Principles, techniques and applications of high resolution cone beam CT angiography in the neuroangio suite
The aim of this review is to describe the acquisition and reformatting of state of the art high resolution cone beam CT (HR-CBCT) and demonstrate its role in multiple neurovascular conditions as a tool to improve the understanding of disease and guide therapeutic decisions. First, we will review the basic principle of CBCT acquisition, followed by the injection protocols and the reformatting paradigms. Next, multiple applications in different pathological conditions such as aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, dural arteriovenous fistulas, and stroke will be described. HR-CBCT angiography, widely available, is uniquely useful in certain clinical scenarios to improve the understanding of disease and guide therapeutic decisions. It rapidly is becoming an essential tool for the contemporary neurointerventionalist.AChoAho.
Early Experience of Surgical Planning for STA-MCA Bypass Using Virtual Reality
BACKGROUND:The superficial temporal artery (STA)-to-middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass requires precise preoperative planning, and 3-dimensional virtual reality (VR) models have recently been used to optimize planning of STA-MCA bypass. In the present report, we have described our experience with VR-based preoperative planning of STA-MCA bypass. METHODS:Patients from August 2020 to February 2022 were analyzed. For the VR group, using 3-dimensional models from the patients' preoperative computed tomography angiograms, VR was used to locate the donor vessels, potential recipient, and anastomosis sites and plan the craniotomy, which were referenced throughout surgery. Computed tomography angiograms or digital subtraction angiograms were used to plan the craniotomy for the control group. The procedure time, bypass patency, craniotomy size, and postoperative complication rates were assessed. RESULTS:The VR group included 17 patients (13 women; age, 49 ± 14 years) with Moyamoya disease (76.5%) and/or ischemic stroke (29.4%). The control group included 13 patients (8 women; age, 49 ± 12 years) with Moyamoya disease (92.3%) and/or ischemic stroke (7.3%). For all 30 patients, the preoperatively planned donor and recipient branches were effectively translated intraoperatively. No significant difference were found in the procedure time or craniotomy size between the 2 groups. Bypass patency was 94.1% for the VR group (16 of 17) and 84.6% for the control group (11 of 13). No permanent neurological deficits occurred in either group. CONCLUSIONS:Our early experience has shown that VR can serve as a useful, interactive preoperative planning tool by enhancing visualization of the spatial relationship between the STA and MCA without compromising the surgical results.
Quantitative Analysis of Parenchymal Effects and Flow of Large Arteriovenous Malformations Managed With Stereotactic Radiosurgery
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of larger arteriovenous malformations (AVM) is associated with an elevated incidence of adverse radiation effects (ARE). To date, volume-response and dose-response models have been used to predict such effects. To understand radiological outcomes and their hemodynamic effects on the regional brain. METHODS:A retrospective analysis was conducted at our institution using a prospective registry of patients managed between 2014 and 2020. We included patients with AVM with a nidus larger than 5 cc who received either single-session or volume-staged Gamma Knife radiosurgery. AVM volume changes, volumes of parenchymal response, and obliteration were analyzed and correlated with transit times and diameters of feeding arteries and draining veins. RESULTS:Sixteen patients underwent single-session SRS, and 9 patients underwent volume-staged SRS. The average AVM volume was 12.6 cc (5.5-23). The AVM locations were predominantly lobar (80%) and 17 (68%) were in critical locations. The mean margin dose was 17.2 Gy (15-21), and the median V12Gy was 25.5 cc. Fourteen (56%) AVMs had a transit time shorter than 1 second. The median vein-artery ratio (sum diameter of the veins/sum diameter of feeding arteries) was 1.63 (range, 0.60-4.19). Asymptomatic parenchymal effects were detected in 13 (52%) patients and were symptomatic in 4 (16%) patients. The median time to ARE was 12 months (95% CI 7.6-16.4). On univariate analysis, significant predictors of ARE were lower vein-artery ratio (P = .024), longer transit time (P = .05), higher mean dose (P = .028), and higher D95 (P = .036). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Transit times and vessel diameters are valuable predictors of the subsequent parenchymal response after SRS. A more quantitative understanding of blood flow is critical for predicting the effects on the regional brain after AVM radiosurgery.
