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Response Letter for "Progressive collapsing foot deformity: How should we translate it into Neo-Latin languages?" [Letter]

Ellis, Scott J; Deland, Jonathan T; Myerson, Mark; Thordarson, David; Johnson, Jeffrey; Sangeorzan, Bruce J; Hintermann, Beat; Schon, Lew C; de Cesar Netto, Cesar
PMID: 34507889
ISSN: 1460-9584
CID: 5036452

Outcomes of iliac crest bone marrow aspirate injection for the treatment of recalcitrant Achilles tendinopathy

Thueakthong, Wisutthinee; de Cesar Netto, Cesar; Garnjanagoonchorn, Apiporn; Day, Jonathan; Friedman, Guy; Auster, Harry; Tan, Eric; Schon, Lew C
BACKGROUND:Achilles tendinopathy is a common cause of posterior ankle and heel pain in both active and sedentary patients. Though the majority of patients respond to first-line non-operative management including activity modification, immobilization, orthotics, and physical therapy with stretching and eccentric strengthening, there is no consensus for patients who fail these treatments. We evaluate the role of iliac crest bone marrow aspirate (BMA) injections as a treatment option for recalcitrant cases. METHODS:A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients with refractory Achilles tendinopathy treated with iliac crest BMA concentrate injection. Symptoms were assessed using the numeric rating system (NRS) pain score at the pre-operative visit and at six, 12, 24, and 48 weeks postoperatively. Post-operative complications were recorded. RESULTS:(range, 18.4 to 34.4), and average duration of symptoms prior to BMA injection was 2.3 years (range, 1 to 7). Pre-operatively, average NRS was 6.26 (95% CI, 5.04 to 7.49), with significant improvement at six weeks (mean, 4.26; 95% CI, 2.94 to 5.59; p = 0.04), ten weeks (mean, 4.13; 95% CI, 2.91 to 5.35; p = 0.012), 24 weeks (mean, 3.40; 95% CI, 2.05 to 4.75; p = 0.03), and 48 weeks (mean, 2.60; 95% CI, 1.14 to 4.06; p = 0.007) post-operatively. Overall, there was trending improvement over the 48-week follow-up period, with a mean improvement in NRS of - 3.22 (95% CI, - 1.06 to - 5.38; p = 0.007) at final follow-up. There was no discernable difference between insertional and non-insertional tendinopathy, and there were no incidences of post-operative complications. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Iliac crest BMA appears to be a safe, effective, and potentially lasting treatment option for patients with intractable, insertional and non-insertional Achilles tendinopathy. Patients demonstrated and maintained statistically significant decrease in NRS pain score post-operatively with no complications at the donor or injection site.
PMID: 34254148
ISSN: 1432-5195
CID: 4965802

Foot fat pad: Characterization by mesenchymal stromal cells in rats

Zhang, Zijun; Paudel, Sharada; Feltham, Tyler; Lobao, Mario H; Schon, Lew
Foot fat pad (FFP) is a highly functionalized fat depot of great significance for weight bearing in the foot. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in subcutaneous adipose tissues are widely studied for regenerative potentials. MSCs in FFP, which may contribute to the physiological and pathological conditions of the foot, have not been characterized. In this study, MSCs were isolated from FFP (designated as MSCs-ffp) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (designated as MSCs-sub) from rats. The cell surface markers, proliferation, and efficiency of colony formation were compared between MSCs-ffp and MSCs-sub. In addition, MSCs-ffp were induced for osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic differentiation. The tri-lineage differentiation potentials were compared between MSCs-ffp and MSCs-sub by the expression of Runx2, Sox9, and proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), respectively, using quantitative polymerized chain reaction. The expression of elastin and associated genes by MSCs-ffp were also evaluated. MSCs-ffp, like MSCs-sub, expressed CD44, CD73, and CD90. MSCs-ffp and MSCs-sub proliferated at similar rates but MSCs-ffp formed more colonies than MSCs-sub. MSCs-ffp were capable of differentiating into osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic lineages. Under the conditions of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation, MSCs-sub expressed more Runx2 and PPAR-γ, respectively, than MSCs-ffp. The undifferentiated MSCs-ffp upregulated the expression of fibulin-5. In conclusion, MSCs-ffp shared common biology with MSCs-sub but were more efficient in colony formation, less adipogenic and osteogenic, and participated in elastogenesis. The unique features of MSCs-ffp may relate to their roles in the physiological functions of FFP.
PMID: 33099882
ISSN: 1932-8494
CID: 5036422

Diaphyseal Proximal Phalangeal Shortening Osteotomy for Correction of Hammertoe Deformity: Operative Technique and Radiological Outcomes

