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Editorial Comment: MR Elastography of the Liver: Practical Guidelines for Optimal Clinical Use [Comment]

Shanbhogue, Krishna
PMID: 37222279
ISSN: 1546-3141
CID: 5508372

Tumefactive Nonneoplastic Proliferative Pseudotumors of the Kidneys and Urinary Tract: CT and MRI Findings with Histopathologic Correlation

Shanbhogue, Krishna Prasad; Ramani, Nisha; Surabhi, Venkateswar R; Balasubramanya, Rashmi; Prasad, Srinivasa R
A diverse spectrum of pathologically distinct, nonneoplastic, proliferative conditions of the kidneys and urinary tract demonstrate a expansile growth pattern similar to that of neoplasms. The renal pseudotumors include myriad causes of infections as well as rare noninfectious causes such as sarcoidosis, amyloidosis, and immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD). Rare entities such as cystitis cystica, endometriosis, nephrogenic adenoma, and pseudosarcomatous myofibroblastic proliferation and distinct types of prostatitis comprise tumefactive nontumorous disorders that affect specific segments of the urinary tract. The pseudotumors of the kidneys and urinary tract demonstrate characteristic histopathologic and epidemiologic features, as well as protean clinical manifestations, natural history, and imaging findings. Many patients present with genitourinary tract-specific symptoms or systemic disease. Some cases may be incidentally discovered at imaging. Some entities such as perinephric myxoid pseudotumors, IgG4-RD, fibroepithelial polyp, and nephrogenic adenoma display specific anatomic localization and disease distribution. Imaging features of multisystem disorders such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, and IgG4-RD provide supportive evidence that may allow precise diagnosis. Fungal pyelonephritis, xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, IgG4-RD, actinomycosis, and endometriosis show markedly low signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images. Although some pseudotumors exhibit characteristic imaging findings that permit correct diagnosis, laboratory correlation and histopathologic confirmation are required for definitive characterization in most cases. A high index of suspicion is a prerequisite for diagnosis. Accurate diagnosis is critical for instituting optimal management while preventing use of inappropriate therapies or interventions. Surveillance CT and MRI are frequently used for monitoring the response of pseudotumors to therapy. ©RSNA, 2023 Quiz questions for this article are available in the supplemental material.
PMID: 37971934
ISSN: 1527-1323
CID: 5608012

Rectal and perirectal CT findings in patients with monkeypox virus infection

Ola, David; Dane, Bari; Shanbhogue, Krishna; Smereka, Paul
OBJECTIVE:To analyze the findings of proctitis in patients with laboratory-confirmed Mpox and correlate the patient clinical presentation and laboratory findings. METHODS:21 patients with PCR-positive Mpox who obtained abdominopelvic CT were retrospectively identified by electronic medical record search. Three radiologists independently evaluated CT images, measuring rectal wall thickness (cm), degree of perirectal fat stranding on a 5-point Likert scale, and size of perirectal lymph nodes (cm, short axis). Mann-Whitney U-test (Wilcoxon rank sum test) was used to assess the association of rectal wall thickness and perirectal fat standing between patients with rectal symptoms and patients without rectal symptoms. RESULTS:20 of 21 patients presented with perirectal fat stranding, with mean Likert score of 3.0 ± 1.4, indicating moderate perirectal stranding. Mean transverse rectal wall thickness was 1.1 ± 0.5 cm (range 0.3-2.3 cm); it was thicker among patients with HIV (1.2 cm vs 0.7 cm; p = .019). Mean perirectal fat stranding was greater among patients presenting with HIV, and with rectal symptoms, though not significantly so. 17/21 (81%) patients had abnormal mesorectal lymph nodes by at least two of three readers, with mean short-axis measurement 1.0 ± 0.3 cm (range 0.5-1.6 cm). Multiple linear regression showed no significant correlation between rectal thickness and laboratory values or HIV status. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Nearly all patients with Mpox who presented with additional symptoms warranting a CT demonstrated proctitis. Degree of proctitis varied greatly within the cohort, with greatest thickening among patients with HIV. Physicians should have a high suspicion for proctitis in patients with suspected Mpox.
PMID: 37148320
ISSN: 2366-0058
CID: 5472462

