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Early effectiveness and toxicity outcomes of reirradiation after breast conserving surgery for recurrent or new primary breast cancer

Hardy-Abeloos, Camille; Xiao, Julie; Oh, Cheongeun; Barbee, David; Perez, Carmen A; Oratz, Ruth; Schnabel, Freya; Axelrod, Deborah; Guth, Amber; Braunstein, Lior Z; Khan, Atif; Choi, J Isabelle; Gerber, Naamit
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Breast reirradiation (reRT) after breast conserving surgery (BCS) has emerged as a viable alternative to mastectomy for women presenting with recurrent or new primary breast cancer. There are limited data on safety of different fractionation regimens. This study reports safety and efficacy among women treated with repeat BCS and reRT. METHODS AND MATERIALS/METHODS:Patients who underwent repeat BCS followed by RT from 2015 to 2021 at 2 institutions were analyzed. Univariate logistic regression models were used to identify predictors of acute and late toxicities. Kaplan-Meier estimates were used to evaluate overall survival (OS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and locoregional recurrence-free survival (LR-RFS). RESULTS:Sixty-six patients were reviewed with median follow-up of 16 months (range: 3-60 months). At time of first recurrence, 41% had invasive carcinoma with a ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) component, 41% had invasive carcinoma alone and 18% had DCIS alone. All were clinically node negative. For the reirradiation course, 95% received partial breast irradiation (PBI) (57.5% with 1.5 Gy BID; 27% with 1.8 Gy daily; 10.5% with hypofractionation), and 5% received whole breast irradiation (1.8-2 Gy/fx), all of whom had received PBI for initial course. One patient experienced grade 3 fibrosis, and one patient experienced grade 3 telangiectasia. None had grade 4 or higher late adverse events. We found no association between the fractionation of the second course of RT or the cumulative dose (measured as EQD2) with acute or late toxicity. At 2 years, OS was 100%, DMFS was 91.6%, and LR-RFS was 100%. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In this series of patients with recurrent or new primary breast cancer, a second breast conservation surgery followed by reirradiation was effective with no local recurrences and an acceptable toxicity profile across a range of available fractionation regimens at a median follow up of 16 months. Longer follow up is required.
PMID: 36604352
ISSN: 1573-7217
CID: 5410082

Single-Dose of Postoperative Ketamine for Postoperative Pain After Mastectomy: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

Doan, Lisa V.; Li, Anna; Brake, Lee; Ok, Deborah; Jee, Hyun Jung; Park, Hyung; Cuevas, Randy; Calvino, Steven; Guth, Amber; Schnabel, Freya; Hiotis, Karen; Axelrod, Deborah; Wang, Jing
Background and Objectives: Perioperative ketamine has been shown to reduce opioid consumption and pain after surgery. Ketamine is most often given as an infusion, but an alternative is single-dose ketamine. Single-dose ketamine at up to 1 mg/kg has been shown to reduce symptoms of depression, and a wide range of dosages has been used for pain in the emergency department. However, limited data exists on the tolerability and efficacy of a single-dose of ketamine at 0.6 mg/kg for pain when administered immediately after surgery. We conducted a pilot study of single-dose ketamine in patients undergoing mastectomy with reconstruction, hypothesizing that a single-dose of ketamine is well tolerated and can relieve postoperative pain and improve mood and recovery. Methods: This is a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, two-arm parallel, single-center study. Thirty adult women undergoing mastectomy with reconstruction for oncologic indication received a single-dose of ketamine (0.6mg/kg) or placebo after surgery in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). Patients were followed through postoperative day (POD) 7. The primary outcome was postoperative pain measured by the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) pain subscale on POD 1 and 2. Secondary outcomes include effects on opioid use, PROMIS fatigue and sleep, mood, Quality of Recovery-15, and the Breast Cancer Pain Questionnaire. Results: Side effects were minor and not significantly different in frequency between groups. The ketamine group reported lower scores on the BPI pain severity subscale, especially at POD 7; however, the difference was not statistically significant. There were no statistically significant differences between ketamine and placebo groups for the secondary outcomes. Conclusion: A single-dose of ketamine at 0.6mg/kg administered postoperatively in the PACU is well tolerated in women undergoing mastectomy and may confer better pain control up to one week after surgery. Future studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to adequately characterize the effect of postoperative single-dose ketamine on pain control in this population.
ISSN: 1178-7090
CID: 5447712

