Optional MRI sequences for LI-RADS: why, what, and how?
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignant tumor of the liver worldwide. Noninvasive diagnosis of HCC is possible based on imagingÂ features, without the need for tissue diagnosis.Â Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) CT/MRI diagnostic algorithm allows for standardized radiological interpretation and reporting of imaging studies for patients at high risk for HCC. Diagnostic categories of LR-1 to LR-5 designate each liverÂ observation to reflect the probability of overall malignancy, HCC, or benignity based on imaging features, where LR-5 category hasâ€‰>â€‰95% probability of HCC. Optimal imaging protocol and scanning technique as described by the technical recommendations for LI-RADS are essential for the depiction of features to accurately characterize liver observations. The LI-RADS MRI technical guidelines recommend the minimum required sequences of T1-weighted out-of-phase and in-phase Imaging, T2-weighted Imaging, and multiphase T1-weighted Imaging. Additional sequences, including diffusion-weighted imaging, subtraction imaging, and the hepatobiliary phase when using gadobenate dimeglumine as contrast, improve diagnostic confidence, but are not required by the guidelines. These optional sequences can help differentiate true lesions from pseudolesions, detect additional observations, identify parenchymal observations when other sequences are suboptimal, and improve observations conspicuity. This manuscript reviews the optional sequences, the advantages they offer, and discusses technical optimization of these sequences to obtain the highest image quality and to avoid common artifacts.
Accelerated T2-weighted MRI of the liver at 3Â T using a single-shot technique with deep learning-based image reconstruction: impact on the image quality and lesion detection
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging (T2-FS) requires a long scan time and can be wrought with motion artifacts, urging the development of a shorter and more motion robust sequence. We compare the image quality of a single-shot T2-weighted MRI prototype with deep-learning-based image reconstruction (DL HASTE-FS) with a standard T2-FS sequence for 3Â T liver MRI. METHODS:41 consecutive patients with 3Â T abdominal MRI examinations including standard T2-FS and DL HASTE-FS, between 5/6/2020 and 11/23/2020, comprised the study cohort. Three radiologists independently reviewed images using a 5-point Likert scale for artifact and image quality measures, while also assessing for liver lesions. RESULTS:DL HASTE-FS acquisition time was 54.93â€‰Â±â€‰16.69, significantly (pâ€‰<â€‰.001) shorter than standard T2-FS (114.00â€‰Â±â€‰32.98Â s). DL HASTE-FS received significantly higher scores for sharpness of liver margin (4.3 vs 3.3; pâ€‰<â€‰.001), hepatic vessel margin (4.2 vs 3.3; pâ€‰<â€‰.001), pancreatic duct margin (4.0 vs 1.9; pâ€‰<â€‰.001); in-plane (4.0 vs 3.2; pâ€‰<â€‰.001) and through-plane (3.9 vs 3.4; pâ€‰<â€‰.001) motion artifacts; other ghosting artifacts (4.3 vs 2.9; pâ€‰<â€‰.001); and overall image quality (4.0 vs 2.9; pâ€‰<â€‰.001), in addition to receiving a higher score for homogeneity of fat suppression (3.7 vs 3.4; pâ€‰=â€‰.04) and liver-fat contrast (pâ€‰=â€‰.03). For liver lesions, DL HASTE-FS received significantly higher scores for sharpness of lesion margin (4.4 vs 3.7; pâ€‰=â€‰.03). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Novel single-shot T2-weighted MRI with deep-learning-based image reconstruction demonstrated superior image quality compared with the standard T2-FS sequence for 3Â T liver MRI, while being acquired in less than half the time.
Mesenchymal neoplasms of the urinary bladder: a comprehensive review with focus on cross-sectional imaging findings
Mesenchymal neoplasms of the urinary bladder are exceedingly rare and display remarkable diversity. These tumors demonstrate distinct pathological features as well as variable biological behavior and cross-sectional imaging findings. The rarity of tumors, nonspecific symptoms and seemingly normal cystoscopic findings (particularly with small and exophytic tumors) frequently lead to misdiagnosis or missed diagnosis. While some tumors display characteristic cross-sectional imaging findings that may suggest a diagnosis, imaging findings are mostly nonspecific. Histopathological examination is required for accurate diagnosis, management and prognostication. The purpose of this article is to review the cross-sectional imaging findings of a diverse spectrum of mesenchymal tumors of the urinary bladder.