Bailout endovascular techniques applied in a complicated basilar thrombectomy case
Patients with stroke symptoms due to acute basilar artery occlusion can benefit from endovascular thrombectomy.1 2 Several papers have reported unwanted events during thrombectomy procedures such as breakage, fragmentation, or even intravascular migration of the devices or catheter pieces. These papers also presented methods or techniques to retrieve defective devices such as a snare, retrievable stents, or balloons.3-6Video 1 presents a case of basilar thrombectomy that was complicated with fragmentation and then distal migration of a Marksman microcatheter tip into the left posterior cerebral artery. The video shows the bailout technique that was used to retrieve the migrated catheter tip using a gentle/simple and posterior circulation-friendly technique-a technique based on fundamental neurointerventional concepts.neurintsurg;jnis-2022-019687v1/V1F1V1Video 1 This video demonstrates the use of a bailout technique to retrieve a migrated microcatehter tip after basilar artery thrombectomy.
Effect of anesthetic strategies on distal stroke thrombectomy in the anterior and posterior cerebral artery
BACKGROUND:Numerous questions regarding procedural details of distal stroke thrombectomy remain unanswered. This study assesses the effect of anesthetic strategies on procedural, clinical and safety outcomes following thrombectomy for distal medium vessel occlusions (DMVOs). METHODS:Patients with isolated DMVO stroke from the TOPMOST registry were analyzed with regard to anesthetic strategies (ie, conscious sedation (CS), local (LA) or general anesthesia (GA)). Occlusions were in the P2/P3 or A2-A4 segments of the posterior and anterior cerebral arteries (PCA and ACA), respectively. The primary endpoint was the rate of complete reperfusion (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction score 3) and the secondary endpoint was the rate of modified Rankin Scale score 0-1. Safety endpoints were the occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and mortality. RESULTS:Overall, 233 patients were included. The median age was 75 years (range 64-82), 50.6% (n=118) were female, and the baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 8 (IQR 4-12). DMVOs were in the PCA in 59.7% (n=139) and in the ACA in 40.3% (n=94). Thrombectomy was performed under LA±CS (51.1%, n=119) and GA (48.9%, n=114). Complete reperfusion was reached in 73.9% (n=88) and 71.9% (n=82) in the LA±CS and GA groups, respectively (P=0.729). In subgroup analysis, thrombectomy for ACA DMVO favored GA over LA±CS (aOR 3.07, 95% CI 1.24 to 7.57, P=0.015). Rates of secondary and safety outcomes were similar in the LA±CS and GA groups. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:LA±CS compared with GA resulted in similar reperfusion rates after thrombectomy for DMVO stroke of the ACA and PCA. GA may facilitate achieving complete reperfusion in DMVO stroke of the ACA. Safety and functional long-term outcomes were comparable in both groups.
Cerebral venous anatomy: implications for the neurointerventionalist
Meaningful contributions to neurointerventional practice may be possible by considering the dynamic aspects of angiography in addition to fixed morphologic information. The functional approach to venous anatomy requires integration of the traditional static anatomic features of the system-deep, superficial, posterior fossa, medullary veins, venous sinuses, and outflow routes into an overall appreciation of how a classic model of drainage is altered, embryologically, or pathologically, depending on patterns of flow-visualization made possible by angiography. In this review, emphasis is placed on balance between alternative venous networks and their redundancy, and the problems which arise when these systems are lacking. The role of veins in major neurovascular diseases, such as dural arteriovenous fistulae, arteriovenous malformations, pulsatile tinnitus, and intracranial hypertension, is highlighted, and deficiencies in knowledge emphasized.
An unusual anatomical variant: A transclival artery supplying the vertebrobasilar circulation
The persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses are arterial communications between the anterior and posterior circulations due to the persistence of embryological connections. We here present an extremely rare instance of a transclival persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis in a 10-month-old infant, which does not fit into any of the traditionally described categories, such as the trigeminal artery, hypoglossal artery, or proatlantal artery.
