Trends in use and three-year outcomes of hepatitis C virus-viremic donor lung transplants for hepatitis C virus-seronegative recipients
Ruck, Jessica M; Zeiser, Laura B; Zhou, Alice L; Chidi, Alexis P; Winchester, Sophia L; Durand, Christine M; Ha, Jinny S; Shah, Pali D; Massie, Allan B; Segev, Dorry L; Merlo, Christian A; Bush, Errol L
OBJECTIVE:The feasibility and 6-month outcome safety of lung transplants (LTs) fromÂ hepatitis C virus (HCV)-viremic donors for HCV-seronegative recipients (R-) were established in 2019, but longer-term safety and uptake of this practice nationally remain unknown. METHODS:testing, rank-sum testing, and Cox regression to compare posttransplant outcomes between HCV D+/R- and D-/R- LT recipients. RESULTS:HCV D+/R- LT increased from 2 to 97/year; centers performing HCV D+/R- LT increased from 1 to 25. HCV D+/R- versus HCV D-/R- LT recipients had more obstructive disease (35.7% vs 23.3%, PÂ <Â .001), lower lung allocation score (36.5 vs 41.1, PÂ <Â .001), and longer waitlist time (PÂ =Â .002). HCV D+/R- LT had similar risk of acute rejection (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.87; PÂ =Â .58), extracorporeal membranous oxygenation (aOR, 1.94; PÂ =Â .10), and tracheostomy (aOR, 0.42; PÂ =Â .16); similar median hospital stay (PÂ =Â .07); and lower risk of ventilator > 48Â hours (aOR, 0.68; PÂ =Â .006). Adjusting for donor, recipient, and transplant characteristics, risk of all-cause graft failure and mortality were similar at 30Â days, 1Â year, and 3Â years for HCV D+/R- versus HCV D-/R- LT (all PÂ >Â .1), as well as for high- (â‰¥20/year) versus low-volume LT centers and high- (â‰¥5/year) versus low-volume HCV D+/R- LT centers (all PÂ >Â .5). CONCLUSIONS:HCV D+/R- and HCV D-/R- LT have similar outcomes at 3Â years posttransplant. These results underscore the safety of HCV D+/R- LT and the potential benefit of expanding this practice further.
Cognitive Dysfunction in Liver Disease and Its Implications for Transplant Candidates
Ruck, Jessica M.; King, Elizabeth A.; Chu, Nadia M.; Segev, Dorry L.; McAdams-DeMarco, Mara
Purpose of Review: Irreversible cognitive impairment is a contraindication to liver transplantation, but growing evidence suggests many etiologies of liver disease have cognitive manifestations independent of hepatic encephalopathy and with variable reversibilities. Recent Findings: While cognitive sequelae of chronic alcohol use have long been recognized, cognitive dysfunction associated with other liver disease etiologies such as chronic hepatitis C infection, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and primary biliary cirrhosis has been recognized. While mechanisms vary and are incompletely understood, inflammation appears to play a central role in causing cognitive dysfunction associated with these diseases. Summary: Further research is needed to determine optimal cognitive assessment tools for patients with liver disease, identify patients at greatest risk for cognitive impairment, determine which elements of cognitive impairment are reversible, and identify effective therapies. This information will inform neurologic evaluation at time of liver transplant evaluation as well as expectations for neurologic recovery post-transplant.
Post-kidney transplant body mass index trajectories are associated with graft loss and mortality
Liu, Yi; Bendersky, Victoria A; Chen, Xiaomeng; Ghildayal, Nidhi; Harhay, Meera N; Segev, Dorry L; McAdams-DeMarco, Mara
BACKGROUND:Early post-kidney transplantation (KT) changes in physiology, medications, and health stressors likely impact body mass index (BMI) and likely impact all-cause graft loss and mortality. METHODS:/month) using adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS:), BMI increase was associated with higher all-cause mortality (aHR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.05-1.14), all-cause graft loss (aHR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01-1.09), and mortality with functioning graft (aHR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.05-1.15) risks, but not death-censored graft loss risks, relative to stable weight. Among individuals without obesity, BMI increase was associated with lower all-cause graft loss (aHR = .97, 95% CI: .95-.99) and death-censored graft loss (aHR = .93, 95% CI: .90-.96) risks, but not all-cause mortality or mortality with functioning graft risks. CONCLUSIONS:BMI increases in the 3 years post-KT, then decreases in years 3-5. BMI loss in all adult KT recipients and BMI gain in those with obesity should be carefully monitored post-KT.