Effectiveness and Toxicity of Re-Irradiation after Breast Conserving Surgery for Recurrent Breast Cancer: A Multi-Institutional Study [Meeting Abstract]

Abeloos, C H; Xiao, J; Oh, C; Barbee, D; Perez, C A; Oratz, R; Schnabel, F R; Axelrod, D; Guth, A; Braunstein, L Z; Khan, A J; Choi, I J; Gerber, N K
Purpose/Objective(s): Breast re-irradiation (reRT) after repeat breast conserving surgery (BCS) has emerged as a viable alternative to mastectomy in women presenting with low risk in-breast tumor recurrence (IBTR). However, there is limited data on optimal patient selection and safety of different fractionation regimens. This multi-institutional study reports safety and efficacy in a large cohort of women with IBTR treated with repeat BCS and reRT. Materials/Methods: Using electronic medical record search tools, we identified all patients who underwent repeat BCS followed by breast reRT from 2015-2021 at 2 institutions. Univariate logistic regression models were used to identify clinical and dosimetric factors associated with development of acute and late toxicities. All statistical tests were two-sided, and the null hypothesis was rejected for p<0.05. Kaplan Meier methodology was used to calculate overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS) and locoregional recurrence-free survival (LR-RFS).
Result(s): We identified 66 patients with an IBTR treated with repeat BCS. In the initial RT course, 55% received whole breast RT (WBI) with conventional fractionation (<=2 Gy/fraction[fx]), 29% WBI with hypofractionation (2.6-2.7 Gy/fx), 6% partial breast irradiation (PBI) ultrahypofractionation (6-8 Gy/fx) and 11% had unavailable treatment details. There was a median of 11 years between initial breast cancer and IBTR. At time of recurrence, 36% of patients had tumors located in the same quadrant as the initial cancer, 41% had invasive carcinoma with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), 41% had invasive carcinoma alone, 18% had DCIS alone, 92% had tumors < 2 cm, 68% had low-intermediate grade tumors and all were clinically node negative. For reRT, 95% received PBI (57.5% 45 Gy/1.5 Gy twice daily; 27% 45 Gy/1.8 Gy daily; 10.5% hypofractionation), and 5% received WBI (45-46.8 Gy in 1.8 Gy/fx), all of whom had received PBI for the initial course. Nine patients (13%) underwent adjuvant chemotherapy and 44 (67%) adjuvant hormone therapy. Median follow-up was 16 months (range 3-60). Twenty-one patients (32%) experienced any acute >= grade 2 events, and 17 (26%) experienced any late >= grade 2 toxicities. One patient experienced grade 3 fibrosis and one patient experienced grade 3 telangiectasia at 36 months. None had grade 4 or higher late adverse events. We found no association between fractionation of reRT or cumulative dose (measured as EQD2) with acute or late toxicity. At 2 years, OS was 100%, DMFS was 91.6%, and LR-RFS was 100%.
Conclusion(s): In this large multi-institutional series of patients with recurrent breast cancer, second breast conservation surgery followed by reRT was effective with no local recurrences and excellent disease control outcomes, and toxicity appears to be acceptable. Longer follow-up and more prospective study are needed to further inform patient selection and establish the efficacy and tolerability of repeat breast conservation therapy in the setting of limited, low-risk recurrence.
ISSN: 1879-355x
CID: 5366332

Long-Term Cancer Recurrence Rates Following Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy: A 10-year Follow-up Study