Bastías, Gonzalo F; Sage, Katherine; Orapin, Jakrapong; Schon, Lew
BACKGROUND:Correction of hammertoe deformities at the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint results in an inherent loss of motion that can be a concern for active patients who want to maintain toe function and grip strength. Diaphyseal proximal phalangeal shortening osteotomy (DPPSO) is a joint-sparing procedure resecting a cylindrical portion of the proximal phalanx on the middiaphysis. PATIENTS/METHODS/METHODS:This was a retrospective review including patients treated using DPPSO with at least a 1-year follow-up. Demographic, comorbidity, and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores and complication data were obtained. Radiological assessment included union status and alignment. Medial frontal anatomical (mFAA), frontal proximal interphalangeal (mFIA), plantar lateral anatomical (pLAA), and medial and plantar lateral interphalangeal angles (pLIA) were measured. RESULTS:< .01). Union occurred in all patients at an average of 11.2 weeks. Complications were present on 4 toes (8.8%), with no recurrences. The pLIA significantly changed from 44.9° to 17.9°. There were no significant differences in the preoperative and postoperative values of the mFAA, pLAA, and mFIA. CONCLUSIONS:DPPSO provides adequate pain relief and corrects the PIP joint in the lateral plane without significantly affecting the coronal plane or the anatomical axis of the phalanx in the frontal and lateral views, nor producing secondary deformities. DPPSO is a safe, effective, and reproducible technique with a low complication rate. LEVELS OF EVIDENCE/UNASSIGNED:
PMID: 34142594
ISSN: 1938-7636
CID: 4936822

Radiographic Outcomes of Cotton Osteotomy in Treatment of Adult-Acquired Flatfoot Deformity

Abousayed, Mostafa M; Coleman, Michelle M; Wei, Lawrence; de Cesar Netto, Cesar; Schon, Lew C; Guyton, Gregory P
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:We investigated the long-term radiographic outcomes of the Cotton osteotomy performed at our institution by the 2 senior authors in conjunction with other reconstruction procedures to correct adult-acquired flatfoot deformity (AAFD). METHODS/UNASSIGNED:We retrospectively studied patients who underwent Cotton osteotomy between 2005 and 2010 with minimum 4-year follow-up. Radiographic assessment was made on weightbearing radiographs taken at 4 different time intervals: preoperative, early (first postoperative full weightbearing), intermediate (between 1 and 4 years postoperatively), and final (over 4 years postoperatively). RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:= .35) between early radiographs and final follow-up. DISCUSSION/UNASSIGNED:This is the longest reported radiographic follow-up of the Cotton osteotomy performed to address forefoot varus deformity as part of AAFD. The Cotton osteotomy achieved radiographic correction of the medial longitudinal arch at early follow-up, but approximately half of the patients had lost over 50% of that correction at final follow-up. The lengthened angular shape of the cuneiform did not collapse, implying that further collapse occurred through the medial column joints. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/UNASSIGNED:Level IV, case series.
PMID: 34109855
ISSN: 1944-7876
CID: 4900852

Effect of Achilles Tendon Lengthening and Gastrocnemius Recession on Radiographic Tibiotalar Motion Following Total Ankle Replacement

Jeng, Clifford L; Campbell, John T; Maloney, Patrick J; Schon, Lew C; Cerrato, Rebecca A
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Surgeons frequently add an Achilles tendon lengthening or gastrocnemius recession to increase dorsiflexion following total ankle replacement. Previous studies have looked at the effects of these procedures on total tibiopedal motion. However, tibiopedal motion includes motion of the midfoot and hindfoot as well as the ankle replacement. The current study examined the effects of Achilles tendon lengthening and gastrocnemius recession on radiographic tibiotalar motion at the level of the prosthesis only. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Fifty-four patients with an average of 25 months follow-up after total ankle replacement were divided into 3 groups: (1) patients who underwent Achilles tendon lengthening, (2) patients who had a gastrocnemius recession, (3) patients with no lengthening procedure. Tibiotalar range of motion was measured on lateral dorsiflexion-plantarflexion radiographs using reference lines on the surface of the implants. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:Both Achilles tendon lengthening and gastrocnemius recession significantly increased tibiotalar dorsiflexion when compared to the group without lengthening. However, the total tibiotalar range of motion among the 3 groups was the same. Interestingly, the Achilles tendon lengthening group lost 11.7 degrees of plantarflexion compared to the group without lengthening, which was significant. CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:Both Achilles tendon lengthening and gastrocnemius recession increased radiographic tibiotalar dorsiflexion following arthroplasty. Achilles tendon lengthening had the unexpected effect of significantly decreasing plantarflexion. Gastrocnemius recession may be a better choice when faced with a tight ankle replacement because it increases dorsiflexion without a compensatory loss of plantarflexion. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/UNASSIGNED:Level III, retrospective comparative study.
PMID: 33203256
ISSN: 1944-7876
CID: 5036432

Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Suppresses Synovial Macrophage Infiltration and Inflammation in Injured Knees in Rats

