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Gastrointestinal Manifestations in Hospitalized Children With Acute SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Multisystem Inflammatory Condition: An Analysis of the VIRUS COVID-19 Registry

Sayed, Imran A; Bhalala, Utpal; Strom, Larisa; Tripathi, Sandeep; Kim, John S; Michaud, Kristina; Chiotos, Kathleen; Dapul, Heda R; Gharpure, Varsha P; Bjornstad, Erica C; Heneghan, Julia A; Irby, Katherine; Montgomery, Vicki; Gupta, Neha; Gupta, Manoj; Boman, Karen; Bansal, Vikas; Kashyap, Rahul; Walkey, Allan J; Kumar, Vishakha K; Gist, Katja M
BACKGROUND:Describe the incidence and associated outcomes of gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations of acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in hospitalized children (MIS-C). METHODS:Retrospective review of the Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study registry, a prospective observational, multicenter international cohort study of hospitalized children with acute COVID-19 or MIS-C from March 2020 to November 2020. The primary outcome measure was critical COVID-19 illness. Multivariable models were performed to assess for associations of GI involvement with the primary composite outcome in the entire cohort and a subpopulation of patients with MIS-C. Secondary outcomes included prolonged hospital length of stay defined as being >75th percentile and mortality. RESULTS:Of the 789 patients, GI involvement was present in 500 (63.3%). Critical illness occurred in 392 (49.6%), and 18 (2.3%) died. Those with GI involvement were older (median age of 8 yr), and 18.2% had an underlying GI comorbidity. GI symptoms and liver derangements were more common among patients with MIS-C. In the adjusted multivariable models, acute COVID-19 was no associated with the primary or secondary outcomes. Similarly, despite the preponderance of GI involvement in patients with MIS-C, it was also not associated with the primary or secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:GI involvement is common in hospitalized children with acute COVID-19 and MIS-C. GI involvement is not associated with critical illness, hospital length of stay or mortality in acute COVID-19 or MIS-C.
PMID: 35622434
ISSN: 1532-0987
CID: 5248092

Association of Patient and Family Reports of Hospital Safety Climate With Language Proficiency in the US

Khan, Alisa; Parente, Victoria; Baird, Jennifer D; Patel, Shilpa J; Cray, Sharon; Graham, Dionne A; Halley, Monique; Johnson, Tyler; Knoebel, Erin; Lewis, Kheyandra D; Liss, Isabella; Romano, Eileen M; Trivedi, Shrunjal; Spector, Nancy D; Landrigan, Christopher P; Bass, Ellen J; Calaman, Sharon; Fegley, April E; Knighton, Andrew J; O'Toole, Jennifer K; Sectish, Theodore C; Srivastava, Rajendu; Starmer, Amy J; West, Daniel C
Importance/UNASSIGNED:Patients with language barriers have a higher risk of experiencing hospital safety events. This study hypothesized that language barriers would be associated with poorer perceptions of hospital safety climate relating to communication openness. Objective/UNASSIGNED:To examine disparities in reported hospital safety climate by language proficiency in a cohort of hospitalized children and their families. Design, Setting, and Participants/UNASSIGNED:This cohort study conducted from April 29, 2019, through March 1, 2020, included pediatric patients and parents or caregivers of hospitalized children at general and subspecialty units at 21 US hospitals. Randomly selected Arabic-, Chinese-, English-, and Spanish-speaking hospitalized patients and families were approached before hospital discharge and were included in the analysis if they provided both language proficiency and health literacy data. Participants self-rated language proficiency via surveys. Limited English proficiency was defined as an answer of anything other than "very well" to the question "how well do you speak English?" Main Outcomes and Measures/UNASSIGNED:Primary outcomes were top-box (top most; eg, strongly agree) 5-point Likert scale ratings for 3 Children's Hospital Safety Climate Questionnaire communication openness items: (1) freely speaking up if you see something that may negatively affect care (top-box response: strongly agree), (2) questioning decisions or actions of health care providers (top-box response: strongly agree), and (3) being afraid to ask questions when something does not seem right (top-box response: strongly disagree [reverse-coded item]). Covariates included health literacy and sociodemographic characteristics. Logistic regression was used with generalized estimating equations to control for clustering by site to model associations between openness items and language proficiency, adjusting for health literacy and sociodemographic characteristics. Results/UNASSIGNED:Of 813 patients, parents, and caregivers who were approached to participate in the study, 608 completed surveys (74.8% response rate). A total of 87.7% (533 of 608) of participants (434 [82.0%] female individuals) completed language proficiency and health literacy items and were included in the analyses; of these, 14.1% (75) had limited English proficiency. Participants with limited English proficiency had lower odds of freely speaking up if they see something that may negatively affect care (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.26; 95% CI, 0.15-0.43), questioning decisions or actions of health care providers (aOR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.09-0.41), and being unafraid to ask questions when something does not seem right (aOR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.27-0.71). Individuals with limited health literacy (aOR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.48-0.91) and a lower level of educational attainment (aOR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.36-0.95) were also less likely to question decisions or actions. Conclusions and Relevance/UNASSIGNED:This cohort study found that limited English proficiency was associated with lower odds of speaking up, questioning decisions or actions of providers, and being unafraid to ask questions when something does not seem right. This disparity may contribute to higher hospital safety risk for patients with limited English proficiency. Dedicated efforts to improve communication with patients and families with limited English proficiency are necessary to improve hospital safety and reduce disparities.
PMID: 35696195
ISSN: 2168-6211
CID: 5249862

