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Redel-Traub, G; Smilowitz, N; Weintraub, H; Schwartzbard, A; Berger, J
Background Mendelian randomization studies suggest that lifelong modest reductions of LDL cholesterol are associated with fewer major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). We explored the relationship between the magnitude of LDL reduction from lipid lowering therapy, the duration of time over which LDL was reduced, and risk of MACE. Methods Randomized controlled trials of guideline-recommended LDL lowering therapy with >1000 participants and >2 year follow-up were systematically identified. Cross products of net LDL reduction and duration of follow-up were calculated. MACE was defined as the composite endpoint of cardiovascular death, acute coronary syndrome, revascularization, and stroke as available for each trial. Correlations were performed using the Pearson test. Results A total of 33 RCTs enrolling 249,887 participants with 50-month median follow-up were included. Trials tested statins (n=29), ezetimibe (n=2), and PCSK9 inhibitors (n=2). The cross product of LDL reduction and duration of therapy correlated with the relative risk reduction of MACE (r2=0.15; p=0.03). This association was most robust in secondary prevention trials (r2=0.44; p=0.0003). A significant correlation was not observed between LDL lowering and MACE without the dimension of time. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the intensity and duration of LDL lowering is most strongly correlated with MACE. These findings suggest potential benefit of early initiation of lipid lowering therapy in at risk patients. [Formula presented]
ISSN: 0735-1097
CID: 4884632

A Case Report: Euglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis Presenting as Chest Pain in a Patient on a Low Carbohydrate Diet [Case Report]

Dorcely, Brenda; Nitis, Juliana; Schwartzbard, Arthur; Newman, Jonathan; Goldberg, Ira; Sum, Melissa
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 [SGLT2] inhibitors reduce cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with diabetes, particularly patients with established cardiovascular disease. Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis [euDKA], a complication of SGLT2 therapy, can be exacerbated by a low carbohydrate diet. CASE REPORT/METHODS:A 61-year-old man with a history of type 2 diabetes, taking a SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin 10 mg orally daily, presented to the emergency room with a 2-day history of nausea and chest pain. A week prior to presentation, he had started a ketogenic diet. He was initially admitted with a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. On initial assessment in the emergency room, his cardiac enzymes were normal and there were no ischemic changes in his ECG. As there was concern for unstable angina, he underwent cardiac catheterization, which showed a known total occlusion with collaterals and arteries with non-obstructive disease without evidence of acute plaque rupture. His baseline laboratory assessments revealed an elevated anion gap of 17, increased urinary and plasma ketones, and metabolic acidosis. His plasma glucose level was 84 mg/dL. The diagnosis of euDKA was made, and treatment with intravenous fluids and insulin was initiated. His chest pain and nausea subsequently resolved. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:We present a case of euDKA triggered by a ketogenic diet while on SGLT2 inhibitor therapy presenting as chest pain. The recognition of euDKA is important in the context of increased SGLT2 use for management of cardiovascular risk for patients with diabetes.
PMID: 32178617
ISSN: 1875-6417
CID: 4353492

Diabetic Agents, From Metformin to SGLT2 Inhibitors and GLP1 Receptor Agonists: JACC Focus Seminar

Wilcox, Tanya; De Block, Christophe; Schwartzbard, Arthur Z; Newman, Jonathan D
Given the intersection between diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (CVD), pharmacologic agents used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus must show cardiovascular safety. Comorbid conditions, including heart failure and chronic kidney disease, are increasingly prevalent in patients with diabetes; therefore, they also play a large role in drug safety. Although biguanides, sulfonylurea, glitazones, and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors have variable effects on cardiovascular events, sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists have consistently shown safety and reduction in cardiovascular events in patients with established CVD. These medications are becoming essential tools for cardioprotection for patients with diabetes and CVD. They may also have roles in primary prevention and renal protection. This paper will review the cardiovascular impact, adverse effects, and possible mechanisms of action of pharmacologic agents used to treat patients with type 2 diabetes.
PMID: 32327107
ISSN: 1558-3597
CID: 4402362

Use of Inflammatory Biomarkers to Predict the Clinical Benefit of Ezetimibe: A Clinical Perspective [Editorial]

Schwartzbard, Arthur Z; Ahmad, Amier
PMID: 31439216
ISSN: 1558-3597
CID: 4047032

Physicians' Dietary Knowledge, Attitudes, and Counseling Practices: The Experience of a Single Health Care Center at Changing the Landscape for Dietary Education

Harkin, Nicole; Johnston, Emily; Mathews, Tony; Guo, Yu; Schwartzbard, Arthur; Berger, Jeffrey; Gianos, Eugenia
Morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease can be significantly modified through lifestyle interventions, yet there is little emphasis on nutrition and lifestyle in medical education. Improving nutrition education for future physicians would likely lead to improved preparedness to counsel patients on lifestyle interventions. An online anonymous survey of medical residents, cardiology fellows, and faculty in Internal Medicine and Cardiology was conducted at New York University Langone Health assessing basic nutritional knowledge, self-reported attitudes and practices. A total of 248 physicians responded (26.7% response rate). Nutrition knowledge was fair, but few (13.5%) felt adequately trained to discuss nutrition with patients. A majority (78.4%) agreed that additional training in nutrition would allow them to provide better clinical care. Based on survey responses, a dedicated continuing medical education (CME) conference was developed to improve knowledge and lifestyle counseling skills of healthcare providers. In postconference evaluations, attendees reported improved knowledge of evidence-based lifestyle interventions. Most noted that they would prescribe a Mediterranean or plant-based diet and would make changes to their practice based on the conference. An annual CME conference on diet and lifestyle can effectively help interested providers overcome barriers to lifestyle change in clinical practice through improved nutrition knowledge.
PMID: 31105493
ISSN: 1559-8284
CID: 3920212

