The Effect of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy on Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
BACKGROUND:The laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has become one of the most popular surgical weight loss options. Since its inception as a procedure intended to promote durable weight loss, the association between LSG and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has been a point of debate. First and foremost, it is known that GERD occurs more frequently in the obese population. With the sleeve gastrectomy growing to be the predominant primary bariatric operation in the United States, it is imperative that we understand the impact of LSG on GERD. OBJECTIVE:To examine the effects of LSG on GERD symptoms. METHODS:One hundred and ninety-one bariatric surgery candidates completed a Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease-Health-Related Quality of Life (GERD-HRQL) questionnaire before and after undergoing elective LSG (mean follow-up time of 20.4â€‰Â±â€‰2.7Â months). Values were stratified by the presence or absence of preoperative GERD, GERD medications, age, gender, crural repair, patient satisfaction with present condition, and percent total weight loss (%TWL). RESULTS:respectively. Within the overall cohort, there was no significant change in GERD symptoms from before to after surgery (mean GERD-HRQL scores were 6.1 before and after surgery, pâ€‰=â€‰0.981). However, in a subgroup analysis, patients without GERD preoperatively demonstrated a worsening in mean GERD-HRQL scores after surgery (from 2.4 to 4.5, pâ€‰=â€‰0.0020). The percentage of change in the usage of medications to treat GERD was not statistically significant (from 37 to 32%, pâ€‰=â€‰0.233). The percent of patients satisfied with their condition postoperatively was significantly increased in those with preoperative GERD, older age, crural repair intraoperatively, and in those with the highest %TWL. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest that while overall LSG does not significantly affect GERD symptoms, patients without GERD preoperatively may be at risk for developing new or worsening GERD symptoms after surgery. It is important to remark that this is a review of the patient's clinical symptoms of GERD, not related to any endoscopic, pathological, or manometry studies. Such studies are necessary to fully establish the effect of LSG on esophageal health.
Gastrojejunostomy stricture after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, a 17 year experience [Meeting Abstract]
Introduction: The gastrojejunostomy (GJ) during Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) can be performed by stapled or hand-sewn techniques, and is at risk for anastomotic stricture, reported in the literature at rates from 0 to 33%. This study reviews a single center's experience with anastomotic stricture and intervention required. Methods and Procedures: A retrospective chart review was performed of 904 patients who underwent RYGB as primary or revisional surgery at a single institution from October 2000 through September 2017. There were 182 patients excluded for follow up duration of less than 1 year, 5 for an esophagojejunostomy rather than GJ, and 1 for gastroparesis as the surgical indication rather than morbid obesity. This left 716 patients to be included in the study. Demographic and operative data were collected including technique for GJ, postoperative follow up, and complications, with a focus on GJ stricture and subsequent interventions.
Result(s): Gastrojejunostomy (GJ) was performed with a 25 CEEA stapler in 674 (94.1%) patients, with a linear stapler in 25 (3.5%), was hand-sewn in 7 (1.3%), and the technique was unknown in the remaining 8 (1.1%). Roux-en-Y gastric bypass was performed as a primary surgery in 522 (72.9%) patients and as a revisional surgery in 194 (27.1%). Stricture of the GJ was diagnosed in 29 (4.1%) patients. The average time to diagnosis of early strictures occurring prior to 3 months was 40.3 days, and for late strictures was 871 days. By technique, stricture was diagnosed in 26 (3.9%) patients in the 25CEEAgroup, 1 (4%) in the linear stapler group, and 2 (22.2%) in the hand-sewn anastomosis group. In primaryRYGBpatients stricture was diagnosed in 20 (3.8%) patients, and in revisionalRYGB in 9 (4.6%) patients (p = 0.626). Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with dilation was performed at least once (1-9 times) in 26 patients, 2 with concomitant stenting, 2 required operative intervention, and 1 patient awaits operative intervention. Both patients who required surgery also had marginal ulcers, and possible gastro-gastric fistula at time of surgery.