Liver Fibrosis, Fat, and Iron Evaluation with MRI and Fibrosis and Fat Evaluation with US: A Practical Guide for Radiologists

Guglielmo, Flavius F; Barr, Richard G; Yokoo, Takeshi; Ferraioli, Giovanna; Lee, James T; Dillman, Jonathan R; Horowitz, Jeanne M; Jhaveri, Kartik S; Miller, Frank H; Modi, Roshan Y; Mojtahed, Amirkasra; Ohliger, Michael A; Pirasteh, Ali; Reeder, Scott B; Shanbhogue, Krishna; Silva, Alvin C; Smith, Elainea N; Surabhi, Venkateswar R; Taouli, Bachir; Welle, Christopher L; Yeh, Benjamin M; Venkatesh, Sudhakar K
Quantitative imaging biomarkers of liver disease measured by using MRI and US are emerging as important clinical tools in the management of patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). Because of their high accuracy and noninvasive nature, in many cases, these techniques have replaced liver biopsy for the diagnosis, quantitative staging, and treatment monitoring of patients with CLD. The most commonly evaluated imaging biomarkers are surrogates for liver fibrosis, fat, and iron. MR elastography is now routinely performed to evaluate for liver fibrosis and typically combined with MRI-based liver fat and iron quantification to exclude or grade hepatic steatosis and iron overload, respectively. US elastography is also widely performed to evaluate for liver fibrosis and has the advantage of lower equipment cost and greater availability compared with those of MRI. Emerging US fat quantification methods can be performed along with US elastography. The author group, consisting of members of the Society of Abdominal Radiology (SAR) Liver Fibrosis Disease-Focused Panel (DFP), the SAR Hepatic Iron Overload DFP, and the European Society of Radiology, review the basics of liver fibrosis, fat, and iron quantification with MRI and liver fibrosis and fat quantification with US. The authors cover technical requirements, typical case display, quality control and proper measurement technique and case interpretation guidelines, pitfalls, and confounding factors. The authors aim to provide a practical guide for radiologists interpreting these examinations. © RSNA, 2023 See the invited commentary by Ronot in this issue. Quiz questions for this article are available in the supplemental material.
PMID: 37227944
ISSN: 1527-1323
CID: 5508522

Mesotheliomas and Benign Mesothelial Tumors: Update on Pathologic and Imaging Findings

Bonde, Apurva; Singh, Ramandeep; Prasad, Srinivasa R; Kamireddy, Dhiraj; Aggarwal, Aarushi; Ramani, Nisha; Saboo, Sachin; Shanbhogue, Krishna; Dasyam, Anil K; Katabathina, Venkata S
A diverse spectrum of benign entities and malignant neoplasms originate from the monotonous mesothelium that lines the serosal membranes of the pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal cavities. The mesothelium of myriad sites shows a common origin from the lateral plate mesoderm; primary mesothelial tumors thus demonstrate similar pathogenesis, imaging findings, and treatment options. Significant changes have been made in the 2021 World Health Organization (WHO) classification schemata of the pleural and pericardial tumors on the basis of recent advances in pathology and genetics. While malignant mesotheliomas are biologically aggressive malignancies that occur primarily in patients exposed to asbestos with attendant poor survival rates, well-differentiated papillary mesothelial tumors and adenomatoid tumors charter a benign clinical course with an excellent prognosis. Mesothelioma in situ is a newly characterized entity represented by recurrent unexplained pleural effusions without any identifiable mass at imaging or thoracoscopy. Immunohistochemical markers based on BAP1, MTAP, CDKN2A, and TRAF7 gene mutations help differentiate diffuse mesotheliomas from benign mesothelial proliferations and localized mesotheliomas. Cross-sectional imaging modalities, including US, CT, MRI, and fluorine 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT, permit diagnosis and play a major role in staging and assessing surgical resectability. Imaging studies are invaluable in providing noninvasive and quantitative assessment of tumor response in patients with unresectable disease. Owing to significant overlap in patient characteristics and pathomorphology, accurate diagnosis based on advanced histopathology techniques and genetic abnormalities is imperative for optimal management and prognostication. While patients with nonepithelioid pleural mesotheliomas benefit from immunotherapy, novel targeted therapies for CDKN2A-, NF2-, and BAP1-altered mesotheliomas are under consideration. © RSNA, 2023 Quiz questions for this article are available through the Online Learning Center.
PMID: 36757881
ISSN: 1527-1323
CID: 5420942

