Thin-filament mutations, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and risk [Comment]
Vector flow mapping in obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy to assess the relationship of early systolic left ventricular flow and the mitral valve
BACKGROUND: The hydrodynamic cause of systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve (SAM) is unresolved. OBJECTIVES: This study hypothesized that echocardiographic vector flow mapping, a new echocardiographic technique, would provide insights into the cause of early SAM in obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). METHODS: We analyzed the spatial relationship of left ventricular (LV) flow and the mitral valve leaflets (MVL) on 3-chamber vector flow mapping frames, and performed mitral valve measurements on 2-dimensional frames in patients with obstructive and nonobstructive HCM and in normal patients. RESULTS: We compared 82 patients (22 obstructive HCM, 23 nonobstructive HCM, and 37 normal) by measuring 164 LV pre- and post-SAM velocity vector flow maps, 82 maximum isovolumic vortices, and 328 2-dimensional frames. We observed color flow and velocity vector flow posterior to the MVL impacting them in the early systolic frames of 95% of obstructive HCM, 22% of nonobstructive HCM, and 11% of normal patients (p < 0.001). In both pre- and post-SAM frames, we measured a high angle of attack >60 degrees of local vector flow onto the posterior surface of the leaflets whether the flow was ejection (59%) or the early systolic isovolumic vortex (41%). Ricochet of vector flow, rebounding off the leaflet into the cul-de-sac, was noted in 82% of the obstructed HCM, 9% of nonobstructive HCM, and none (0%) of the control patients (p < 0.001). Flow velocities in the LV outflow tract on the pre-SAM frame 1 and 2 mm from the tip of the anterior leaflet were low: 39 and 43 cm/s, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Early systolic flow impacts the posterior surfaces of protruding MVL initiating SAM in obstructive HCM.
What Predicts the Success of Alcohol Septal Ablation?: The Myocardium Counts, After All [Comment]
Clinical course and outcomes in adults with co-occurring hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and hypertension: a scoping review protocol
INTRODUCTION:Hypertension affects 40%-60% of adults with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), the most common inherited cardiac condition. It can be a diagnostic confounder for HCM, contributing to delayed diagnosis. Clinically, treatment of co-occurring hypertension and HCM poses challenges as first-line and second-line antihypertensive medications are often contraindicated in HCM. The clinical course in adults with hypertension and HCM is also not well understood, and studies examining patient outcomes in this population are equivocal. In this paper, we aim to outline the protocol of a scoping review, a type of literature review, to systematically synthesise existing knowledge on adults with co-occurring HCM and hypertension, highlighting knowledge and evidence gaps, and identifying future research directions to optimise outcomes in this population. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:This review is guided by Arksey and O'Malley's conceptual framework on conducting scoping reviews. We will search five electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, Embase and Web of Science) and reference lists of publications to identify eligible articles focusing on medical therapy, clinical course or outcomes in adults with HCM and hypertension, between 2011 and 2023. Our search strategy and presentation of results will be guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses-Scoping Review guideline. First, two independent reviewers will screen articles, by title and abstract, followed by a full-text screen to identify eligible articles. Relevant data will be extracted and synthesised. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Ethical approval is not required for this review as it is a secondary data collection of published articles and does not involve human subject participation. We will present results of this review at relevant professional conferences and patient-centred educational events. Results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:https://osf.io/cy8qb/?view_only=98197f4850584e51807ff9b62533a706.
How common is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy… really?: Disease prevalence revisited 27 years after CARDIA
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a heterogeneous albeit treatable cardiac disease of variable severity, with the potential for heart failure, atrial fibrillation and arrhythmic sudden death, characterized by otherwise unexplained left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and affecting all ages and races. Over the last 30 years, several studies have estimated the prevalence of HCM in the general population, employing echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), as well electronic health records and billing databases for clinical diagnosis. The estimated prevalence in the general population based on the disease phenotype of LV hypertrophy by imaging is 1:500 (0.2%). This prevalence was initially proposed in 1995 in the population-based CARDIA study employing echocardiography, and more recently confirmed by automated CMR analysis in the large UK Biobank cohort. The 1:500 prevalence appears most relevant to clinical assessment and management of HCM. These available data suggest that HCM is not a rare condition but likely underdiagnosed clinically and by extrapolation potentially affects about 700,000 Americans and possibly 15 million people worldwide.