Conclusion(s): The results of this study show that the 25 CEEA circular stapler is a reasonable technique for performance of the GJ anastomosis in RYGB, with a stricture rate of 3.9%. There is also a slightly increased stricture rate in revisional surgical patients, though not statistically significant
Effects of a single subanaesthetic dose of ketamine on pain and mood after laparoscopic bariatric surgery: A randomised double-blind placebo controlled study
BACKGROUND:When administered as a continuous infusion, ketamine is known to be a potent analgesic and general anaesthetic. Recent studies suggest that a single low-dose administration of ketamine can provide a long-lasting effect on mood, but its effects when given in the postoperative period have not been studied. OBJECTIVE:We hypothesised that a single low-dose administration of ketamine after bariatric surgery can improve pain and mood scores in the immediate postoperative period. DESIGN/METHODS:We performed a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to compare a single subanaesthetic dose of ketamine (0.4â€Šmgâ€Škg) with a normal saline placebo in the postanaesthesia care unit after laparoscopic gastric bypass and gastrectomy. SETTING/METHODS:Single-centre, tertiary care hospital, October 2014 to January 2018. PATIENTS/METHODS:A total of 100 patients were randomised into the ketamine and saline groups. INTERVENTION/METHODS:Patients in the ketamine group received a single dose of ketamine infusion (0.4â€Šmgâ€Škg) in the postanaesthesia care unit. Patients in the placebo groups received 0.9% saline. OUTCOME MEASURES/METHODS:The primary outcome was the visual analogue pain score. A secondary outcome was performance on the short-form McGill's Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ). RESULTS:There were no significant differences in visual analogue pain scores between groups (group-by-time interaction Pâ€Š=â€Š0.966; marginal group effect Pâ€Š=â€Š0.137). However, scores on the affective scale of SF-MPQ (secondary outcome) significantly decreased in the ketamine group as early as postoperative day (POD) 2 [mean differenceâ€Š=â€Š-2.2 (95% bootstrap CI -2.9 to 1.6), Bonferroni adjusted Pâ€Š<â€Š0.001], compared with placebo group in which the scores decreased only by POD 7. Scores on the total scale of SF-MPQ for the ketamine group were smaller compared with the placebo group (Pâ€Š=â€Š0.034). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Although there was no significant difference between ketamine and placebo for the primary outcome measure, patients who received ketamine experienced statistically and clinically significant improvement in their comprehensive evaluation of pain, particularly the affective component of pain, on POD 2. However, future studies are needed to confirm the enduring effects of ketamine on the affective response to postoperative pain. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION/BACKGROUND:NCT02452060.
ONE VERSUS TWO STAGE GASTRIC BAND CONVERSION TO SLEEVE GASTRECTOMY: A COMPARISON OF WEIGHT LOSS OVER FIVE YEARS Revisional surgery [Meeting Abstract]
Long-term results for gastric banding as salvage procedure for patients with weight loss failure after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass
BACKGROUND:Studies reporting revisionary options for weight loss failure after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) have been underpowered and lacking long-term data. We have previously shown that short-term (12 mo) and midterm (24 mo) weight loss is achievable with laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) for failed RYGB. The present study represents the largest published series with longest postoperative follow-up of patients receiving salvage LAGB after RYGB failure. OBJECTIVE:To investigate long-term results of salvage gastric banding. SETTING/METHODS:University Hospital, New York, United States. METHODS:Data were prospectively collected with retrospective review. Baseline characteristics were evaluated and weights at multiple time intervals (before RYGB, before LAGB, each year of follow-up). Additional data included approach (open or laparoscopic), operative time, hospital length of stay, and postoperative complications. RESULTS:with 22.5% total weight loss and 65.9% excess weight loss. The long-term reoperation rate for complications related to LAGB was 24%, and 8% of patients ultimately had their gastric bands removed. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The results of our study have shown that LAGB had good long-term data as a revisionary procedure for weight loss failure after RYGB.