Impact of Seasonal Coronavirus Antibodies on SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Responses in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients
Karaba, Andrew H; Zhou, Weiqiang; Li, Shuai; Aytenfisu, Tihitina Y; Johnston, Trevor S; Akinde, Olivia; Eby, Yolanda; Abedon, Aura T; Alejo, Jennifer L; Qin, Caroline X; Thompson, Elizabeth A; Garonzik-Wang, Jacqueline M; Blankson, Joel N; Cox, Andrea L; Bailey, Justin R; Klein, Sabra L; Pekosz, Andrew; Segev, Dorry L; Tobian, Aaron A R; Werbel, William A
Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination are reduced in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs). We report that increased levels of pre-existing antibodies to seasonal coronaviruses are associated with decreased antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in SOTRs, supporting that antigenic imprinting modulates vaccine responses in this immunosuppressed population.
Outcomes after liver transplantation using deceased after circulatory death donors: A comparison of outcomes in the UK and the US
Ivanics, Tommy; Claasen, Marco P A W; Patel, Madhukar S; Giorgakis, Emmanouil; Khorsandi, Shirin E; Srinivasan, Parthi; Prachalias, Andreas; Menon, Krishna; Jassem, Wayel; Cortes, Miriam; Sayed, Blayne A; Mathur, Amit K; Walker, Kate; Taylor, Rhiannon; Heaton, Nigel; Mehta, Neil; Segev, Dorry L; Massie, Allan B; van der Meulen, Jan H P; Sapisochin, Gonzalo; Wallace, David
BACKGROUND AND AIMS/OBJECTIVE:Identifying international differences in utilization and outcomes of liver transplantation (LT) after donation after circulatory death (DCD) donation provides a unique opportunity for benchmarking and population-level insight. METHODS:Adult (≥18 years) LT data between 2008 and 2018 from the UK and US were used to assess mortality and graft failure after DCD LT. We used time-dependent Cox-regression methods to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for risk-adjusted short-term (0-90 days) and longer-term (90 days-5 years) outcomes. RESULTS:One-thousand five-hundred-and-sixty LT receipts from the UK and 3426 from the US were included. Over the study period, the use of DCD livers increased from 15.7% to 23.9% in the UK compared to 5.1% to 7.6% in the US. In the UK, DCD donors were older (UK:51 vs. US:33 years) with longer cold ischaemia time (UK: 437 vs. US: 333 min). Recipients in the US had higher Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores, higher body mass index, higher proportions of ascites, encephalopathy, diabetes and previous abdominal surgeries. No difference in the risk-adjusted short-term mortality or graft failure was observed between the countries. In the longer-term (90 days-5 years), the UK had lower mortality and graft failure (adj.mortality HR:UK: 0.63 (95% CI: 0.49-0.80); graft failure HR: UK: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.58-0.91). The cumulative incidence of retransplantation was higher in the UK (5 years: UK: 11.9% vs. 4.6%; p < .001). CONCLUSIONS:For those receiving a DCD LT, longer-term post-transplant outcomes in the UK are superior to the US, however, significant differences in recipient illness, graft quality and access to retransplantation were seen between the two countries.