The Changing Landscape of Diabetes Therapy for Cardiovascular Risk Reduction: JACC State-of-the-Art Review

Newman, Jonathan D; Vani, Anish K; Aleman, Jose O; Weintraub, Howard S; Berger, Jeffrey S; Schwartzbard, Arthur Z
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), the most common cause of death in T2D. Despite improved risk factor control, however, adults with T2D continue to experience substantial excess CVD risk. Until recently, however, improved glycemic control has not been associated with robust macrovascular benefit. The advent of 2 new classes of antihyperglycemic agents, the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, and their respective large cardiovascular outcome trials, has led to a paradigm shift in how cardiologists and heath care practitioners conceptualize T2D treatment. Herein, the authors review the recent trial evidence, the potential mechanisms of action of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, safety concerns, and their use for the primary prevention of CVD as well as in diabetic patients with impaired renal function and heart failure.
PMID: 30286929
ISSN: 1558-3597
CID: 3329052

Biomarkers as Surrogates for Coronary Endothelial Dysfunction in Patients With Nonobstructive Coronary Artery Disease [Editorial]

Vani, Anish; Schwartzbard, Arthur; Weintraub, Howard S
PMID: 30371246
ISSN: 2047-9980
CID: 3400762

Towards more specific treatment for diabetic dyslipidemia

Rodriguez, Valentina; Newman, Jonathan D; Schwartzbard, Arthur Z
PURPOSE OF REVIEW/OBJECTIVE:Treatment of diabetic dyslipidemia is necessary because of its impact on cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death in patients with diabetes. In the past, standard treatment of diabetic dyslipidemia focused only on correcting lipids. Although this remains the mainstay of treatment, because new antihyperglycemic treatments reduce cardiovascular events with minimal effect on dyslipidemia, a new approach is both timely and relevant. RECENT FINDINGS/RESULTS:LDL-lowering remains the focus of treatment for diabetic dyslipidemia, especially in patients with both diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Higher intensity statin therapy or lower LDL cholesterol goals are recommended in these patients. Combination therapy, especially with ezetimibe, fibrates, bile acid sequestrants, PCSK9 inhibitors and omega 3 fatty acids should be considered along with selected new agents to reduce glycemia. SUMMARY/CONCLUSIONS:As diabetic dyslipidemia plays a key role in CVD, aggressive treatment is indicated. New research targets include apo-CIII and lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)]. In addition, new antihyperglycemic therapy is changing diabetes care and altering treatment guidelines. The most recent American Diabetes Association Standards of Care has expanded its recommendations for people with CVD and diabetes, suggesting that medications validated to improve cardiac health should be strongly considered.
PMID: 29878904
ISSN: 1473-6535
CID: 3144582

Investigation of Motivational Interviewing and Prevention Consults to Achieve Cardiovascular Targets (IMPACT) trial

Gianos, Eugenia; Schoenthaler, Antoinette; Guo, Yu; Zhong, Judy; Weintraub, Howard; Schwartzbard, Arthur; Underberg, James; Schloss, Michael; Newman, Jonathan D; Heffron, Sean; Fisher, Edward A; Berger, Jeffrey S
BACKGROUND:Patients undergoing cardiovascular (CV) procedures often have suboptimal CV risk factor control and may benefit from strategies targeting healthy lifestyle behaviors and education. Implementation of prevention strategies may be particularly effective at this point of heightened motivation. METHODS:A prospective, randomized, pilot study was conducted in 400 patients undergoing a nonurgent CV procedure (cardiac catheterization ± revascularization) to evaluate the impact of different prevention strategies. Patients were randomized in a 1:1:1 fashion to usual care (UC; group A, n = 134), in-hospital CV prevention consult (PC; group B, n = 130), or PC plus behavioral intervention program (telephone-based motivational interviewing and optional tailored text messages) (group C, n = 133). The primary end point was the Δ change in non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) from baseline to 6 month. RESULTS:The mean age was 64.6 ± 10.8 years, 23.7% were female, and 31.5% were nonwhite. After 6 months, the absolute difference in non-HDL-C for all participants was -19.8 mg/dL (95% CI -24.1 to -15.6, P < .001). There were no between-group differences in the primary end point for the combined PC groups (B and C) versus UC, with a Δ adjusted between group difference of -5.5 mg/dL (95% CI -13.1 to 2.1, P = .16). Patients in the PC groups were more likely to be on high-intensity statins at 6 months (52.9% vs 38.1%, P = .01). After excluding participants with baseline non-HDL-C <100 mg/dL (initial exclusion criterion), Δ non-HDL-C and Δ low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were improved in the PC groups compared to UC (non-HDL-C -8.13 mg/dL [-16.00 to -0.27], P = .04; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol -7.87mg/dL [-15.10 to -0.64], P = .03). CONCLUSIONS:Although non-HDL-C reduction at 6 months following a nonurgent CV procedure was not significant in the overall cohort, an increased uptake in high-potency statins may translate into improved long-term health outcomes and cost reductions.
PMID: 29754664
ISSN: 1097-6744
CID: 3114632

The 2017 high blood pressure clinical practice guideline: The old and the new [Editorial]

Schwartzbard, Arthur Z; Newman, Jonathan D; Weintraub, Howard S; Baum, Seth J
PMID: 29574983
ISSN: 1932-8737
CID: 3011172