Tricuspid atresia with absent pulmonary valve: A rare form of single ventricle

Naik, Ronak; Makadia, Luv D; Ramirez, Michelle; Crawford, Maya T; Ahmad, Latifah; Kumar, T K Susheel
Tricuspid atresia with an absent pulmonary valve is a rare congenital cardiac defect. Although extensive pathological reviews have been published in the past, there are only a handful of cases that have been successfully palliated to the stage of Fontan. We hereby describe the successful management of one such case and review the surgical strategies described in the literature.
PMID: 35434814
ISSN: 1540-8191
CID: 5232782

Norwood modification for hypoplastic left heart and right aortic arch [Case Report]

Kumar, T K Susheel; Williams, David; Scheinerman, Joshua; Bhansali, Suneet; Ramirez, Michelle; Chakravarti, Sujata; Crawford, Maya; Mosca, Ralph
PMID: 35711181
ISSN: 2666-2507
CID: 5282772

A Description of COVID-19-Directed Therapy in Children Admitted to US Intensive Care Units 2020

Schuster, Jennifer E; Halasa, Natasha B; Nakamura, Mari; Levy, Emily R; Fitzgerald, Julie C; Young, Cameron C; Newhams, Margaret M; Bourgeois, Florence; Staat, Mary A; Hobbs, Charlotte V; Dapul, Heda; Feldstein, Leora R; Jackson, Ashley M; Mack, Elizabeth H; Walker, Tracie C; Maddux, Aline B; Spinella, Philip C; Loftis, Laura L; Kong, Michele; Rowan, Courtney M; Bembea, Melania M; McLaughlin, Gwenn E; Hall, Mark W; Babbitt, Christopher J; Maamari, Mia; Zinter, Matt S; Cvijanovich, Natalie Z; Michelson, Kelly N; Gertz, Shira J; Carroll, Christopher L; Thomas, Neal J; Giuliano, John S; Singh, Aalok R; Hymes, Saul R; Schwarz, Adam J; McGuire, John K; Nofziger, Ryan A; Flori, Heidi R; Clouser, Katharine N; Wellnitz, Kari; Cullimore, Melissa L; Hume, Janet R; Patel, Manish; Randolph, Adrienne G
BACKGROUND:It is unclear how acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-directed therapies are used in children with life-threatening COVID-19 in US hospitals. We described characteristics of children hospitalized in the intensive care unit or step-down unit (ICU/SDU) who received COVID-19-directed therapies and the specific therapies administered. METHODS:Between March 15, 2020 and December 27, 2020, children <18 years of age in the ICU/SDU with acute COVID-19 at 48 pediatric hospitals in the United States were identified. Demographics, laboratory values, and clinical course were compared in children who did and did not receive COVID-19-directed therapies. Trends in COVID-19-directed therapies over time were evaluated. RESULTS:Of 424 children in the ICU/SDU, 235 (55%) received COVID-19-directed therapies. Children who received COVID-19-directed therapies were older than those who did not receive COVID-19-directed therapies (13.3 [5.6-16.2] vs 9.8 [0.65-15.9] years), more had underlying medical conditions (188 [80%] vs 104 [55%]; difference = 25% [95% CI: 16% to 34%]), more received respiratory support (206 [88%] vs 71 [38%]; difference = 50% [95% CI: 34% to 56%]), and more died (8 [3.4%] vs 0). Of the 235 children receiving COVID-19-directed therapies, 172 (73%) received systemic steroids and 150 (64%) received remdesivir, with rising remdesivir use over the study period (14% in March/April to 57% November/December). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Despite the lack of pediatric data evaluating treatments for COVID-19 in critically ill children, more than half of children requiring intensive or high acuity care received COVID-19-directed therapies.
PMID: 35022779
ISSN: 2048-7207
CID: 5118872