COVID-19 Outcomes in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients Who Received Tixagevimab-cilgavimab Prophylaxis and/or Bebtelovimab Treatment in a Nurse-driven Monoclonal Antibody Program During the Omicron Surge
Cochran, Willa; Salto-Alejandre, Sonsoles; Barker, Lindsay; Langlee, Julie; Freed, Kristin; Carter, Debra; Bannon, Jaclyn; Goddard, Dillon; Mostafa, Heba; Werbel, William; Shah, Pali; Segev, Dorry; Brennan, Daniel; Avery, Robin
Association of Frailty With Health-Related Quality of Life in Liver Transplant Recipients
Lai, Jennifer C; Shui, Amy M; Duarte-Rojo, Andres; Rahimi, Robert S; Ganger, Daniel R; Verna, Elizabeth C; Volk, Michael L; Kappus, Matthew; Ladner, Daniela P; Boyarsky, Brian; Segev, Dorry L; Gao, Ying; Huang, Chiung-Yu; Singer, Jonathan P
IMPORTANCE/UNASSIGNED:Frailty has been recognized as a risk factor for mortality after liver transplant (LT) but little is known of its association with functional status and health-related quality of life (HRQL), termed global functional health, in LT recipients. OBJECTIVE/UNASSIGNED:To evaluate the association between pre-LT and post-LT frailty with post-LT global functional health. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS/UNASSIGNED:This prospective cohort study was conducted at 8 US LT centers and included adults who underwent LT from October 2016 to February 2020. EXPOSURES/UNASSIGNED:Frail was defined by a pre-LT Liver Frailty Index (LFI) score of 4.5 or greater. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES/UNASSIGNED:Global functional health at 1 year after LT, assessed using surveys (Short Form-36 [SF-36; summarized by physical component scores (PFC) and mental component summary scores (MCS)], Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale) and performance-based tests (LFI, Fried Frailty Phenotype, and Short Physical Performance Battery). RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:Of 358 LT recipients (median [IQR] age, 60 [53-65] years; 115 women [32%]; 25 [7%] Asian/Pacific Islander, 21 [6%] Black, 54 [15%] Hispanic White, and 243 [68%] non-Hispanic White individuals), 68 (19%) had frailty pre-LT. At 1 year post-LT, the median (IQR) PCS was lower in recipients who had frailty vs those without frailty pre-LT (42 [31-53] vs 50 [38-56]; P = .002), but the median MCS was similar. In multivariable regression, pre-LT frailty was associated with a -5.3-unit lower post-LT PCS (P < .001), but not MCS. The proportion who had difficulty with 1 or more Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (21% vs 10%) or who were unemployed/receiving disability (38% vs 29%) was higher in recipients with vs without frailty. In a subgroup of 210 recipients with LFI assessments 1 year post-LT, 13% had frailty at 1 year post-LT. Recipients who had frailty post-LT reported lower adjusted SF-36-PCS scores (coefficient, -11.4; P < .001) but not SF-36-MCS scores. Recipients of LT who had frailty vs those without frailty 1 year post-LT also had worse median (IQR) Fried Frailty Phenotype scores (1 [1-2] vs 1 [0-1]) and higher rates of functional impairment by a Short Physical Performance Battery of 9 or less (42% vs 20%; P = .01). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE/UNASSIGNED:In this cohort study, pre-LT frailty was associated with worse global functional health 1 year after LT. The presence of frailty after LT was also associated with worse HRQL in physical, but not mental, subdomains. These data suggest that interventions and therapeutics that target frailty that are administered before and/or early post-LT may help to improve the health and well-being of LT recipients.