Morphomolecular Classification Update on Hepatocellular Adenoma, Hepatocellular Carcinoma, and Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma
Hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs), hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (iCCAs) are a highly heterogeneous group of liver tumors with diverse pathomolecular features and prognoses. High-throughput gene sequencing techniques have allowed discovery of distinct genetic and molecular underpinnings of these tumors and identified distinct subtypes that demonstrate varied clinicobiologic behaviors, imaging findings, and complications. The combination of histopathologic findings and molecular profiling form the basis for the morphomolecular classification of liver tumors. Distinct HCA subtypes with characteristic imaging findings and complications include HNF1A-inactivated, inflammatory, Î²-catenin-activated, Î²-catenin-activated inflammatory, and sonic hedgehog HCAs. HCCs can be grouped into proliferative and nonproliferative subtypes. Proliferative HCCs include macrotrabecular-massive, TP53-mutated, scirrhous, clear cell, fibrolamellar, and sarcomatoid HCCs and combined HCC-cholangiocarcinoma. Steatohepatitic and Î²-catenin-mutated HCCs constitute the nonproliferative subtypes. iCCAs are classified as small-duct and large-duct types on the basis of the level of bile duct involvement, with significant differences in pathogenesis, molecular signatures, imaging findings, and biologic behaviors. Cross-sectional imaging modalities, including multiphase CT and multiparametric MRI, play an essential role in diagnosis, staging, treatment response assessment, and surveillance. Select imaging phenotypes can be correlated with genetic abnormalities, and identification of surrogate imaging markers may help avoid genetic testing. Improved understanding of morphomolecular features of liver tumors has opened new areas of research in the targeted therapeutics and management guidelines. The purpose of this article is to review imaging findings of select morphomolecular subtypes of HCAs, HCCs, and iCCAs and discuss therapeutic and prognostic implications. Online supplemental material is available for this article. Â©RSNA, 2022.
Anastomosing hemangioma: a current update on clinical, pathological and imaging features
Anastomosing hemangioma (AH) is a rare, benign vascular neoplasm with distinctive histopathology and characteristic tumor distribution. AHs show marked proclivity to involve the kidneys, gonads and the retroperitoneal soft tissues; kidney is the most common target site often in the context of end stage renal disease. Recent studies have identified activating mutations of GNA genes that drive the molecular pathogenesis of AHs. AH appears as a solitary, well-circumscribed, hypervascular tumor that charters a benign course with an excellent prognosis. The purpose of this article is to provide a current update on clinical, pathological and imaging features of anastomotic hemangioma.
Comparison of Prostate Imaging and Reporting Data System V2.0 and V2.1 for Evaluation of Transition Zone Lesions: A 5-Reader 202-Patient Analysis
OBJECTIVE:The aim of the study was to compare the distribution of Prostate Imaging and Reporting Data System (PI-RADS) scores, interreader agreement, and diagnostic performance of PI-RADS v2.0 and v2.1 for transition zone (TZ) lesions. METHODS:The study included 202 lesions in 202 patients who underwent 3T prostate magnetic resonance imaging showing a TZ lesion that was later biopsied with magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasound fusion. Five abdominal imaging faculty reviewed T2-weighted imaging and high b value/apparent diffusion coefficient images in 2 sessions. Cases were randomized using a crossover design whereby half in the first session were reviewed using v2.0 and the other half using v2.1, and vice versa for the 2nd session. Readers provided T2-weighted imaging and DWI scores, from which PI-RADS scores were derived. RESULTS:Interreader agreement for all PI-RADS scores had Îº of 0.37 (v2.0) and 0.26 (v2.1). For 4 readers, the percentage of lesions retrospectively scored PI-RADS 1 increased greater than 5% and PI-RADS 2 score decreased greater than 5% from v2.0 to v2.1. For 2 readers, the percentage scored PI-RADS 3 decreased greater than 5% and, for 2 readers, increased greater than 5%. The percentage of PI-RADS 4 and 5 lesions changed less than 5% for all readers. For the 4 readers with increased frequency of PI-RADS 1 using v2.1, 4% to 16% were Gleason score â‰¥3 + 4 tumor. Frequency of Gleason score â‰¥3 + 4 in PI-RADS 3 lesions increased for 2 readers and decreased for 1 reader. Sensitivity of PI-RADS of 3 or greater for Gleason score â‰¥3 + 4 ranged 76% to 90% (v2.0) and 69% to 96% (v2.1). Specificity ranged 32% to 64% (v2.0) and 25% to 72% (v2.1). Positive predictive value ranged 43% to 55% (v2.0) and 41% to 58% (v2.1). Negative predictive value ranged 82% to 87% (v2.0) and 81% to 91% (v2.1). CONCLUSIONS:Poor interreader agreement and lack of improvement in diagnostic performance indicate an ongoing need to refine evaluation of TZ lesions.
