Increasing rates of venous thromboembolism among hospitalised patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a nationwide analysis
BACKGROUND:Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, data on national trends remain limited. AIMS/OBJECTIVE:To assess national trends in VTE-associated hospitalisations among patients with IBD as well as risk factors for, and mortality associated with, these events METHODS: Using the U.S. Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2000-2018, temporal trends in VTE were assessed using the National Cancer Institute's Joinpoint Regression Program with estimates presented as the average annual percent change (AAPC) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS:Between 2000 and 2018, there were 4,859,728 hospitalisations among patients with IBD, with 128,236 (2.6%) having a VTE, and 6352 associated deaths. The rate of VTE among hospitalised patients with IBD increased from 192 to 295 cases per 10,000 hospitalisations (AAPC 2.4%, 95%CI 1.4%, 3.4%, pâ€‰<â€‰0.001), and remained significant when stratified by ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease as well as by deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. On multivariable analysis, increasing age, male sex, UC (aOR: 1.30, 95%CI 1.26, 1.33), identifying as non-Hispanic Black, and chronic corticosteroid use (aOR: 1.22, 95%CI 1.16, 1.29) were associated with an increased risk of a VTE-associated hospitalisation. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Rates of VTE-associated hospitalisations are increasing among patients with IBD. Continued efforts need to be placed on education and risk reduction.
Computer-Aided Detection Improves Adenomas per Colonoscopy for Screening and Surveillance Colonoscopy: A Randomized Trial
BACKGROUND & AIMS/OBJECTIVE:Colonoscopy for colorectal cancer screening is endoscopist dependent, and colonoscopy quality improvement programs aim to improve efficacy. This study evaluated the clinical benefit and safety of using a computer-aided detection (CADe) device in colonoscopy procedures. METHODS:This randomized study prospectively evaluated the use of a CADe device at 5 academic and community centers by US board-certified gastroenterologists (nÂ = 22). Participants aged â‰¥40 scheduled for screening or surveillance (â‰¥3 years) colonoscopy were included; exclusion criteria included incomplete procedure, diagnostic indication, inflammatory bowel disease, and familial adenomatous polyposis. Patients were randomized by endoscopist to the standard or CADe colonoscopy arm using computer-generated, random-block method. The 2 primary endpoints were adenomas per colonoscopy (APC), the total number of adenomas resected divided by the total number of colonoscopies; and true histology rate (THR), the proportion of resections with clinically significant histology divided by the total number of polyp resections. The primary analysis used a modified intention-to-treat approach. RESULTS:Between January and September 2021, 1440 participants were enrolled to be randomized. After exclusion of participants who did not meet the eligibility criteria, 677 in the standard arm and 682 in the CADe arm were included in a modified intention-to-treat analysis. APC increased significantly with use of the CADe device (standard vs CADe: 0.83 vs 1.05, PÂ = .002; total number of adenomas, 562 vs 719). There was no decrease in THR with use of the CADe device (standard vs CADe: 71.7% vs 67.4%, P for noninferiority < .001; total number of non-neoplastic lesions, 284 vs 375). Adenoma detection rate was 43.9% and 47.8% in the standard and CADe arms, respectively (PÂ = .065). CONCLUSIONS:For experienced endoscopists performing screening and surveillance colonoscopies in the United States, the CADe device statistically improved overall adenoma detection (APC) without a concomitant increase in resection of non-neoplastic lesions (THR). CLINICALTRIALS/RESULTS:gov registration: NCT04754347.
Organizing effective bowel preparation in the endoscopy unit
Current and future colorectal cancer screening strategies
Despite strong evidence of effectiveness, colorectal cancer (CRC) screening remains underused. Currently, there are several options for CRC screening, each with its own performance characteristics and considerations for practice. This Review aims to cover current CRC screening guidelines and highlight future blood-based and imaging-based options for screening. In current practice, the leading non-invasive option is the faecal immunochemical test (FIT) based on its high specificity, good sensitivity, low cost and ease of use in mailed outreach programmes. There are currently five blood-based CRC screening tests in varying stages of evaluation, including one that is currently sold in the USA as a laboratory-developed test. There are ongoing studies on the diagnostic accuracy and longitudinal performance of blood tests and they have the potential to disrupt the CRC screening landscape. Imaging-based options, including the colon capsule, MR colonography and the CT capsule, are also being tested in active studies. As the world attempts to recover from the COVID-19 pandemic and adapts to the start of CRC screening among people at average risk starting at age 45 years, non-invasive options will become increasingly important.
Interventions to improve adenoma detection rates for colonoscopy
Interventions to improve the performance of upper GI endoscopy quality indicators
The promotion of quality and best practices in gastroenterology and endoscopy is an ongoing effort. For upper GI endoscopy, quality indicators derived from clinical studies and expert consensus have been long established but remain variably obtained. To date, data on interventions aimed to improve these indicators are scarce. We systematically reviewed the literature to identify interventions and measures demonstrated to improve the performance of previously established upper endoscopy quality indicators. We also identified evidence gaps and opportunities for improvement in this area.
Author Correction: Current and future colorectal cancer screening strategies
Response to Yoo and Sonnenberg & Braillon
Diagnosis and Management of Cancer Risk in the Gastrointestinal Hamartomatous Polyposis Syndromes: Recommendations From the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer
The gastrointestinal hamartomatous polyposis syndromes are rare, autosomal dominant disorders associated with an increased risk of benign and malignant intestinal and extraintestinal tumors. They include Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, juvenile polyposis syndrome, the PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (including Cowden's syndrome and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome), and hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome. Diagnoses are based on clinical criteria and, in some cases, confirmed by demonstrating the presence of a germline pathogenic variant. The best understood hamartomatous polyposis syndrome is Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, caused by germline pathogenic variants in the STK11 gene. The management is focused on prevention of bleeding and mechanical obstruction of the small bowel by polyps and surveillance of organs at increased risk for cancer. Juvenile polyposis syndrome is caused by a germline pathogenic variant in either the SMAD4 or BMPR1A genes, with differing clinical courses. Patients with SMAD4 pathogenic variants may have massive gastric polyposis, which can result in gastrointestinal bleeding and/or protein-losing gastropathy. Patients with SMAD4 mutations usually have the simultaneous occurrence of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (juvenile polyposis syndrome-hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia overlap syndrome) that can result in epistaxis, gastrointestinal bleeding from mucocutaneous telangiectasias, and arteriovenous malformations. Germline pathogenic variants in the PTEN gene cause overlapping clinical phenotypes (known as the PTEN hamartoma tumor syndromes), including Cowden's syndrome and related disorders that are associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal and colonic polyposis, colon cancer, and other extraintestinal manifestations and cancers. Due to the relative rarity of the hamartomatous polyposis syndromes, recommendations for management are based on few studies. This US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer consensus statement summarizes the clinical features, assesses the current literature, and provides guidance for diagnosis, assessment, and management of patients with the hamartomatous polyposis syndromes, with a focus on endoscopic management.