Corrigendum to: Increasing rates of parathyroidectomy to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism in dialysis patients with Medicare coverage, Surgery, Volume 172, Issue 1, July 2022, pages 118-126
Mathur, Aarti; Ahn, JiYoon B; Sutton, Whitney; Zeiger, Martha A; Segev, Dorry L; McAdams-DeMarco, Mara
Trends in the survival benefit of repeat kidney transplantation over the past 3 decades
Sandal, Shaifali; Ahn, JiYoon B; Chen, Yusi; Massie, Allan B; Clark-Cutaia, Maya N; Wu, Wenbo; Cantarovich, Marcelo; Segev, Dorry L; McAdams-DeMarco, Mara A
Repeat kidney transplantation (re-KT) is the preferred treatment for patients with graft failure. Changing allocation policies, widening the risk profile of recipients, and improving dialysis care may have altered the survival benefit of a re-KT. We characterized trends in re-KT survival benefit over 3 decades and tested whether it differed by age, race/ethnicity, sex, and panel reactive assay (PRA). By using the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipient data, we identified 25 419 patients who underwent a re-KT from 1990 to 2019 and 25 419 waitlisted counterfactuals from the same year with the same waitlisted time following graft failure. In the adjusted analysis, a re-KT was associated with a lower risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-0.65). By using the 1990-1994 era as a reference (aHR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.69-0.85), incremental improvements in the survival benefit were noted (1995-1999: aHR = 0.72; 95% CI, 0.67-0.78: 2000-2004: aHR = 0.59; 95% CI, 0.55-0.63: 2005-2009: aHR = 0.59; 95% CI, 0.56-0.63: 2010-2014: aHR = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.53-0.62: 2015-2019: aHR = 0.64; 95% CI, 0.57-0.73). The survival benefit of a re-KT was noted in both younger (age = 18-64 years: aHR = 0.63; 95% CI, 0.61-0.65) and older patients (age ≥65 years: aHR = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.58-0.74; Pinteraction = .45). Patients of all races/ethnicities demonstrated similar benefits with a re-KT. However, it varied by the sex of the recipient (female patients: aHR = 0.60; 95% CI, 0.56-0.63: male patients: aHR = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.63-0.68; Pinteraction = .004) and PRA (0-20: aHR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.65-0.74: 21-80: aHR = 0.61; 95% CI, 0.57-0.66; Pinteraction = .02; >80: aHR = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.53-0.61; Pinteraction< .001). Our findings support the continued practice of a re-KT and efforts to overcome the medical, immunologic, and surgical challenges of a re-KT.
Patient-reported outcomes after Tixagevimab and Cilgavimab pre-exposure prophylaxis among solid organ transplant recipients: Safety, effectiveness, and perceptions of risk
Alejo, Jennifer L; Kim, Jake D; Chiang, Teresa P Y; Avery, Robin K; Karaba, Andrew H; Jefferis, Alexa; Warren, Daniel S; Massie, Allan B; Tobian, Aaron A R; Segev, Dorry L; Werbel, William A
BACKGROUND:Tixagevimab and Cilgavimab (T + C) is authorized for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs), yet patient-reported outcomes after injection are not well described. Furthermore, changes in risk tolerance after T + C PrEP have not been reported, of interest given uncertain activity against emerging Omicron sublineages. METHODS:Within a national prospective observational study, SOTRs who reported receiving T + C were surveyed for 3 months to ascertain: (1) local and systemic reactogenicity, (2) severe adverse events with focus on cardiovascular and alloimmune complications, and (3) breakthrough COVID-19, contextualized through (4) changes in attitudes regarding COVID-19 risk and behaviors. RESULTS:At 7 days postinjection, the most common reactions were mild fatigue (29%), headache (20%), and pain at injection sites (18%). Severe adverse events were uncommon; over 3 months of follow-up, 4/392 (1%) reported acute rejection and one (.3%) reported a myocardial infarction. Breakthrough COVID-19 occurred in 9%, 16-129 days after receiving full dose (300/300 mg) T + C, including two non-ICU hospitalizations. Most surveyed SOTRs (65%) felt T + C PrEP was likely to reduce their COVID-19 risk, and 70% reported increased willingness to engage in social activities such as visiting friends. However, few felt safe to return to in-person work (20%) or cease public mask-wearing (15%). CONCLUSIONS:In this prospective study of patient-reported outcomes, T + C was well tolerated with few serious events. Several COVID-19 breakthroughs were reported, notable as most SOTRs reported changes in risk tolerance after T + C. These results aid counseling of SOTRs regarding real-world safety and effectiveness of T + C.