Diagnostic Accuracy of MRI in Local Staging (T Category) of Penile Cancer and the Value of Artificial Erection: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis
Renal Neoplasms in Young Adults
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is usually diagnosed in older adults (the median age of diagnosis is 64 years). Although less common in patients younger than 45 years, RCCs in young adults differ in clinical manifestation, pathologic diagnosis, and prognosis. RCCs in young adults are typically smaller, are more organ confined, and manifest at lower stages of disease. The proportion of clear cell RCC is lower in young adults, while the prevalence of familial renal neoplastic syndromes is much higher, and genetic testing is routinely recommended. In such syndromic manifestations, benign-appearing renal cysts can harbor malignancy. Radiologists need to be familiar with the differences of RCCs in young adults and apply an altered approach to diagnosis, treatment, and surveillance. For sporadic renal neoplasms, biopsy and active surveillance are less often used in young adults than in older adults. RCCs in young adults are overall associated with better disease-specific survival after surgical treatment, and minimally invasive nephron-sparing treatment options are preferred. However, surveillance schedules, need for biopsy, decision for an initial period of active surveillance, type of surgery (enucleation or wide-margin partial nephrectomy), and utilization of ablative therapy depend on the presence and type of underlying familial renal neoplastic syndrome. In this pictorial review, syndromic, nonsyndromic, and newer RCC entities that are common in young adults are presented. Their associated unique epidemiology, characteristic imaging and pathologic traits, and key aspects of surveillance and management of renal neoplasms in young adults are discussed. The vital role of the informed radiologist in the multidisciplinary management of RCCs in young adults is highlighted. Online supplemental material is available for this article. Â©RSNA, 2022.
Accelerated single-shot T2-weighted fat-suppressed (FS) MRI of the liver with deep learning-based image reconstruction: qualitative and quantitative comparison of image quality with conventional T2-weighted FS sequence
OBJECTIVE:To compare the image quality of an accelerated single-shot T2-weighted fat-suppressed (FS) MRI of the liver with deep learning-based image reconstruction (DL HASTE-FS) with conventional T2-weighted FS sequence (conventional T2 FS) at 1.5 T. METHODS:One hundred consecutive patients who underwent clinical MRI of the liver at 1.5 T including the conventional T2-weighted fat-suppressed sequence (T2 FS) and accelerated single-shot T2-weighted MRI of the liver with deep learning-based image reconstruction (DL HASTE-FS) were included. Images were reviewed independently by three blinded observers who used a 5-point confidence scale for multiple measures regarding the artifacts and image quality. Descriptive statistics and McNemar's test were used to compare image quality scores and percentage of lesions detected by each sequence, respectively. Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess consistency in reader scores. RESULTS:Acquisition time for DL HASTE-FS was 51.23 +/ 10.1 s, significantly (p < 0.001) shorter than conventional T2-FS (178.9 Â± 85.3 s). DL HASTE-FS received significantly higher scores than conventional T2-FS for strength and homogeneity of fat suppression; sharpness of liver margin; sharpness of intra-hepatic vessel margin; in-plane and through-plane respiratory motion; other ghosting artefacts; liver-fat contrast; and overall image quality (all, p < 0.0001). DL HASTE-FS also received higher scores for lesion conspicuity and sharpness of lesion margin (all, p < .001), without significant difference for liver lesion contrast (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Accelerated single-shot T2-weighted MRI of the liver with deep learning-based image reconstruction showed superior image quality compared to the conventional T2-weighted fat-suppressed sequence despite a 4-fold reduction in acquisition time. KEY POINTS/CONCLUSIONS:â€¢ Conventional fat-suppressed T2-weighted sequence (conventional T2 FS) can take unacceptably long to acquire and is the most commonly repeated sequence in liver MRI due to motion. â€¢ DL HASTE-FS demonstrated superior image quality, improved respiratory motion and other ghosting artefacts, and increased lesion conspicuity with comparable liver-to-lesion contrast compared to conventional T2FS sequence. â€¢ DL HASTE- FS has the potential to replace conventional T2 FS sequence in routine clinical MRI of the liver, reducing the scan time, and improving the image quality.
Hepatocarcinogenesis: Radiology-Pathology Correlation
In the background of chronic liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma develops via a complex, multistep process called hepatocarcinogenesis. This article reviews the causes contributing to the process. Emphasis is made on the imaging manifestations of the pathologic changes seen at many stages of hepatocarcinogenesis, from regenerative nodules to dysplastic nodules and then to hepatocellular carcinoma.