Relationship of serum immunoglobulin and IgG subclass levels to race, ethnicity and behavioral characteristics in HIV infection
BACKGROUND: To determine whether demographic and behavioral factors affect immunoglobulin regulation in HIV infection, we studied injection drug users, women, and minority ethnic and racial groups with and without HIV infection. MATERIAL/METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study of ambulatory persons with or at risk for HIV infection was conducted. We enrolled 48 injection drug users (IDUs) and 43 non-IDUs seropositive for HIV and 22 seronegative at-risk individuals in the Bronx, New York City. Sixteen HIV-seronegative, non-IDUs controls were also studied. Total serum immunoglobulin levels, IgG subclasses and lymphocyte phenotypes were measured. RESULTS: Serum IgG, IgA, IgG(1) and IgG(3) were increased in all stages of HIV infection controlling for injection drug use, gender, race and age (p0.05). Serum IgM levels were significantly decreased in HIV seropositives compared to HIV seronegatives (p<0.02). Two patterns of serum immunoglobulin level elevation were found in HIV infection: 1) IgG, IgG(1) and IgG(3) levels were elevated in early and advanced HIV infection; 2) IgA, IgG(2) and IgG(4) levels were elevated only in advanced HIV infection. IgG levels were increased in Blacks compared to Caucasians with HIV infection (p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Serum IgG, IgG(1) and IgG(3) levels are increased in early HIV infection, while serum IgA, IgG(2), and IgG(3) levels are increased only in advanced HIV infection. In contrast, serum IgM levels are decreased in HIV infection. HIV-seropositive Blacks have higher serum IgG levels than HIV-seropositive Caucasians. Further studies are necessary to determine the mechanism(s) underlying the different patterns of immunoglobulin elevation in HIV infection.
Serum IgE levels in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection
BACKGROUND: Increased serum IgE levels are associated with advanced HIV infection. The magnitude of the increase has varied greatly between studies which generally did not assess potential confounding factors. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the increased serum IgE levels reported with HIV infection is affected by demographic or behavioral factors, we studied injection drug users, women, and minority ethnic and racial groups with HIV infection, for whom little data now exist. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study of ambulatory patients with or at risk for HIV infection was performed. We enrolled 83 injection drug users and 56 non-drug users seropositive for HIV and 43 seronegative at-risk individuals from an Infectious Diseases clinic and a longitudinal study of HIV infection in injection drug users in the Bronx, New York City. Fifteen HIV-seronegative non-atopic controls were also studied. Total serum IgE levels were measured by a solid phase fluorescent assay and lymphocyte phenotypes were measured by monoclonal antibodies. RESULTS: On multiple linear regression analysis, HIV infection (P=.01) and advanced HIV disease (P < or =.01) were independently associated with increased serum IgE levels, controlling for gender, race, age, and use of injection drugs. In both HIV-seronegative and seropositive individuals, female gender was independently associated with lower IgE levels (P < or = .001). We did not find an independent effect of race or injection drug use on IgE levels. CONCLUSIONS: Increased serum IgE levels were associated with HIV infection, the highest levels existing in those with advanced HIV disease. Women had lower IgE levels than men, independent of HIV status. Active or past drug use, race, and age were not found to be independently associated with serum IgE levels. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the increased serum IgE levels seen with HIV infection and its associated immunodeficiency, and to substantiate and explore the decreased levels found in women
Increased urine interleukin-1 levels in aging
Our laboratory previously noted an increase in thymocyte mitogenic activity in the urine of many elderly patients. The present study was performed to verify this finding and to determine if this activity was actually due to an increase in interleukin-1 (IL-1). IL-1 levels were measured in the urine of 33 healthy, ambulatory, elderly subjects (ages 83-95 years), using both a murine thymocyte bioassay, measuring activation by the incorporation of tritiated thymidine and an MTT dye reduction assay. There was a significant increase in urine IL-1 in 85% of elderly individuals. In the MTT dye reduction assay, mean elderly urine IL-1 levels were 0.88 U/ml, in comparison with a young control group (ages 23-37 years) in which urine IL-1 levels were very low (mean IL-1 < or = 0.05 U/ml). Urine levels of IL-1 beta were also measured by using a sensitive immunoassay (ELISA) and were found to be significantly increased in the elderly (mean = 57.4 pg/ml), compared to the young (mean = 2.5 pg/ml). In contrast, IL-2 levels in urine were very low, with no difference between the young and the elderly. Mean urine protein and creatinine levels did not differ significantly between young and old, and did not account for the increase in urine IL-1 levels. Although its immunologic significance is not yet understood, this striking increase in IL-1 is an unusual and interesting finding that merits further investigation.