Boyd, Carter J; Salibian, Ara A; Bekisz, Jonathan M; Axelrod, Deborah M; Guth, Amber A; Shapiro, Richard L; Schnabel, Freya R; Karp, Nolan S; Choi, Mihye
BACKGROUND:Despite the increased utilization of nipple-sparing mastectomies (NSM), there is limited data examining long-term cancer recurrence rates in these patients. The objective of this study was to analyze breast cancer recurrence in patients who received therapeutic NSM with a median of 10 years of follow-up. METHODS:All patients undergoing NSM at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed temporally to obtain a median of 10-years of follow up. Patient demographic factors, mastectomy specimen pathology, and oncologic outcomes were analyzed. Univariate analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors for locoregional recurrence. RESULTS:126 therapeutic NSM were performed on 120 patients. The most frequently observed tumor histology included invasive ductal carcinoma (48.4%) and ductal carcinoma in situ (38.1%). Mean tumor size was 1.62 cm. Multifocal or multicentric disease and lymphovascular invasion were present in 31.0% and 10.3% of NSM specimens, respectively. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed in 84.9% of NSM and 17.8% were positive. The rate of positive frozen subareolar biopsy was 7.3% (n=82) and permanent subareolar pathology was 9.5% (n=126). The most frequently observed pathologic tumor stages was stage I (44.6%) and stage 0 (33.9%). Incidence of recurrent disease was 3.17% per mastectomy and 3.33% per patient. Upon univariate analysis, no demographic, operative, or tumor-specific variables were independent risk factors for locoregional recurrence. CONCLUSIONS:Overall recurrence rates are low in patients undergoing NSM at a median follow-up of 10-years. Close surveillance should remain a goal for patients and their providers to promptly identify potential recurrence.
PMID: 35943969
ISSN: 1529-4242
CID: 5286852

Radar reflector guided axillary surgery in node positive breast cancer patients

Feinberg, Joshua A; Axelrod, Deborah; Guth, Amber; Maldonado, Leonel; Darvishian, Farbod; Pourkey, Nakisa; Goodgal, Jenny; Schnabel, Freya
INTRODUCTION/UNASSIGNED:In patients with non-palpable breast cancer, the availability of wireless localization techniques facilitates removal of the target lesion. One such technique uses a radar reflector for localization (RRL). This study evaluates the feasibility and effectiveness of RRL to guide excision of axillary lymph nodes in patients with node-positive breast cancer. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Our Breast Cancer Database was queried for patients diagnosed with breast cancer, between 5/2017 and 10/2021, who underwent preoperative placement of a radar reflector into a biopsy proven axillary lymph node. Clinicopathologic data were reported using descriptive statistics. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:Twenty patients underwent preoperative placement of a radar reflector into the axilla. Intraoperatively, the clip and radar reflector were successfully removed in all patients. Among the 10 patients treated with NAC, 5 patients achieved an axillary pathologic complete response (pCR) and were spared a complete axillary lymph node dissection (cALND). Among the entire cohort, RRL resulted in a 53% reduction in the number of lymph nodes removed. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:Wireless localization of axillary lymph nodes is safe and feasible. The technique ensures excision of biopsy proven positive axillary lymph nodes and enables a targeted approach to assessing the axilla, both in the setting of NAC and upfront surgery.
PMID: 36345879
ISSN: 1745-2422
CID: 5357152

Macrophage density is an adverse prognosticator for ipsilateral recurrence in ductal carcinoma in situ

Darvishian, Farbod; Wu, Yinxiang; Ozerdem, Ugur; Chun, Jennifer; Adams, Sylvia; Guth, Amber; Axelrod, Deborah; Shapiro, Richard; Troxel, Andrea B; Schnabel, Freya; Roses, Daniel
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:There is evidence that supports the association of dense tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (TILs) with an increased risk of ipsilateral recurrence in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). However, the association of cellular composition of DCIS immune microenvironment with the histopathologic parameters and outcome is not well understood. METHODS:We queried our institutional database for patients with pure DCIS diagnosed between 2010 and 2019. Immunohistochemical studies for CD8, CD4, CD68, CD163, and FOXP3 were performed and evaluated in the DCIS microenvironment using tissue microarrays. Statistical methods included Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and the two-sample t-test or the Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test for continuous variables. RESULTS:The analytic sample included 67 patients. Median age was 62 years (range = 53 to 66) and median follow up was 6.7 years (range = 5.3 to 7.8). Thirteen patients had ipsilateral recurrence. Of all the clinicopathologic variables, only the DCIS size and TIL density were significantly associated with recurrence (p = 0.023 and 0.006, respectively). After adjusting for age and TIL density, only high CD68 (>50) and high CD68/CD163 ratio (>0.46) correlated with ipsilateral recurrence (p = 0.026 and 0.013, respectively) and shorter time to recurrence [hazard ratio 4.87 (95% CI: 1.24-19, p = 0.023) and 10.32 (95% CI: 1.34-80, p = 0.025), respectively]. CONCLUSIONS:macrophage density and CD68/CD163 ratio also predict a shorter time to recurrence.
PMID: 35489232
ISSN: 1532-3080
CID: 5217782

