person:schumj02 or Hiroshi Ishikawa (ishikh01) or chanc12 or shohas01 or chakrs07 or cohene10 or alaswl01
Ocular manifestations of central insulin resistance
Central insulin resistance, the diminished cellular sensitivity to insulin in the brain, has been implicated in diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders. However, whether and how central insulin resistance plays a role in the eye remains unclear. Here, we performed intracerebroventricular injection of S961, a potent and specific blocker of insulin receptor in adult Wistar rats to test if central insulin resistance leads to pathological changes in ocular structures. 80 mg of S961 was stereotaxically injected into the lateral ventricle of the experimental group twice at 7 days apart, whereas buffer solution was injected to the sham control group. Blood samples, intraocular pressure, trabecular meshwork morphology, ciliary body markers, retinal and optic nerve integrity, and whole genome expression patterns were then evaluated. While neither blood glucose nor serum insulin level was significantly altered in the experimental or control group, we found that injection of S961 but not buffer solution significantly increased intraocular pressure at 14 and 24 days after first injection, along with reduced porosity and aquaporin 4 expression in the trabecular meshwork, and increased tumor necrosis factor Î± and aquaporin 4 expression in the ciliary body. In the retina, cell density and insulin receptor expression decreased in the retinal ganglion cell layer upon S961 injection. Fundus photography revealed peripapillary atrophy with vascular dysregulation in the experimental group. These retinal changes were accompanied by upregulation of pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic genes, downregulation of anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and neurotrophic genes, as well as dysregulation of genes involved in insulin signaling. Optic nerve histology indicated microglial activation and changes in the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, tumor necrosis factor Î±, and aquaporin 4. Molecular pathway architecture of the retina revealed the three most significant pathways involved being inflammation/cell stress, insulin signaling, and extracellular matrix regulation relevant to neurodegeneration. There was also a multimodal crosstalk between insulin signaling derangement and inflammation-related genes. Taken together, our results indicate that blocking insulin receptor signaling in the central nervous system can lead to trabecular meshwork and ciliary body dysfunction, intraocular pressure elevation, as well as inflammation, glial activation, and apoptosis in the retina and optic nerve. Given that central insulin resistance may lead to neurodegenerative phenotype in the visual system, targeting insulin signaling may hold promise for vision disorders involving the retina and optic nerve.
Health Literacy and Ophthalmology: A scoping review
As of 2020, it is estimated that 43.3 million people are blind, and an additional 553 million have mild to severe vision impairment.50 At least 1 billion worldwide have a vision impairment that could have been prevented or has yet to be addressed.54 Poor health literacy may be a significant contributor to the prevalence of eye disease. With implications on disease burden, progression, and health outcomes, a greater understanding of the role health literacy plays in ophthalmology is needed.Â This is the first scoping review to assess the impact of health literacy on eye health outcomes and blindness, including ocular screening rates/follow-up rates, treatment adherence, and self-care practices. PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL databases were searched systematically through November 12, 2021, and we evaluated the association between health literacy and ophthalmic outcomes in 4 domains: clinical outcomes, treatment adherence rates, screening/follow-up rates, and self-care practices. There is evidence to suggest that health literacy is associated with ophthalmic outcomes in all these domains. To better understand how health literacy impacts eye health, further longitudinal studies examining the effect of health literacy (using standardized health literacy measures) on ophthalmic outcomes are needed. We believe a specific ophthalmic health literacy survey could help achieve this goal and help target interventions to ultimately improve outcomes among ophthalmology patients.