Feltham, Tyler; Paudel, Sharada; Lobao, Mario; Schon, Lew; Zhang, Zijun
This study was designed to investigate how low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) suppresses traumatic joint inflammation and thereafter affects the progression of posttraumatic osteoarthritis. Intra-articular fracture (IAF) was created in the right knee of rats. LIPUS was applied to the knees with IAFs for 20 min/d for 2 wk-LIPUS(+) group. The study controls included rats that underwent sham surgery but no LIPUS treatment (control group) or underwent IAF surgery without LIPUS treatment-LIPUS(-) group. By histology, at 4 wk, leukocyte infiltration in the synovium was reduced in the LIPUS(+) group. Furthermore, LIPUS treatment reduced CD68+ macrophages in the synovium and limited their distribution mostly in the subintimal synovium. Measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the joint fluid of the LIPUS(+) group was reduced to about one-third that in the LIPUS(-) group. By reducing synovial macrophages and lowering IL-1β in the joint fluid, LIPUS is potentially therapeutic for posttraumatic osteoarthritis.
PMID: 33423862
ISSN: 1879-291x
CID: 5036442

Consensus on Indications for Medial Cuneiform Opening Wedge (Cotton) Osteotomy in the Treatment of Progressive Collapsing Foot Deformity

Johnson, Jeffrey E; Sangeorzan, Bruce J; de Cesar Netto, Cesar; Deland, Jonathan T; Ellis, Scott J; Hintermann, Beat; Schon, Lew C; Thordarson, David B; Myerson, Mark S
RECOMMENDATION/UNASSIGNED:to describe this same deformity (see Introduction section with nomenclature). Correction of this deformity is important to restore the weightbearing tripod of the foot and help resist a recurrence of foot collapse. When the forefoot varus deformity is isolated to the medial metatarsal and medial cuneiform, correction is indicated with an opening wedge medial cuneiform (Cotton) osteotomy, typically with interposition of an allograft bone wedge from 5 to 11 mm in width at the base. When the forefoot varus is global, involving varus angulation of the entire forefoot and midfoot relative to the hindfoot, other procedures are needed to adequately correct the deformity. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/UNASSIGNED:Level V, consensus, expert opinion.
PMID: 32856482
ISSN: 1944-7876
CID: 5036412

Titrating the Amount of Bony Correction in Progressive Collapsing Foot Deformity

Ellis, Scott J; Johnson, Jeffrey E; Day, Jonathan; de Cesar Netto, Cesar; Deland, Jonathan T; Hintermann, Beat; Myerson, Mark S; Schon, Lew C; Thordarson, David; Sangeorzan, Bruce J
RECOMMENDATION/UNASSIGNED:There is evidence indicating that the amount of bony correction performed in the setting of progressive collapsing foot deformity reconstructive surgery can be titrated within a recommended range for a variety of procedures. The typical range when performing a medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy should be 7 to 15 mm of medialization of the tuberosity. The typical range when performing an Evans lateral column lengthening should be 5 to 10 mm of a laterally based wedge in the anterior calcaneus. The typical range when performing a plantarflexion opening wedge osteotomy of the medial cuneiform (Cotton) osteotomy should be 5 to 10 mm of a dorsal wedge. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/UNASSIGNED:Level V, consensus, expert opinion.
PMID: 32869654
ISSN: 1944-7876
CID: 4614572

Classification and Nomenclature: Progressive Collapsing Foot Deformity

Myerson, Mark S; Thordarson, David; Johnson, Jeffrey E; Hintermann, Beat; Sangeorzan, Bruce J; Deland, Jonathan T; Schon, Lew C; Ellis, Scott J; de Cesar Netto, Cesar
RECOMMENDATION/UNASSIGNED:The historical nomenclature for the adult acquired flatfoot deformity (AAFD) is confusing, at times called posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD), the adult flexible flatfoot deformity, posterior tibial tendon rupture, peritalar instability and peritalar subluxation (PTS), and progressive talipes equinovalgus. Many but not all of these deformities are associated with a rupture of the posterior tibial tendon (PTT), and some of these are associated with deformities either primarily or secondarily in the midfoot or ankle. There is similar inconsistency with the use of classification schemata for these deformities, and from the first introduced by Johnson and Strom (1989), and then modified by Myerson (1997), there have been many attempts to provide a more comprehensive classification system. However, although these newer more complete classification systems have addressed some of the anatomic variations of deformities encountered, none of the above have ever been validated. The proposed system better incorporates the most recent data and understanding of the condition and better allows for standardization of reporting. In light of this information, the consensus group proposes the adoption of the nomenclature "Progressive Collapsing Foot Deformity" (PCFD) and a new classification system aiming at summarizing recent data published on the subject and to standardize data reporting regarding this complex 3-dimensional deformity. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/UNASSIGNED:Level V, consensus, expert opinion. CONSENSUS STATEMENTS VOTED/UNASSIGNED:A new classification system is proposed and should be used to stage the deformity clinically and to define treatment.Delegate vote: agree, 89% (8/9); abstain, 11% (1/9).(Strong consensus).
PMID: 32856474
ISSN: 1944-7876
CID: 4615272