Continuing Care For Critically Ill Children Beyond Hospital Discharge: Current State of Follow-up

Williams, Cydni N; Hall, Trevor A; Francoeur, Conall; Kurz, Jonathan; Rasmussen, Lindsey; Hartman, Mary E; O'meara, Am Iqbal; Ferguson, Nikki Miller; Fink, Ericka L; Walker, Tracie; Drury, Kurt; Carpenter, Jessica L; Erklauer, Jennifer; Press, Craig; Wainwright, Mark S; Lovett, Marlina; Dapul, Heda; Murphy, Sarah; Risen, Sarah; Guerriero, Rejean M; Woodruff, Alan; Guilliams, Kristin P
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Survivors of the PICU face long-term morbidities across health domains. In this study, we detail active PICU follow-up programs (PFUPs) and identify perceptions and barriers about development and maintenance of PFUPs. METHODS:A web link to an adaptive survey was distributed through organizational listservs. Descriptive statistics characterized the sample and details of existing PFUPs. Likert responses regarding benefits and barriers were summarized. RESULTS:One hundred eleven respondents represented 60 institutions located in the United States (n = 55), Canada (n = 3), Australia (n = 1), and the United Kingdom (n = 1). Details for 17 active programs were provided. Five programs included broad PICU populations, while the majority were neurocritical care (53%) focused. Despite strong agreement on the need to assess and treat morbidity across multiple health domains, 29% were physician only programs, and considerable variation existed in services provided by programs across settings. More than 80% of all respondents agreed PFUPs provide direct benefits and are essential to advancing knowledge on long-term PICU outcomes. Respondents identified "lack of support" as the most important barrier, particularly funding for providers and staff, and lack of clinical space, though successful programs overcome this challenge using a variety of funding resources. CONCLUSIONS:Few systematic multidisciplinary PFUPs exist despite strong agreement about importance of this care and direct benefit to patients and families. We recommend stakeholders use our description of successful programs as a framework to develop multidisciplinary models to elevate continuity across inpatient and outpatient settings, improve patient care, and foster collaboration to advance knowledge.
PMID: 35314865
ISSN: 2154-1671
CID: 5217192

Generalizing Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Physis and Metaphysis: Evaluation of Variability [Meeting Abstract]

Luo, K; Santos, L; Tokaria, R; Jambawalikar, S; Duong, P; Raya, J G; Jaramillo, D
Purpose or Case Report: To assess variability in diffusion tensor imaging of the physis and metaphysis (DTI-P/M) of the distal femur between scanners, observers, tractography software, and resolution. Methods & Materials: We prospectively obtained DTI-P/M (20 directions, b values of 0 and 600 sec/mm2) in 11 healthy subjects (5 males, 6 females) ages 10-15 (mean 12.54) and quantified tract volume, tract length, and number of tracts in the distal femoral physis. Each subject was imaged in both GE and Siemens 3T units, and the sequence was performed twice in each session with voxel sizes of 2x2x3mm or 1x1x2mm and gap sizes of 0mm and 0.6 mm (22 studies). We compared interobserver variability (with two observers) using hand-drawn regions of interest in the distal femur physis between two tractography software, Trackvis (FACT algorithm) and DSI Studio (Euler algorithm), both with a 40o angular threshold. For DSI Studio, we set the tracking threshold to 0.1, length range to 0-200mm, and seed termination to 1000000. We compared tract number, length, and volume and fractional anisotropy, between the 22 studies using Spearman's correlation and Bland-Altman (BA) plots.
Result(s): Correlation between Siemens and GE was significant between Siemens with 2x2x3mm voxel size and 0.6mm gap with GE 1x1x2mm voxel size and 0mm gap (rho = 0.93, p<10^- 15). Bland-Altman plots normalizing for voxel size between Siemens and GE showed no bias in inter-scanner variability (bias -5.76, BA limits of agreement (LOA) -24.31 and 12.78), nor was there significant intrascanner variability between consecutive runs of either Siemens (bias 0.565, BA LOA -10.31 and 9.18) or GE (bias 0.309, BA LOA -2.08 and 2.69). The 95% confidence intervals for the inter-scan (Mean=1.109, 95%-CI [- 0.84 3.06]) and intra-scan (Mean=0.3, 95%-CI [-0.31 0.91]) both included zero confirming no significant bias between scanners (p<0.05). Trackvis, the current standard for DTI-P/M, had high interobserver agreement (rho = 0.95) whereas DSI Studio showed poor interobserver agreement (rho = 0.29).
Conclusion(s): DTI-P/M shows high GE and Siemens inter- and intra-scanner reproducibility and low variability. Trackvis has low interobserver variability for tractography generation
ISSN: 1432-1998
CID: 5251882