Normative Data and Conversion Equation for Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in an International Healthy Control Cohort
BACKGROUND:Spectral-domain (SD-) optical coherence tomography (OCT) can reliably measure axonal (peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer [pRNFL]) and neuronal (macular ganglion cell + inner plexiform layer [GCIPL]) thinning in the retina. Measurements from 2 commonly used SD-OCT devices are often pooled together in multiple sclerosis (MS) studies and clinical trials despite software and segmentation algorithm differences; however, individual pRNFL and GCIPL thickness measurements are not interchangeable between devices. In some circumstances, such as in the absence of a consistent OCT segmentation algorithm across platforms, a conversion equation to transform measurements between devices may be useful to facilitate pooling of data. The availability of normative data for SD-OCT measurements is limited by the lack of a large representative world-wide sample across various ages and ethnicities. Larger international studies that evaluate the effects of age, sex, and race/ethnicity on SD-OCT measurements in healthy control participants are needed to provide normative values that reflect these demographic subgroups to provide comparisons to MS retinal degeneration. METHODS:Participants were part of an 11-site collaboration within the International Multiple Sclerosis Visual System (IMSVISUAL) consortium. SD-OCT was performed by a trained technician for healthy control subjects using Spectralis or Cirrus SD-OCT devices. Peripapillary pRNFL and GCIPL thicknesses were measured on one or both devices. Automated segmentation protocols, in conjunction with manual inspection and correction of lines delineating retinal layers, were used. A conversion equation was developed using structural equation modeling, accounting for clustering, with healthy control data from one site where participants were scanned on both devices on the same day. Normative values were evaluated, with the entire cohort, for pRNFL and GCIPL thicknesses for each decade of age, by sex, and across racial groups using generalized estimating equation (GEE) models, accounting for clustering and adjusting for within-patient, intereye correlations. Change-point analyses were performed to determine at what age pRNFL and GCIPL thicknesses exhibit accelerated rates of decline. RESULTS:The healthy control cohort (n = 546) was 54% male and had a wide distribution of ages, ranging from 18 to 87 years, with a mean (SD) age of 39.3 (14.6) years. Based on 346 control participants at a single site, the conversion equation for pRNFL was Cirrus = -5.0 + (1.0 Ã— Spectralis global value). Based on 228 controls, the equation for GCIPL was Cirrus = -4.5 + (0.9 Ã— Spectralis global value). Standard error was 0.02 for both equations. After the age of 40 years, there was a decline of -2.4 Î¼m per decade in pRNFL thickness ( P < 0.001, GEE models adjusting for sex, race, and country) and -1.4 Î¼m per decade in GCIPL thickness ( P < 0.001). There was a small difference in pRNFL thickness based on sex, with female participants having slightly higher thickness (2.6 Î¼m, P = 0.003). There was no association between GCIPL thickness and sex. Likewise, there was no association between race/ethnicity and pRNFL or GCIPL thicknesses. CONCLUSIONS:A conversion factor may be required when using data that are derived between different SD-OCT platforms in clinical trials and observational studies; this is particularly true for smaller cross-sectional studies or when a consistent segmentation algorithm is not available. The above conversion equations can be used when pooling data from Spectralis and Cirrus SD-OCT devices for pRNFL and GCIPL thicknesses. A faster decline in retinal thickness may occur after the age of 40 years, even in the absence of significant differences across racial groups.
The Role of OCT Criteria and Machine Learning in Multiple Sclerosis and Optic Neuritis Diagnosis
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Recent studies have suggested that inter-eye differences (IEDs) in peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) or ganglion cell+inner plexiform (GCIPL) thickness by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) may identify people with a history of unilateral optic neuritis (ON). However, this requires further validation. Machine learning classification may be useful for validating thresholds for OCT IEDs and for examining added utility for visual function tests, such as low-contrast letter acuity (LCLA), in the diagnosis of people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) and for unilateral ON history. METHODS:Participants were from 11 sites within the International Multiple Sclerosis Visual System (IMSVISUAL) consortium. pRNFL and GCIPL thicknesses were measured using SD-OCT. A composite score combining OCT and visual measures was compared individual measurements to determine the best model to distinguish PwMS from controls. These methods were also used to distinguish those with history of ON among PwMS. ROC curve analysis was performed on a training dataset (2/3 of cohort), then applied to a testing dataset (1/3 of cohort). Support vector machine (SVM) analysis was used to assess whether machine learning models improved diagnostic capability of OCT. RESULTS:Among 1,568 PwMS and 552 controls, variable selection models identified GCIPL IED, average GCIPL thickness (both eyes), and binocular 2.5% LCLA as most important for classifying PwMS vs. controls. This composite score performed best, with AUC=0.89 (95% CI 0.85, 0.93), sensitivity=81% and specificity=80%. The composite score ROC curve performed better than any of the individual measures from the model (p<0.0001). GCIPL IED remained the best single discriminator of unilateral ON history among PwMS (AUC=0.77, 95% CI 0.71,0.83, sensitivity=68%, specificity=77%). SVM analysis performed comparably to standard logistic regression models. CONCLUSIONS:A composite score combining visual structure and function improved the capacity of SD-OCT to distinguish PwMS from controls. GCIPL IED best distinguished those with history of unilateral ON. SVM performed as well as standard statistical models for these classifications. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:The study provides Class III evidence that SD-OCT accurately distinguishes multiple sclerosis from normal controls as compared to clinical criteria.