Outcomes of Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Chemotherapy, Biologic Therapy, Endocrine Therapy, or Active Surveillance During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Marks, Douglas K; Budhathoki, Nibash; Kucharczyk, John; Fa'ak, Faisal; D'Abreo, Nina; Kwa, Maryann; Plasilova, Magdalena; Dhage, Shubhada; Soe, Phyu Phyu; Becker, Daniel; Hindenburg, Alexander; Lee, Johanna; Winner, Megan; Okpara, Chinyere; Daly, Alison; Shah, Darshi; Ramdhanny, Angela; Meyers, Marleen; Oratz, Ruth; Speyer, James; Novik, Yelena; Schnabel, Freya; Jones, Simon A; Adams, Sylvia
PURPOSE:Provide real-world data regarding the risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality in breast cancer (BC) patients on active cancer treatment. METHODS:Clinical data were abstracted from the 3778 BC patients seen at a multisite cancer center in New York between February 1, 2020 and May 1, 2020, including patient demographics, tumor histology, cancer treatment, and SARS-CoV-2 testing results. Incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection by treatment type (chemotherapy [CT] vs endocrine and/or HER2 directed therapy [E/H]) was compared by Inverse Probability of Treatment Weighting. In those diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection, Mann-Whitney test was used to a assess risk factors for severe disease and mortality. RESULTS:Three thousand sixty-two patients met study inclusion criteria with 641 patients tested for SARS-COV-2 by RT-PCR or serology. Overall, 64 patients (2.1%) were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection by either serology, RT-PCR, or documented clinical diagnosis. Comparing matched patients who received chemotherapy (n = 379) with those who received non-cytotoxic therapies (n = 2343) the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 did not differ between treatment groups (weighted risk; 3.5% CT vs 2.7% E/H, P = .523). Twenty-seven patients (0.9%) expired over follow-up, with 10 deaths attributed to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Chemotherapy was not associated with increased risk for death following SARS-CoV-2 infection (weighted risk; 0.7% CT vs 0.1% E/H, P = .246). Advanced disease (stage IV), age, BMI, and Charlson's Comorbidity Index score were associated with increased mortality following SARS-CoV-2 infection (P ≤ .05). CONCLUSION:BC treatment, including chemotherapy, can be safely administered in the context of enhanced infectious precautions, and should not be withheld particularly when given for curative intent.
PMID: 35641208
ISSN: 1549-490x
CID: 5235912

Margin Assessment and Re-excision Rates for Patients Who Have Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Breast-Conserving Surgery