Frequency, Characteristics and Complications of COVID-19 in Hospitalized Infants

Hobbs, Charlotte V; Woodworth, Kate; Young, Cameron C; Jackson, Ashley M; Newhams, Margaret M; Dapul, Heda; Maamari, Mia; Hall, Mark W; Maddux, Aline B; Singh, Aalok R; Schuster, Jennifer E; Rowan, Courtney M; Fitzgerald, Julie C; Irby, Katherine; Kong, Michele; Mack, Elizabeth H; Staat, Mary A; Cvijanovich, Natalie Z; Bembea, Melania M; Coates, Bria M; Halasa, Natasha B; Walker, Tracie C; McLaughlin, Gwenn E; Babbitt, Christopher J; Nofziger, Ryan A; Loftis, Laura L; Bradford, Tamara T; Campbell, Angela P; Patel, Manish M; Randolph, Adrienne G
BACKGROUND:Previous studies of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in infants have incompletely characterized factors associated with severe illness or focused on infants born to mothers with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here we highlight demographics, clinical characteristics and laboratory values that differ between infants with and without severe acute COVID-19. METHODS:Active surveillance was performed by the Overcoming COVID-19 network to identify children and adolescents with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-related illness hospitalized at 62 sites in 31 states from March 15 to December 27, 2020. We analyzed patients aged >7 days to <1 year hospitalized with symptomatic acute COVID-19. RESULTS:We report 232 infants aged >7 days to <1 year hospitalized with acute symptomatic COVID-19 from 37 US hospitals in our cohort from March 15 to December 27, 2020. Among 630 cases of severe COVID-19 in patients aged >7 days to <18 years, 128 (20.3%) were infants. In infants with severe illness from the entire study period, the median age was 2 months, 66% were from racial and ethnic minority groups, 66% were previously healthy, 73% had respiratory complications, 13% received mechanical ventilation and <1% died. CONCLUSIONS:Infants accounted for over a fifth of children aged <18 years hospitalized for severe acute COVID-19, commonly manifesting with respiratory symptoms and complications. Although most infants hospitalized with COVID-19 did not suffer significant complications, longer term outcomes remain unclear. Notably, 75% of infants with severe disease were <6 months of age in this cohort study period, which predated maternal COVID-19 vaccination, underscoring the importance of maternal vaccination for COVID-19 in protecting the mother and infant.
PMID: 34955519
ISSN: 1532-0987
CID: 5107982

Oxygenator impact on peramivir in extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation circuits

Cies, Jeffrey J; Moore, Wayne S; Marino, Daniel; Deacon, Jillian; Enache, Adela; Chopra, Arun
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:oxygenator. METHODS: RESULTS:For the 1/4-in. circuit with an oxygenator, there was < 15% PRV loss, and for the 1/4-in. circuit without an oxygenator, there was < 3% PRV loss during the study period. For the 3/8-in. circuits with an oxygenator, there was < 15% PRV loss, and for the 3/8-in. circuits without an oxygenator, there was < 3% PRV loss during the study period. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:the oxygenator. Additional single and multiple dose studies are needed to validate these findings.
PMID: 35225084
ISSN: 1477-111x
CID: 5174092

Aortic migration of Amplatzer Piccoloâ„¢ ductal Occluder

Minocha, Prashant K; Sutton, Nicole; Crawford, Maya T; Williams, David; Ramirez, Michelle; Chakravarti, Sujata; Mosca, Ralph; Kumar, T K Susheel
We present the case of a 4-month-old, former 23-week premature baby who underwent patent ductus arteriosus device closure in the cardiac catheterisation lab with an Amplatzer Piccoloâ„¢ device at 12 weeks of life. This was complicated by late migration of the device into the aorta resulting in severe obstruction and requiring surgical intervention.
PMID: 35199639
ISSN: 1467-1107
CID: 5172272