Optional MRI sequences for LI-RADS: why, what, and how?

Kamal, Omar; Sy, Ethan; Chernyak, Victoria; Gupta, Ayushi; Yaghmai, Vahid; Fowler, Kathryn; Karampinos, Dimitrios; Shanbhogue, Krishna; Miller, Frank H; Kambadakone, Avinash; Fung, Alice
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignant tumor of the liver worldwide. Noninvasive diagnosis of HCC is possible based on imaging features, without the need for tissue diagnosis. Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) CT/MRI diagnostic algorithm allows for standardized radiological interpretation and reporting of imaging studies for patients at high risk for HCC. Diagnostic categories of LR-1 to LR-5 designate each liver observation to reflect the probability of overall malignancy, HCC, or benignity based on imaging features, where LR-5 category has > 95% probability of HCC. Optimal imaging protocol and scanning technique as described by the technical recommendations for LI-RADS are essential for the depiction of features to accurately characterize liver observations. The LI-RADS MRI technical guidelines recommend the minimum required sequences of T1-weighted out-of-phase and in-phase Imaging, T2-weighted Imaging, and multiphase T1-weighted Imaging. Additional sequences, including diffusion-weighted imaging, subtraction imaging, and the hepatobiliary phase when using gadobenate dimeglumine as contrast, improve diagnostic confidence, but are not required by the guidelines. These optional sequences can help differentiate true lesions from pseudolesions, detect additional observations, identify parenchymal observations when other sequences are suboptimal, and improve observations conspicuity. This manuscript reviews the optional sequences, the advantages they offer, and discusses technical optimization of these sequences to obtain the highest image quality and to avoid common artifacts.
PMID: 36348024
ISSN: 2366-0058
CID: 5357262

MRI of ovarian tumors

Chapter by: Ginocchio, Luke; Shanbhogue, Krishna; Khanna, Lokesh; Katabathina, Venkata S S.; Prasad, Srinivasa R.
in: Magnetic Resonance Imaging of The Pelvis: A Practical Approach by
[S.l.] : Elsevier, 2023
pp. 445-464
ISBN: 9780323902182
CID: 5500192

Accelerated T2-weighted MRI of the liver at 3 T using a single-shot technique with deep learning-based image reconstruction: impact on the image quality and lesion detection

Ginocchio, Luke A; Smereka, Paul N; Tong, Angela; Prabhu, Vinay; Nickel, Dominik; Arberet, Simon; Chandarana, Hersh; Shanbhogue, Krishna P
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging (T2-FS) requires a long scan time and can be wrought with motion artifacts, urging the development of a shorter and more motion robust sequence. We compare the image quality of a single-shot T2-weighted MRI prototype with deep-learning-based image reconstruction (DL HASTE-FS) with a standard T2-FS sequence for 3 T liver MRI. METHODS:41 consecutive patients with 3 T abdominal MRI examinations including standard T2-FS and DL HASTE-FS, between 5/6/2020 and 11/23/2020, comprised the study cohort. Three radiologists independently reviewed images using a 5-point Likert scale for artifact and image quality measures, while also assessing for liver lesions. RESULTS:DL HASTE-FS acquisition time was 54.93 ± 16.69, significantly (p < .001) shorter than standard T2-FS (114.00 ± 32.98 s). DL HASTE-FS received significantly higher scores for sharpness of liver margin (4.3 vs 3.3; p < .001), hepatic vessel margin (4.2 vs 3.3; p < .001), pancreatic duct margin (4.0 vs 1.9; p < .001); in-plane (4.0 vs 3.2; p < .001) and through-plane (3.9 vs 3.4; p < .001) motion artifacts; other ghosting artifacts (4.3 vs 2.9; p < .001); and overall image quality (4.0 vs 2.9; p < .001), in addition to receiving a higher score for homogeneity of fat suppression (3.7 vs 3.4; p = .04) and liver-fat contrast (p = .03). For liver lesions, DL HASTE-FS received significantly higher scores for sharpness of lesion margin (4.4 vs 3.7; p = .03). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Novel single-shot T2-weighted MRI with deep-learning-based image reconstruction demonstrated superior image quality compared with the standard T2-FS sequence for 3 T liver MRI, while being acquired in less than half the time.
PMID: 36171342
ISSN: 2366-0058
CID: 5334382