Thrombectomy versus Medical Management for Isolated Anterior Cerebral Artery Stroke: An International Multicenter Registry Study
Background Evidence supporting a potential benefit of thrombectomy for distal medium vessel occlusions (DMVOs) of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) is, to the knowledge of the authors, unknown. Purpose To compare the clinical and safety outcomes between mechanical thrombectomy (MT) and best medical treatment (BMT) with or without intravenous thrombolysis for primary isolated ACA DMVOs. Materials and Methods Treatment for Primary Medium Vessel Occlusion Stroke, or TOPMOST, is an international, retrospective, multicenter, observational registry of patients treated for DMVO in daily practice. Patients treated with thrombectomy or BMT alone for primary ACA DMVO distal to the A1 segment between January 2013 and October 2021 were analyzed and compared by one-to-one propensity score matching (PSM). Early outcome was measured by the median improvement of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores at 24 hours. Favorable functional outcome was defined as modified Rankin scale scores of 0-2 at 90 days. Safety was assessed by the occurrence of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage and mortality. Results Of 154 patients (median age, 77 years; quartile 1 [Q1] to quartile 3 [Q3], 66-84 years; 80 men; 94 patients with MT; 60 patients with BMT) who met the inclusion criteria, 110 patients (median age, 76 years; Q1-Q3, 67-83 years; 50 men; 55 patients with MT; 55 patients with BMT) were matched. DMVOs were in A2 (82 patients; 53%), A3 (69 patients; 45%), and A3 (three patients; 2%). After PSM, the median 24-hour NIHSS point decrease was -2 (Q1-Q3, -4 to 0) in the thrombectomy and -1 (Q1-Q3, -4 to 1.25) in the BMT cohort (P = .52). Favorable functional outcome (MT vs BMT, 18 of 37 [49%] vs 19 of 39 [49%], respectively; P = .99) and mortality (MT vs BMT, eight of 37 [22%] vs 12 of 39 [31%], respectively; P = .36) were similar in both groups. Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in three (2%) of 154 patients. Conclusion Thrombectomy appears to be a safe and technically feasible treatment option for primary isolated anterior cerebral artery occlusions in the A2 and A3 segment with clinical outcomes similar to best medical treatment with and without intravenous thrombolysis. © RSNA, 2023 Supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Zhu and Wang in this issue.
Access to cavernous dAVF via occluded superior petrosal Sinus
There are multiple treatment alternatives for cavernous dAVFs, with transvenous routes being most common. Among these routes, occluded inferior petrosal sinus is well-described, and, apart from being imaginative and elegant, it is also safe and effective. Herein we describe the application of this method to reach the fistulous pouch of a cavernous dAVF via an occluded superior petrosal sinus.
International Controlled Study of Revascularization and Outcomes Following COVID-Positive Mechanical Thrombectomy
BACKGROUND:Previous studies suggest that the mechanisms and outcomes in COVID-19-associated stroke differ from those with non-COVID-19 strokes, but there is limited comparative evidence focusing on these populations. Therefore, we aimed to determine if a significant association exists between COVID-19 status with revascularization and functional outcomes following thrombectomy for large vessel occlusion (LVO), after adjustment for potential confounding factors. METHODS:A cross-sectional, international multicenter retrospective study of consecutively admitted COVID-19 patients with concomitant acute LVO, compared to a control group without COVID-19. Data collected included age, gender, comorbidities, clinical characteristics, details of the involved vessels, procedural technique, and various outcomes. A multivariable adjusted analysis was conducted. RESULTS:In this cohort of 697 patients with acute LVO, 302 had COVID-19 while 395 patients did not. There was a significant difference (p<0.001) in the mean age (in years) and gender of patients, with younger patients and more males in the COVID-19 group. In terms of favorable revascularization (mTICI 3), COVID-19 was associated with lower odds of complete revascularization [OR=0.33; 95% CI=0.23-0.48; p<0.001], which persisted on multivariable modelling with adjustment for other predictors [aOR=0.30; 95% CI=0.12-0.77; p=0.012]. Moreover, endovascular complications, in-hospital mortality, and length of hospital stay were significantly higher among COVID-19 patients (p<0.001). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:COVID-19 was an independent predictor of incomplete revascularization and poor functional outcome in patients with stroke due to LVO. Furthermore, COVID-19 patients with LVO were more often younger and suffered higher morbidity/mortality rates.