Weight loss in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: A clinical case series
Background: Obesity is prevalent among patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Obese HCM patients have greater wall thickness, LV mass, worse hemodynamic function and NYHA class. Weight loss may favorably influence the HCM phenotype. Case summary: We describe six patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who lost weight through diet and lifestyle changes (n = 4) or bariatric surgery (n = 2). Radiographic imaging, with cardiac MRI or CT scan, was performed before and after their weight loss. There was a mean decrease in LV mass and indexed LV mass, and a mean numerical decrease in mean wall thickness in up to 14 out of 18 LV segments. There was also NYHA class reduction in symptoms. Discussion: In this case series, we have shown that substantial weight loss in HCM patients can be associated with a decrease in LV mass, wall thickness and improvement in symptoms. These observations indicate the potential for positive remodeling of the heart by weight loss. Prospective studies of the benefits of weight loss in HCM are needed.
Apical Aneurysms and Mid-Left Ventricular Obstruction in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
BACKGROUND:Apical left ventricular (LV) aneurysms in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) are associated with adverse outcomes. The reported frequency of mid-LV obstruction has varied from 36% to 90%. OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The authors sought to ascertain the frequency of mid-LV obstruction in HCM apical aneurysms. METHODS:The authors analyzed echocardiographic and cardiac magnetic resonance examinations of patients with aneurysms from 3 dedicated programs and compared them with 63 normal controls and 47 controls with apical-mid HCM who did not have aneurysms (22 with increased LV systolic velocities). RESULTS:]; P = 0.004). Complete emptying occurs circumferentially around central PMs that contribute to obstruction. Late gadolinium enhancement was always brightest and the most transmural apical of, or at the level of, complete emptying. CONCLUSIONS:The great majority (95%) of patients in the continuum of apical aneurysms have associated mid-LV obstruction. Further research to investigate obstruction as a contributing cause to apical aneurysms is warranted.
Histopathology of the Mitral Valve Residual Leaflet in Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
BACKGROUND:Mitral valve (MV) elongation is a primary hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) phenotype and contributes to obstruction. The residual MV leaflet that protrudes past the coaptation point is especially susceptible to flow-drag and systolic anterior motion. Histopathological features of MVs in obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (OHCM), and of residual leaflets specifically, are unknown. OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to characterize gross, structural, and cellular histopathologic features of MV residual leaflets in OHCM. On a cellular-level, we assessed for developmental dysregulation of epicardium-derived cell (EPDC) differentiation, adaptive endocardial-to-mesenchymal transition and valvular interstitial cell proliferation, and genetically-driven persistence of cardiomyocytes in the valve. METHODS:Structural and immunohistochemical staining were performed on 22 residual leaflets excised as ancillary procedures during myectomy, and compared with 11 control leaflets from deceased patients with normal hearts. Structural components were assessed with hematoxylin and eosin, trichrome, and elastic stains. We stained for EPDCs, EPDC paracrine signaling, valvular interstitial cells, endocardial-to-mesenchymal transition, and cardiomyocytes. RESULTS:= 0.08). No markers of primary cellular processes were identified. CONCLUSIONS:MV residual leaflets in HCM were characterized by histologic findings that were likely secondary to chronic hemodynamic stress and may further increase susceptibility to systolic anterior motion.
Personalized Treatment Strategies Effective in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Do Not Rely on Genomics in 2022: A Different Tale of Precision Medicine [Letter]
Ventricular Septal Myectomy for Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (Analysis Spanning 60 Years Of Practice): AJC Expert Panel
Surgical myectomy remains the time-honored primary treatment for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients with drug refractory limiting symptoms due to LV outflow obstruction. Based on >50 years experience, surgery reliably reverses disabling heart failure by permanently abolishing mechanical outflow impedance and mitral regurgitation, with normalization of LV pressures and preserved systolic function. A consortium of 10 international currently active myectomy centers report about 11,000 operations, increasing significantly in number over the most recent 15 years. Performed in experienced multidisciplinary institutions, perioperative mortality for myectomy has declined to 0.6%, becoming one of the safest currently performed open-heart procedures. Extended myectomy relieves symptoms in >90% of patients by â‰¥ 1 NYHA functional class, returning most to normal daily activity, and also with a long-term survival benefit; concomitant Cox-Maze procedure can reduce the number of atrial fibrillation episodes. Surgery, preferably performed in high volume clinical environments, continues to flourish as a guideline-based and preferred high benefit: low treatment risk option for adults and children with drug refractory disabling symptoms from obstruction, despite prior challenges: higher operative mortality/skepticism in 1960s/1970s; dual-chamber pacing in 1990s, alcohol ablation in 2000s, and now introduction of strong negative inotropic drugs potentially useful for symptom management.