Mesenchymal neoplasms of the urinary bladder: a comprehensive review with focus on cross-sectional imaging findings

Balasubramanya, Rashmi; Shanbhogue, Alampady K; Ramani, Nisha S; Morani, Ajaykumar C; Khandelwal, Ashish; Prasad, Srinivasa R
Mesenchymal neoplasms of the urinary bladder are exceedingly rare and display remarkable diversity. These tumors demonstrate distinct pathological features as well as variable biological behavior and cross-sectional imaging findings. The rarity of tumors, nonspecific symptoms and seemingly normal cystoscopic findings (particularly with small and exophytic tumors) frequently lead to misdiagnosis or missed diagnosis. While some tumors display characteristic cross-sectional imaging findings that may suggest a diagnosis, imaging findings are mostly nonspecific. Histopathological examination is required for accurate diagnosis, management and prognostication. The purpose of this article is to review the cross-sectional imaging findings of a diverse spectrum of mesenchymal tumors of the urinary bladder.
PMID: 35704069
ISSN: 2366-0058
CID: 5250052

Morphomolecular Classification Update on Hepatocellular Adenoma, Hepatocellular Carcinoma, and Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

Katabathina, Venkata S; Khanna, Lokesh; Surabhi, Venkateswar R; Minervini, Marta; Shanbhogue, Krishna; Dasyam, Anil K; Prasad, Srinivasa R
Hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs), hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (iCCAs) are a highly heterogeneous group of liver tumors with diverse pathomolecular features and prognoses. High-throughput gene sequencing techniques have allowed discovery of distinct genetic and molecular underpinnings of these tumors and identified distinct subtypes that demonstrate varied clinicobiologic behaviors, imaging findings, and complications. The combination of histopathologic findings and molecular profiling form the basis for the morphomolecular classification of liver tumors. Distinct HCA subtypes with characteristic imaging findings and complications include HNF1A-inactivated, inflammatory, β-catenin-activated, β-catenin-activated inflammatory, and sonic hedgehog HCAs. HCCs can be grouped into proliferative and nonproliferative subtypes. Proliferative HCCs include macrotrabecular-massive, TP53-mutated, scirrhous, clear cell, fibrolamellar, and sarcomatoid HCCs and combined HCC-cholangiocarcinoma. Steatohepatitic and β-catenin-mutated HCCs constitute the nonproliferative subtypes. iCCAs are classified as small-duct and large-duct types on the basis of the level of bile duct involvement, with significant differences in pathogenesis, molecular signatures, imaging findings, and biologic behaviors. Cross-sectional imaging modalities, including multiphase CT and multiparametric MRI, play an essential role in diagnosis, staging, treatment response assessment, and surveillance. Select imaging phenotypes can be correlated with genetic abnormalities, and identification of surrogate imaging markers may help avoid genetic testing. Improved understanding of morphomolecular features of liver tumors has opened new areas of research in the targeted therapeutics and management guidelines. The purpose of this article is to review imaging findings of select morphomolecular subtypes of HCAs, HCCs, and iCCAs and discuss therapeutic and prognostic implications. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2022.
PMID: 35776676
ISSN: 1527-1323
CID: 5281462