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A Multicenter Prospective Investigation on Patient Physical and Mental Health After Girdlestone Resection Arthroplasty

Wixted, Colleen M; Polascik, Breanna A; Cochrane, Niall H; Antonelli, Brielle; Muthusamy, Nishanth; Ryan, Sean P; Chen, Antonia F; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Seyler, Thorsten M
BACKGROUND:Girdlestone resection arthroplasty is a salvage procedure for hip periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) that controls infection and reduces chronic pain, but may result in limited postoperative joint function. The aim of this study was to assess physical function and mental health after Girdlestone. METHODS:This was a multicenter, prospective study evaluating patients with Girdlestone. The Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ) and patient-reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS) global physical health and mental health surveys were administered postoperatively via telephone. The PEQ consists of four scales (ie, ambulation, frustration, perceived response, and social burden) with scores ranging from 0 to 10. The PROMIS measures generated T-scores (mean: 50, standard deviation: 10) that enable comparison to the general population. RESULTS:Thirty-five patients completed all surveys. The average time from procedure to survey completion was 6 years (range, 1 to 20). The median scores for the ambulation, frustration, perceived response, and social burden scales of the PEQ were 0.0 [interquartile range: 0-4.1], 6.0 [3.0-9.3], 9.0 [7.2-10.0], and 7.5 [4.3-9.5]. The median raw scores of the PROMIS global physical health and mental health were 11.91 [interquartile range: 9-14] and 14.0 [10.0-16.0]. These corresponded to average T scores of 39.7 (standard error : 4.3) for physical health and 46.1 (standard error: 3.8) for mental health, which were 10.3 points and 3.9 points below the average score in the United States general population, respectively. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Girdlestone can have a substantial negative impact on physical functions; however, mental health and social interaction may be only moderately affected. These outcomes can be used to guide patient expectations, as this procedure may be necessary in certain salvage scenarios.
PMID: 36535445
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 5409272

Accuracy of ICD-10 Coding for Femoral Head Bearing Surfaces in Hip Arthroplasty

Rajahraman, Vinaya; Fassihi, Safa; Patel, Vaidehi; Pope, Caleigh A; Rozell, Joshua C; Schwarzkopf, Ran
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:The International Classification of Diseases-10 Procedure Code System (ICD-10-PCS) introduced oxidized zirconium and niobium (OxZi) procedural codes to the types of femoral head bearing surfaces in 2017. These codes aimed to increase procedural specificity in coding and improve data collection through administrative claims databases. This study aimed to assess the accuracy of ICD-10-PCS coding for femoral head bearing surfaces (cobalt chrome/metal, ceramic, and OxZi) in hip procedures. MATERIAL AND METHODS/METHODS:, 2021 at a large, urban academic hospital was conducted. Operative reports and implant logs were queried to determine the femoral head bearing surface, which was used during the THA. These results were then compared to the ICD-10-PCS codes in the billing records. Coding accuracy was subsequently determined and statistical differences between the three groups were evaluated. RESULTS:ICD-10-PCS coding was accurate for 90.8% (5634/6204) of cases. Coding accuracy for ceramic femoral heads (95.4%, 4171/4371) was significantly greater than that of both cobalt chrome/metal (73.7%, 606/822; p<0.001) and OxZi (84.8%, 857/1011; p<0.001) femoral heads. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:While coding for ceramic femoral heads was very accurate, OxZi and cobalt chrome/metal femoral heads were miscoded at a rate of approximately 20%. These inaccuracies call for further evaluation of the ICD-10-PCS coding process to ensure that conclusions drawn from clinical research performed through administrative claims databases are not subject to error.
PMID: 36496044
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 5378912

A Validated Pre-Operative Risk Prediction Tool For Extended Inpatient Length of Stay Following Primary Total Hip or Knee Arthroplasty

