Systemic lupus erythematosus and antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis overlap syndrome complicated by subarachnoid hemorrhage: case-based review
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) overlap syndrome is an inflammatory disorder with a mixed presentation that is characterized by clinical features of both SLE and AAV. Although renal disease predominates, any organ system in the body may be affected. Neurologic manifestation in patients with SLE-AAV overlap syndrome is rare and has only been previously documented as cerebral ischemia. We report a patient with SLE-AAV overlap syndrome diagnosed based on clinical, serologic and biopsy-proven histologic findings who presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) secondary to ruptured right anterior cerebral artery aneurysm. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of SLE-AAV overlap syndrome diagnosed in a patient with a SAH due to an intracranial aneurysm. Neurologic involvement in patients with SLE-AAV overlap syndrome is uncommon and has not been well-studied. Clinicians who encounter patients with neurologic signs that present with symptoms and a serologic profile that correspond to both SLE and AAV criteria, should consider the association between SLE-AAV overlap syndrome and a hemorrhagic stroke, specifically SAH.
Relationship of Normalized Protein Catabolic Rate with Nutrition Status and Long-Term Survival in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients
The normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) reflects daily dietary protein intake in stable dialysis patients. In peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, reports about the importance of nPCR as marker of nutrition and outcome have been inconsistent. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationships of nPCR with body composition parameters, micronutrient electrolytes, and long-term survival in PD patients. From November 2000 to May 2008, 57 PD patients were enrolled in the study. On enrollment, demographic, clinical, and biochemical data were recorded. Patients were followed through September 2011. Mean age of the patients was 56 years, and 61% were of African descent. Mean and maximum follow-up were 2.83 years and 11 years respectively. Mean daily nPCR was 0.944 g/kg. The nPCR correlated directly with albumin (r = 0.34, p = 0.012), magnesium (r = 0.48, p < 0.0001), phosphorus (r = 0.42, p = 0.02), and the phase angle body composition parameter (r = 0.26, p = 0.049). Compared with patients whose enrollment daily nPCR was less than 0.8 g/kg, those with an enrollment daily nPCR of 0.8 g/kg or more experienced significantly better 11-year cumulative survival (p = 0.04). In multivariate Cox regression analysis with adjustment for confounding variables, nPCR was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality (p = 0.018). In conclusion, lower nPCR is associated with poorer nutrition status and increased risk of all-cause mortality in PD patients followed for up to 11 years.
Effects of warfarin on blood pressure in men with diabetes and hypertension--a longitudinal study
Warfarin causes extensive vascular calcification leading to increased systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure in rats, may be associated with increased valvular and coronary calcifications in man, and possibly worsens hypertension in high-risk patients, particularly in those with diabetes mellitus or uncontrolled hypertension. The authors evaluated blood pressure and intensity of antihypertensive therapy over 36 months in a cohort of 58 patients with diabetes and hypertension on warfarin and 58 control subjects with diabetes and hypertension not on warfarin. The results demonstrate that warfarin therapy at conventional doses does not increase systolic blood pressure or pulse pressure in patients with diabetes and hypertension.