requiring open surgical repair. There were no bowel injuries or hernias. The median operative time was 107 minutes. The length of stay was 2 days with partial cystectomy and 1 day without partial cystectomy. All patients were well at follow-up. CONCLUSION:We report the largest known series of robot-assisted urachal remnant excisions in children, demonstrating this minimally invasive approach to be safe and effective.
Simplifying the diagnosis of 4 common voiding conditions using uroflow/electromyography, electromyography lag time and voiding history
PURPOSE: Noninvasive uroflowmetry with simultaneous electromyography is useful to triage cases of lower urinary tract symptoms into 4 urodynamically defined conditions, especially when incorporating short and long electromyography lag times in the analysis. We determined the prevalence of these 4 conditions at a single referral institution and the usefulness of uroflowmetry with simultaneous electromyography and electromyography lag time to confirm the diagnosis, guide treatment and monitor response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 100 consecutive normal children who presented with persistent lower urinary tract symptoms, underwent uroflowmetry with electromyography as part of the initial evaluation and were diagnosed with 1 of 4 conditions based on certain uroflowmetry/electromyography features. The conditions included 1) dysfunctional voiding--active pelvic floor electromyography during voiding with or without staccato flow, 2a) idiopathic detrusor overactivity disorder-A--a quiet pelvic floor during voiding and shortened lag time (less than 2 seconds), 2b) idiopathic detrusor overactivity disorder-B--a quiet pelvic floor with a normal lag time, 3) detrusor underutilization disorder--volitionally deferred voiding with expanded bladder capacity but a quiet pelvic floor, and 4) primary bladder neck dysfunction--prolonged lag time (greater than 6 seconds) and a depressed, right shifted uroflowmetry curve with a quiet pelvic floor during voiding. Treatment was tailored to the underlying condition in each patient. RESULTS: The group consisted of 50 males and 50 females with a mean age of 8 years (range 3 to 18). Dysfunctional voiding was more common in females (p <0.05) while idiopathic detrusor overactivity disorder-B and primary bladder neck dysfunction were more common in males (p <0.01). With treatment uroflowmetry parameters normalized for all types. Electromyography lag time increased in idiopathic detrusor overactivity disorder-A cases and decreased in primary bladder neck dysfunction cases. CONCLUSIONS: Noninvasive uroflowmetry with simultaneous electromyography offers an excellent alternative to invasive urodynamics to diagnose 4 urodynamically defined conditions. It identifies the most appropriate therapy for the specific condition and objectively monitors the treatment response.