Gastric band conversion to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass shows greater weight loss than conversion to sleeve gastrectomy: 5-year outcomes
BACKGROUND:Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) are often used as revisional surgeries for a failed laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB). There is debate over which procedure provides better long-term weight loss. OBJECTIVE:To compare the weight loss results of these 2 surgeries. SETTING/METHODS:University hospital, United States. METHODS:A retrospective review was conducted of all LAGB to RYGB and LAGB to LSG surgeries performed at a single institution. Primary outcomes were change in body mass index (BMI), percent excess BMI lost, and percent weight loss. Secondary outcomes included 30-day complications and reoperations. RESULTS:The cohort included 192 conversions from LAGB to RYGB and 283 LAGB to LSG. The baseline age and BMI were similar in the 2 groups. Statistical comparisons made between the 2 groups at 24 months postconversion were significant for BMI (RYGBâ€¯=â€¯32.93, LSGâ€¯=â€¯38.34, Pâ€¯=â€¯.0004), percent excess BMI lost (RYGBâ€¯=â€¯57.8%, LSGâ€¯=â€¯29.3%, P < .0001), and percent weight loss (RYGBâ€¯=â€¯23.4%, LSGâ€¯=â€¯12.6%, P < .0001). However, the conversion to RYGB group had a higher rate of reoperation (7.3% versus 1.4%, Pâ€¯=â€¯.0022), longer operating room time (RYGBâ€¯=â€¯120.1 min versus LSGâ€¯=â€¯115.5 min, P < .0001), and longer length of stay (RYGBâ€¯=â€¯3.33 d versus LSGâ€¯=â€¯2.11 d, P < .0001) than the LAGB to LSG group. Although not significant, the conversion to RYGB group had a higher rate of readmission (7.3% versus 3.5%, Pâ€¯=â€¯.087). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Weight loss is significantly greater for patients undergoing LAGB conversion to RYGB than LAGB to LSG. However, those undergoing LAGB conversion to RYGB had higher rates of reoperation and readmission. Patients looking for the most effective weight loss surgery after failed LAGB should be advised to have RYGB performed, while also understanding the increased risks of the procedure.
Predicting morbidity in Roux-en-y gastric bypass patients: A verified scoring tool [Meeting Abstract]
Introduction: We aimed to create a morbidity prediction score for patients undergoing RYGB using MBSA-QIP data. Methods and Procedures: We retrospectively analyzed all RYGB cases in MBSA-QIP during 2015, and identified factors associated with 30-day complications using chi-squared analysis. Multiple logistic regression identified pre-operative factors independently associated with 30-day complication to develop a prediction score, verified using a Cochran Armitage trend test. Results: For 42,849 procedures, there were 3034 (7.1%) with any 30-day complication. Preoperative patient characteristics independently associated with increased risk of morbidity are shown in Table 1. A scoring algorithm was formulated by assigning points based on strength of the odds ratio (Table 1), with the final score a summation of points accrued. The rate of any 30-day complication was evaluated across the range of scores (Table 2). Higher scores were associated with a higher rate of morbidity (p<0.0001 for each). [Figure Presented] Conclusion: We created and verified a morbidity prediction score for patients undergoing RYGB based on MBSA-QIP data
Long term results for gastric banding as salvage procedure for patients with weight loss failure after Roux-en-y gastric bypass [Meeting Abstract]
Introduction: Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is a common and effective form of bariatric weight loss surgery. However, a subset of patients will fail to achieve the expected total body weight loss (TBWL) greater than 20% after 12 months or experience significant weight regain despite dietary, psychiatric, and behavioral counseling. Although alternative procedural interventions exist for operative revision after suboptimal RYGB weight loss, laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) provides an option with short operative time, low morbidity, and effective results. We have previously demonstrated that short-term (12-month), and mid-term (24-month) weight loss is achievable with LAGB for failed RYGB. The objective of this study is to report the long term 5 year outcomes of LAGB after RYGB failure. Methods and Procedures: A retrospective review of prospectively collected data before and after RYGB when available, and before and after revision with LAGB was performed. The data included weight, height, body mass index, gender, race, age, operative time, length of stay, postoperative complications, and percentage of total body weight loss. Results: A total of 182 patients (81.3% female, 18.7% male) were included in this study. The mean age of patients undergoing LAGB after RYGB was 47+/-9.98 years old. The majority of patients (98.4%) underwent gastric band placement laparoscopically, with 2 patients requiring conversion to an open procedure, and 1 planned open approach. The mean preoperative weight was 319+/-64 lbs and BMI of 53+/-10 kg/m2 before RYGB. After RYGB, patients experienced a mean %TBWL of 16+/-11%, had a weight of 264+/-50 lbs, and a BMI of 43+/-7 kg/m2 before undergoing LAGB an average of 9 years after their first bariatric procedure. At the time of 5 year follow up after LAGB the patients had a %TBWL of 35+/-13%, weight of 201.9+/-46 lbs, and had a BMI of 33+/-7 kg/m2. The mean operative time was 73+/-34 minutes and 85% of patients had a hospital length of stay less than 24 hours. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that LABG had good long term data as a revi-sionary procedure for weight loss failure after RYGB. Patients experienced a satisfactory amount of total body weight loss with reduction in BMI and had a short operative time and length of stay