Goltz, Daniel E; Sicat, Chelsea S; Levin, Jay M; Helmkamp, Joshua K; Howell, Claire B; Waren, Daniel; Green, Cynthia L; Attarian, David; Jiranek, William A; Bolognesi, Michael P; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Seyler, Thorsten M
BACKGROUND:As value-based reimbursement models mature, understanding the potential trade-off between inpatient lengths of stay and complications or need for costly post-acute care becomes more pressing. Understanding and predicting a patient's expected baseline length of stay may help providers understand how best to decide optimal discharge timing for high-risk total joint arthroplasty (TJA) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:A retrospective review was conducted of 37,406 primary total hip (17,134, 46%) and knee (20,272, 54%) arthroplasties performed at two high-volume, geographically diverse, tertiary health systems during the study period. Patients were stratified by 3 binary outcomes for extended inpatient length of stay: 72+ hours (29%), 4+ days (11%), or 5+ days (5%). The predictive ability of over 50 sociodemographic/comorbidity variables was tested. Multivariable logistic regression models were created using Institution #1 (derivation), with accuracy tested using the cohort from Institution #2 (validation). RESULTS:During the study period, patients underwent an extended length of stay with a decreasing frequency over time, with privately-insured patients having a significantly shorter length of stay relative to those with Medicare (1.9 vs 2.3 days, p < 0.0001). Extended-stay patients also had significantly higher 90-day readmission rates (p < 0.0001), even when excluding those discharged to post-acute care (p < 0.01). Multivariable logistic regression models created from the training cohort demonstrated excellent accuracy (area under the curve (AUC): 0.755, 0.783, 0.810), and performed well under external validation (AUC: 0.719, 0.743, 0.763). Many important variables were common to all 3 models, including age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, body mass index, marital status, bilateral case, insurance type, and 13 comorbidities. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:An online, freely-available, pre-operative clinical decision tool accurately predicts risk of extended inpatient length of stay after TJA. Many risk factors are potentially modifiable, and these validated tools may help guide clinicians in pre-operative patient counseling, medical optimization, and understanding optimal discharge timing.
PMID: 36481285
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 5378772

Outcomes of novel 3D-printed fully porous titanium cup and a cemented highly cross-linked polyethylene liner in complex and revision total hip arthroplasty

Shichman, Ittai; Somerville, Lyndsay; Lutes, William B; Jones, Stephen A; McCalden, Richard; Schwarzkopf, Ran
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:A novel fully porous acetabular titanium shell has been designed to reduce stiffness mismatch between bone and implant and promote osseointegration in complex (cTHA) and revision total hip arthroplasty (rTHA). A highly cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) liner is cemented within the cup to reduce wear rates and increase survivorship. This study reported the outcomes of an XLPE liner cemented into a novel 3D-printed fully porous cup in cTHA and rTHA. METHODS:Presented was a multicenter retrospective review of 40 patients (6 cTHA and 34 rTHA) who underwent THA with a fully porous titanium acetabular cup and cemented XLPE liner. Data were collected on demographics, surgical information, outcomes, including osseointegration and migration and implant survivorship. RESULTS:) and were followed up for a mean time of 2.21 ± 0.77 years. Six patients underwent cTHA and 34 patients underwent rTHA. The mean hospital length of stay was 5.34 ± 3.34 days. Three (7.5%) 90-day readmissions were noted. Harris Hip Scores improved, on average, from 53.87 ± 12.58 preoperatively to 83.53 ± 12.15 postoperatively (P<0.001). One case of acetabular shell aspetic loosening with migration was noted. Thirty-nine of the 40 acetabular components were fully osseointegrated without migration. Two patients underwent re-revision surgery for PJI and one patient received acetabular shell+liner re-revision due to aseptic loosening. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed an all-cause revision-free survival rate of 95.0% at 6 months and 1 year, and 92.0% at 4-years. Aseptic acetabular cup, liner dislocation/loosening, and fracture-free survival was 100% at 6 months and 1-year, and 97.1% at 2 years. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The combined use of a novel 3D-printed fully porous titanium acetabular shell and cemented XLPE acetabular liner yielded excellent rates of osseointegration, and all-cause and acetabular aseptic loosening survivorship at a minimum 1-year follow-up. Further long-term studies are needed to assess the longevity of this construct.
PMID: 36457035
ISSN: 2524-7948
CID: 5383702

Total knee arthroplasty is associated with greater immediate post-surgical pain and opioid use than total hip arthroplasty

Kugelman, David N; Mahure, Siddharth A; Feng, James E; Rozell, Joshua C; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Long, William J
BACKGROUND:As greater emphasis is being placed on opioid reduction strategies and implementation of multimodal analgesia, we sought to determine whether immediate post-surgical opioid consumption was different between THA and TKA. METHODS:A single-institution total joint arthroplasty database was used to identify patients who underwent elective THA and TKA from 2016 to July 2019. Baseline demographic data, operative time (defined by incision time), and American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) class were collected. Morphine milligram equivalents (MME) were calculated and derived from prospectively documented nursing opioid administration events, while visual analog scale (VAS) scores represented pain levels, both of which were collected as part of our institution's standard protocols. Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care (AMPAC) was used to determine physical therapy progress. RESULTS:; p < 0.01). THA patients had lower ASA scores in comparison to TKA patients (p < 0.01). Aggregate opioid consumption (93.76 MME vs 147.55 MME; p < 0.01) along with first 24-h and 48-h usage was significantly less for THA as compared to TKA. Similarly, mean pain scores (4.15 vs 5.08; p < 0.01) were lower for THA, while AMPAC mobilization scores were higher (20.88 vs 19.29; p < 0.01) when compared to TKA. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:THA patients reported lower pain scores and were found to require less opioid medication in the immediate post-surgical period than TKA patients.
PMID: 33991234
ISSN: 1434-3916
CID: 4889432