Validation of the New York University Langone Eye Test Application, a Smartphone-Based Visual Acuity Test
Purpose/UNASSIGNED:To validate and assess user satisfaction and usability of the New York University (NYU) Langone Eye Test application, aÂ smartphone-based visual acuity (VA) test. Design/UNASSIGNED:Mixed-methods cross-sectional cohort study. Participants/UNASSIGNED:Two hundred forty-four eyes of 125 participants were included. All participants were adults 18 years of age or older. Participants' eyes with a VA of 20/400 (1.3 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR]) or worse were excluded. Methods/UNASSIGNED:Patients were tested using the clinical standard Rosenbaum near card and the NYU Langone Eye Test application on an iPhone and Android device. Each test was performed twice to measure reliability. Ten patients were selected randomly for subsequent semistructured qualitative interviews with thematic analysis. Main Outcome Measures/UNASSIGNED:Visual acuity was the parameter measured. Bland-Altman analysis was used to measure agreement between the results of the NYU Langone Eye Test application and Rosenbaum card, as well as test-retest reliability of each VA. The correlation between results was calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient. Satisfaction survey and semistructured interview questions were developed to measure usability and acceptability. Results/UNASSIGNED:Bland-Altman analysis revealed an agreement between the application and the Rosenbaum near card of 0.017 Â± 0.28 logMAR (iPhone) and 0.009 Â± 0.29 logMAR (Android). The correlation between the application and the Rosenbaum near card was 0.74 for both the iPhone and Android. Test-retest reliability was 0.003Â Â± 0.22 logMAR (iPhone), 0.01 Â± 0.25 logMAR (Android), and 0.01 Â± 0.23 logMAR (Rosenbaum card). Of the 125 participants, 97.6% found the application easy to use, and 94.3% were overall satisfied with the application. Thematic analysis yielded 6 key themes: (1) weaknesses of application, (2) benefits of the application, (3) tips for application improvement, (4) difficulties faced while using the application, (5) ideal patient for application, and (6)Â comparing application with traditional VA testing. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:The NYU Langone Eye Test application is a user-friendly, accurate, and reliable measure of near VA. The application's integration with the electronic health record, accessibility, and easy interpretation of results, among other features, make it ideal for telemedicine use.