Cen, Cindy; Chun, Jennifer; Kaplowitz, Elianna; Axelrod, Deborah; Shapiro, Richard; Guth, Amber; Schnabel, Freya
BACKGROUND:Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) has enabled more patients to be eligible for breast-conservation surgery (BCS). Achieving negative lumpectomy margins, however, is challenging due to changes in tissue composition and potentially scattered residual carcinoma in the tumor bed. Data regarding BCS after NAC have shown variable re-excision rates. MarginProbe (Dilon Technologies, Newport News, VA, USA) has been shown to identify positive resection margins intraoperatively and to reduce the number of re-excisions in primary BCS, but has not been studied in NAC+BCS cases. This study aimed to investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics, margin status, and re-excision rates for NAC+BCS patients with and without the use of MarginProbe. METHODS:The Institutional Breast Cancer Database was queried for patients who received NAC and had BCS from 2010 to 2019. The variables of interest were demographics, tumor characteristics, pathologic complete response (pCR), MarginProbe use, and re-excision rates. RESULTS:The study population consisted of 214 patients who had NAC, 61 (28.5 %) of whom had NAC+BCS. The median age of the patients was 53.5 years. A pCR was achieved for 19 of the patients (31.1 %). Of the remaining 42 patients, 9 (21 %) had close or positive margins that required re-excision. Re-excision was associated with a larger residual tumor size (p = 0.025) and estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease before NAC (p = 0.041). MarginProbe use was associated with a lower re-excision rate for the patients who had NAC+BCS (6 % vs. 31 %, respectively). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The patients with a larger residual tumor burden and ER-positive disease had a greater risk for inadequate margins at surgery. MarginProbe use was associated with a lower re-excision rate. Techniques to reduce the need for re-excision will support the use of BCS after NAC.
PMID: 33635409
ISSN: 1534-4681
CID: 4802382

Breast Cancer Characteristics in the Population of Survivors Participating in the World Trade Center Environmental Health Center Program 2002-2019

Arslan, Alan A; Zhang, Yian; Durmus, Nedim; Pehlivan, Sultan; Addessi, Adrienne; Schnabel, Freya; Shao, Yongzhao; Reibman, Joan
The destruction of World Trade Center on 11 September 2001 exposed local community members to a complex mixture of known carcinogens and potentially carcinogenic substances. To date, breast cancer has not been characterized in detail in the WTC-exposed civilian populations. The cancer characteristics of breast cancer patients were derived from the newly developed Pan-Cancer Database at the WTC Environmental Health Center (WTC EHC). We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program breast cancer data as a reference source. Between May 2002 and 31 December 2019, 2840 persons were diagnosed with any type of cancer at the WTC EHC, including 601 patients with a primary breast cancer diagnosis (592 women and 9 men). There was a higher proportion of grade 3 (poorly differentiated) tumors (34%) among the WTC EHC female breast cancers compared to that of the SEER-18 data (25%). Compared to that of the SEER data, female breast cancers in the WTC EHC had a lower proportion of luminal A (88% and 65%, respectively), higher proportion of luminal B (13% and 15%, respectively), and HER-2-enriched (5.5% and 7%, respectively) subtypes. These findings suggest considerable differences in the breast cancer characteristics and distribution of breast cancer intrinsic subtypes in the WTC-exposed civilian population compared to that of the general population. This is important because of the known effect of molecular subtypes on breast cancer prognosis.
PMID: 34300003
ISSN: 1660-4601
CID: 4948792

Impact of changing guidelines on genetic testing and surveillance recommendations in a contemporary cohort of breast cancer survivors with family history of pancreatic cancer

Wang, Annie; Everett, Jessica N; Chun, Jennifer; Cen, Cindy; Simeone, Diane M; Schnabel, Freya
Changing practice guidelines and recommendations have important implications for cancer survivors. This study investigated genetic testing patterns and outcomes and reported family history of pancreatic cancer (FHPC) in a large registry population of breast cancer (BC) patients. Variables including clinical and demographic characteristics, FHPC in a first or second-degree relative, and genetic testing outcomes were analyzed for BC patients diagnosed between 2010 and 2018 in the NYU Langone Health Breast Cancer Database. Among 3334 BC patients, 232 (7%) had a positive FHPC. BC patients with FHPC were 1.68 times more likely to have undergone genetic testing (p < 0.001), but 33% had testing for BRCA1/2 only and 44% had no genetic testing. Pathogenic germline variants (PGV) were identified in 15/129 (11.6%) BC patients with FHPC, and in 145/1315 (11.0%) BC patients without FHPC. Across both groups, updates in genetic testing criteria and recommendations could impact up to 80% of this cohort. Within a contemporary cohort of BC patients, 7% had a positive FHPC. The majority of these patients (56%) had no genetic testing, or incomplete testing by current standards, suggesting under-diagnosis of PC risk. This study supports recommendations for survivorship care that incorporate ongoing genetic risk assessment and counseling.
PMID: 34127761
ISSN: 2045-2322
CID: 4924652