Effect of Marital Status on Outcomes Following Total Joint Arthroplasty

Singh, Vivek; Fiedler, Benjamin; Kugelman, David N; Meftah, Morteza; Aggarwal, Vinay K; Schwarzkopf, Ran
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the specific socioeconomic factor such as marital status has any effect on clinical outcomes and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) after primary total hip (THA) and knee (TKA) arthroplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent primary THA or TKA from January 2019 to August 2019 who answered all PROM questionnaires. Both THA and TKA patients were separated into two groups based on their marital status at the time of surgery (married vs. non-married). Demographics, clinical data, and PROMs (FJS-12, HOOS, JR, KOOS, JR, and VR-12 PCS&MCS) were collected at various time-periods. Demographic differences were assessed using chi-square and independent sample t tests. Clinical data and mean PROMs were compared using multilinear regressions while accounting for demographic differences. RESULTS:This study included 389 patients who underwent primary THA and 193 that underwent primary TKA. In the THA cohort, 256 (66%) patients were married and 133 (34%) were non-married. In the TKA cohort, there were 117 (61%) married patients and 76 (39%) non-married patients. Length of stay was significantly shorter for married patients in both the THA (1.30 vs. 1.64; p = 0.002) and TKA (1.89 vs. 2.36; p = 0.024) cohorts. Surgical-time, all-cause emergency department visits, discharge disposition, and 90-day all-cause adverse events (readmissions/revisions) did not statistically differ between both cohorts. Both HOOS, JR and KOOS, JR score improvements from baseline to 1-year did not statistically differ for the THA and TKA cohorts, respectively. Although VR-12 PCS (p = 0.012) and MCS (p = 0.004) score improvement from baseline to 1-year statistically differed for the THA cohort, they did not for the TKA cohort. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Total joint arthroplasty may yield similar clinical benefits in all patients irrespective of their marital status. Although some PROMs statistically differed among married and non-married patients, the differences are likely not clinically significant. Surgeons should continue to assess levels of psychosocial support in their patients prior to undergoing TJA to optimize outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:III, Retrospective Cohort Study.
PMID: 34032892
ISSN: 1434-3916
CID: 4887742

Conversion total hip arthroplasty for early failure following unstable intertrochanteric hip fracture: what can patients expect?

Schultz, Blake J; Sicat, Chelsea; Penev, Aleks; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Egol, Kenneth A
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To report surgical outcomes in patients treated with conversion total hip arthroplasty (CTHA) for early failure of cephalomedullary nails (CMNs). METHODS:A retrospective review was conducted of CTHA for treatment of failed CMN within 1 year of initial surgery for intertrochanteric (IT) hip fractures. The cohort was matched 1:5 to patients who underwent elective primary THA (PTHA). Patient demographics, mechanism of CMN failure, surgical outcomes, and complication rates were assessed. RESULTS:22 patients met criteria with a mean time to failure of 145 days. Modes of failure included: lag screw cut-out with superior migration (9, 40.9%), or medialization (8, 36.4%), and aseptic nonunion with implant failure (2, 9.0%) and without implant failure (3, 13.6%). Fourteen of the patients (63.6%) had acetabular-sided damage secondary to lag screw penetration, all in the screw cut-out groups. Patient demographics were similar between cohorts. Compared to PTHA, CTHA patients had increased operative time, blood loss, LOS, and readmission rates. After IMN failure, the operative leg was shorter than the contralateral leg in all cases. CTHA restored leg lengths to <  = 10 mm in 15 (68.1%) of patients, with an average leg length discrepancy after CTHA of 6.7 mm. CTHA patients had increased rates of overall surgical complications and medical complications, specifically anemia (all p < 0.01). Tranexamic acid was used less often in the CTHA group (p < 0.01). Rate of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), dislocation, and revision were all higher in the CTHA, though did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The majority (77.3%) of CMN implant failure for nonunion within 1 year was due to screw cut-out. CTHA is a salvage option for early failed IT hip fracture repair, but expected surgical outcomes are more similar to revision THA than primary THA, with increased risk of readmission, longer surgery and LOS, increased blood loss, and higher complication rates. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:III, Retrospective comparative study.
PMID: 34657163
ISSN: 1434-3916
CID: 5043032

Prior Instability is Strongly Associated With Dislocation After Isolated Head and Liner Exchange