Genetic Disorders of the Extracellular Matrix: From Cell and Gene Therapy to Future Applications in Regenerative Medicine
Metazoans have evolved to produce various types of extracellular matrix (ECM) that provide structural support, cell adhesion, cell-cell communication, and regulated exposure to external cues. Epithelial cells produce and adhere to a specialized sheet-like ECM, the basement membrane, that is critical for cellular homeostasis and tissue integrity. Mesenchymal cells, such as chondrocytes in cartilaginous tissues and keratocytes in the corneal stroma, produce a pericellular matrix that presents optimal levels of growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, and nutrients to the cell and regulates mechanosensory signals through specific cytoskeletal and cell surface receptor interactions. Here, we discuss laminins, collagen types IV and VII, and perlecan, which are major components of these two types of ECM. We examine genetic defects in these components that cause basement membrane pathologies such as epidermolysis bullosa, Alport syndrome, rare pericellular matrix-related chondrodysplasias, and corneal keratoconus and discuss recent advances in cell and gene therapies being developed for some of these disorders. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics, Volume 23 is October 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Topical Glaucoma Therapy Is Associated With Alterations of the Ocular Surface Microbiome
Purpose:To investigate the ocular surface microbiome of patients with unilateral or asymmetric glaucoma being treated with topical ophthalmic medications in one eye and to determine whether microbial community changes were related to measures of ocular surface disease. Methods:V3-V4 16S rRNA sequencing was conducted on ocular surface swabs collected from both eyes of 17 subjects: 10 patients with asymmetric/unilateral glaucoma using topical glaucoma therapy on only one eye and seven age-matched, healthy controls with no history of ocular disease or eyedrop use. Samples were categorized into three groups: patients' glaucomatous eye treated with eyedrops, patients' contralateral eye without eyedrops, and healthy control eyes. Comparisons were made for microbial diversity and composition, with differences in composition tested for association with ocular surface disease measures including tear meniscus height, tear break-up time, and Dry Eye Questionnaire. Results:Samples obtained from the patients' treated and untreated eyes both had significantly greater alpha-diversity and relative abundance of gram-negative organisms compared to healthy controls. The microbial composition of patient eyes was associated with decreased tear meniscus height and tear break-up time, whereas metagenomic predictions, based on 16S rRNA data, suggested increased synthesis of lipopolysaccharide. Conclusions:The ocular surface microbiome of patients taking unilateral preserved glaucoma drops is characterized by a highly diverse array of gram-negative bacteria that is significantly different from the predominantly gram-positive microbes detected on healthy control eyes. These compositional differences were associated with decreased tear film measures and distinct inferred protein synthesis pathways, suggesting a potential link between microbial alterations and ocular surface inflammation.
Open-Angle Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy is Related to Dips Rather than Increases in the Mean Arterial Pressure Over 24-H
BACKGROUND:Mean arterial pressure (MAP) drives ocular perfusion. Excessive 24-h MAP variability relates to glaucoma, however, whether this is due to dips or increases in the blood pressure (BP) is undocumented. We investigated the association of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in relation to the five largest MAP dips/increases over 24-h, henceforth called dips/blips. METHODS:In the Maracaibo Aging Study (MAS), 93 participants aged â‰¥40y (women, 87.1%; mean age, 61.9y) underwent baseline ophthalmological and 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring assessments. OAG was the presence of optic nerve damage and visual field defects. Statistical methods included logistic regression and the generalized R2 statistic. For replication, 48 OAG cases at the Leuven Glaucoma Clinic were matched with 48 controls recruited from Flemish population. RESULTS:In MAS, 26 had OAG. OAG compared to non-OAG participants experienced longer and deeper dips (116.5 vs. 102.7 minutes; to 60.3 vs. 66.6 mmHg; 21.0 vs. 18.0 mmHg absolute or 0.79 vs. 0.81 relative dip compared to the preceding reading). The adjusted odds ratios associated with dip measures ranged from 2.25 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-4.85; P=0.009) to 3.39 (95% CI, 1.368.46; P=0.008). On top of covariables and 24MAP level/variability, the dip measures increased the model performance (Pâ‰¤0.025). Blips did not associate with OAG. The casecontrol study replicated the MAS observations. CONCLUSIONS:Dips rather than increases in the 24-h MAP level were associated with increased risk for OAG. An ophthalmological examination combined with 24h BP monitoring might be precautious steps required in normotensive and hypertensive patients at risk of OAG.
Furthering the Adoption of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine Standards in Ophthalmology
Artificial Intelligence for Glaucoma: Creating and Implementing AI for Disease Detection and Progression
On September 3rd, 2020, the Collaborative Community on Ophthalmic Imaging (CCOI) conducted its first two-day virtual workshop on the role of artificial intelligence (AI) and related machine learning (ML) techniques for the diagnosis and treatment of various ophthalmic conditions. In a session entitled, "Artificial Intelligence For Glaucoma", a panel of glaucoma specialists, researchers, industry experts, and patients convened to share current research on the application of AI to commonly used diagnostic modalities including fundus photography, optical coherence tomography imaging, standard automated perimetry, and gonioscopy. The conference participants focused on the use of AI as a tool for disease prediction, highlighted its ability to address inequalities, and presented the limitations and challenges to its real-world clinical application. The panelists' discussion addressed AI and health equities from the clinical, societal and regulatory perspectives.