One vs two stage gastric band conversion to sleeve gastrectomy: A comparison of weight loss [Meeting Abstract]
Aim: The literature supports comparable safety profiles in regard to performing one vs. two stage revisional conversions of laparoscopic adjustable gastric bands to sleeve gastrectomies. In this discussion, we compare weight loss differences between one and two stage gastric band removal to sleeve gastrectomy procedures. The reasoning behind this discussion is the question: can an appropriately sized sleeve be created at the same time as gastric band removal (assuming scar tissue and tissue swelling), and can that sleeve permit adequate weight loss? Methods: This is a retrospective review of patients who underwent gastric band removal and subsequent sleeve gastrectomies between 2008 and 2016. We reviewed each patient's BMI at the time of the revisional sleeve gastrectomy and compared the BMI reduction (BMIR) and percentage total body weight loss (%BWL) after one year between patients undergoing a concurrent gastric band removal and sleeve gastrectomy vs. those undergoing a gastric band removal with an interval sleeve gastrectomy (3 or more months after band removal). Results: Between 2008 and 2016 there were 259 patients who underwent surgery converting a gastric band to a sleeve gastrectomy (191 one stage, 68 two stage). We compared the weight loss parameters for those following up at one year for both one stage and two stage conversions (104 one stage, 38 two stage). One stage conversions exhibited a 16.95% total body weight loss while two stage conversions exhibited a 17.95% total body weight loss (p=0.08). BMI reduction was also reviewed at one year showing 7.49 for one stage and 7.95 for two stage procedures (p=0.81). Conclusions: The safety of one vs. two stage laparoscopic adjustable gastric band conversion to sleeve gastrectomy has been supported in the literature. We demonstrate that there is no statistical difference in weight loss, after one year, between patients having their conversion at the same time (one stage) or in an interval manner (two stage). Therefore, there appears to be no weight loss benefit favoring a one vs. two stage procedure-thus leaving the choice up to surgeon's level of operative comfort and preference
The impact of a sleeve gastrectomy clinical pathway on outcomes and hospital costs [Meeting Abstract]
Aims: Our institution implemented a Value-Based Medicine (VBM) clinical pathway to standardize the pre-, peri-, and post-operative management of longitudinal sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) patients. The goal of the program was to decrease patient length of stay (LOS) while maintaining the same clinical outcomes seen prior to initiation. Methods: The VBM pathway was instituted in September of 2014. A retrospective review was performed of all primary LSG cases from 2011-2015. Pre-VBM LSG patients were matched to post-VBM patients in a 1:1 ratio. Matching criteria were age within five years, body-mass index (BMI) within 5 kg/m, expected LOS within 0.5 days, same sex, and same status for prior abdominal surgery. Patients < 18 years of age, body mass index (BMI) < 35, and those with prior bariatric surgery were excluded from analysis. Primary outcomes were LOS, LOS > 2 days, operating room (OR) time, and cost per admission. Secondary outcomes included 30-day readmissions and reoperations. Results: There were 426 pre-VBM and 507 post-VBM patients. After matching for age, sex, BMI, expected LOS and previous abdominal surgery, there were 330 patients in each of the pre-VBM and post-VBM groups. There were no clinically significant demographic differences between the two groups. The post-VBM group had shorter mean OR time (75.1 vs 95.8 min, p<.0001), shorter LOS (1.50 vs 1.94 days, p<.0001), lower cost (median cost $792 less than pre-VBM group, p<.0001), and lower reoperation rate (0.0% vs 2.1%, p=.015). Readmission rate was lower in the post-VBM group, but did not reach statistical significance (2.7% vs 4.9%, p=.154). After controlling for hospital trends over time, LOS > 2 days (p=.008) and median cost (p=.019) remained significant. OR time (p=.058) and mean LOS (p=.338) still showed an improved trend, but could not be directly correlated to VBM implementation. Conclusions: Standardization of clinical care for LSG patients is feasible and effective. Patient length of stay and hospital cost were successfully decreased with no negative impact seen on 30-day post-operative outcomes