Berlinberg, Elyse J; Roof, Mackenzie A; Shichman, Ittai; Meftah, Morteza; Schwarzkopf, Ran
BACKGROUND:Isolated head and liner exchange is an appealing alternative to a more extensive revision total hip arthroplasty in patients who have well-fixed components. Despite efforts to increase femoral offset and restore soft tissue tensioning, limited component revision may be associated with higher rates of postoperative instability. METHODS:(range, 18.2-46.7). The most common indications for surgery included acetabular liner wear in 86 hips (41%), instability in 40 hips (19%), and infection in 36 hips (17%). RESULTS:increase, 95% CI 0.80-0.99, P = .046). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In a large cohort of patients who had isolated head and liner exchange, patients who had prior instability had 7-fold elevated odds of postoperative dislocation. This risk remains significant after controlling for cup positioning outside the Lewinnek safe zone, liner type, head size, neck length, soft tissue compromise, neuromuscular disease, and dual mobility constructs. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:III, retrospective cohort study.
PMID: 35780950
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 5280092

Impact of Indication for Revision THA on Resource Utilization

Shichman, Ittai; Kurapatti, Mark; Roof, Mackenzie; Christensen, Thomas H; Rozell, Joshua C; Schwarzkopf, Ran
BACKGROUND:Demographic variables play an important role in outcomes following revision total hip arthroplasty (rTHA). Surgical and in-patient variables as well as outcomes vary between indications for rTHA. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the indication for the rTHA on costs and postoperative outcomes. METHODS:This retrospective cohort analysis investigated all patients who underwent unilateral, aseptic rTHA at an academic orthopaedic specialty hospital who had at least 1-year postoperative follow-up. In total, 654 patients were evaluated and categorized based on their indication for aseptic rTHA. Demographics, direct and total procedure costs, surgical factors, postoperative outcomes, and re-revision rates were collected and compared between indications. RESULTS:Younger patients had the greatest leg length discrepancy (LLD) and older patients had the highest incidence of periprosthetic fracture (PPF) (P = .001). The greatest proportion of full revisions were found for LLD (16.7%) and head/polyethylene liner-only revisions for metallosis/adverse tissue reaction (100%). Operative time was significantly longest for LLD revisions and shortest for metallosis/adverse tissue reaction revisions (P < .001). Length of stay was longest for periprosthetic fracture and shortest for LLD and stiffness/heterotopic ossification (P < .001). Re-revision rate was greatest for implant failure and lowest for LLD. Total cost was highest for PPF (148.9%) and lowest for polyethylene liner wear (87.7%). CONCLUSIONS:Patients undergoing rTHA for indications such as PPF and aseptic loosening were associated with longer operative times, length of stay and higher total and direct costs. Therefore, they may need increased perioperative attention with respect to resource utilization, risk stratification, surgical planning, and cost-reducing measures. LEVEL III EVIDENCE/METHODS:Retrospective Cohort Study.
PMID: 35738359
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 5282102

Minimum 2-Year Outcomes of a Novel 3D-printed Fully Porous Titanium Acetabular Shell in Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty

Berlinberg, Elyse J; Kavian, J Abraham; Roof, Mackenzie A; Shichman, Ittai; Frykberg, Brett; Lutes, William B; Schnaser, Erik A; Jones, Stephen A; McCalden, Richard W; Schwarzkopf, Ran
Background/UNASSIGNED:Fully porous acetabular shells are an appealing choice for patients with extensive acetabular defects undergoing revision total hip arthroplasty (rTHA). This study reports on the early outcomes of a novel 3-D printed fully porous titanium acetabular shell in revision acetabular reconstruction. Methods/UNASSIGNED:A multicenter retrospective study of patients who received a fully porous titanium acetabular shell for rTHA with a minimum of 2 years of follow-up was conducted. The primary outcome was rate of acetabular revision. Results/UNASSIGNED:(standard deviation 5.9). Ninety-four percent had a preoperative Paprosky defect grade of 2A or higher. The average follow-up duration was 3.0 years (range 2.0-5.1). Revision-free survivorship at 2 years was 81% for all causes, 88% for acetabular revisions, and 90% for acetabular revision for aseptic acetabular shell failure. Eight shells were explanted within 2 years (12%): 3 for failure of osseointegration/aseptic loosening (4%) after 15, 17, and 20 months; 3 for infection (4%) after 1, 3, and 6 months; and 2 for instability (3%). At the latest postoperative follow-up, all unrevised shells showed radiographic signs of osseointegration, and none had migrated. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:This novel 3-D printed fully porous titanium shell in rTHA demonstrated good survivorship and osseointegration when used in complex acetabular reconstruction at a minimum of 2 years. Level of evidence/UNASSIGNED:IV, case series.
PMID: 36267391
ISSN: 2352-3441
CID: 5360552