Syndrome of Reversible Cardiogenic Shock and Left Ventricular Ballooning in Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Background Cardiogenic shock from most causes has unfavorable prognosis. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) can uncommonly present with apical ballooning and shock in association with sudden development of severe and unrelenting left ventricular (LV) outflow obstruction. Typical HCM phenotypic features of mild septal thickening, outflow gradients, and distinctive mitral abnormalities differentiate these patients from others with Takotsubo syndrome, who have normal mitral valves and no outflow obstruction. Methods and Results We analyzed 8 patients from our 4 HCM centers with obstructive HCM and abrupt presentation of cardiogenic shock with LV ballooning, and 6 cases reported in literature. Of 14 patients, 10 (71%) were women, aged 66Â±9Â years, presenting with acute symptoms: LV ballooning; depressed ejection fraction (25Â±5%); refractory systemic hypotension; marked LV outflow tract obstruction (peak gradient, 94Â±28Â mmÂ Hg); and elevated troponin, but absence of atherosclerotic coronary disease. Shock was managed with intravenous administration of phenylephrine (n=6), norepinephrine (n=6), Î²-blocker (n=7), and vasopressin (n=1). Mechanical circulatory support was required in 8, including intra-aortic balloon pump (n=4), venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (n=3), and Impella and Tandem Heart in 1 each. In refractory shock, urgent relief of obstruction by myectomy was performed in 5, and alcohol ablation in 1. All patients survived their critical illness, with full recovery of systolic function. Conclusions When cardiogenic shock and LV ballooning occur in obstructive HCM, they are marked by distinctive anatomic and physiologic features. Relief of obstruction with targeted pharmacotherapy, mechanical circulatory support, and myectomy, when necessary for refractory shock, may lead to survival and normalization of systolic function.
Disease Expression and Outcomes in Black and White Adults With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Background There is limited research on hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), which is the most common inherited cardiac disorder, in diverse populations, including Black individuals. Current literature lacks comprehensive data on HCM disease expression, comorbidities, and outcomes in this historically disadvantaged group. The purpose of this study was to examine structural HCM characteristics, comorbidities, and outcomes in a Black and White cohort with HCM. Methods and Results The study was a subgroup analysis from a longitudinal, prospective study on HCM, with supplemental chart review. The sample included adults (â‰¥18Â years) with a clinical diagnosis of HCM, who self-identified as Black/African American or White. The study sample comprised 434 individuals; 57 (13.1%) were Black, and 180 (41.5%) were women. Black patients were younger than White patients, 54.6 (13.4) versus 62.5 (14.8) years, P=0.001. Black patients were more likely to have sub-basal and diffuse hypertrophy, 22 (38.6%) versus 56 (14.9%), P<0.001, 6 (10.5%) versus 15 (4%), P=0.017, mid-LV obstruction, 7 (12.3%) versus 21 (5.5%), P=0.025, and cardiac fibrosis â‰¥15%, 10 (22.2%) versus 19 (8.8%), P=0.009, than White patients. Black patients were more likely to experience appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator interventions, 5 (38.5) versus 5 (6.8), P<0.001 and were more likely to have â‰¥2 sudden death risk factors. Comorbidities were largely similar between groups, though more Black participants had Class II obesity, 12 (21.8) versus 30 (8.1), P<0.001. Both groups had similar rates of genetic testing usage. Conclusions This study underscores the need for continued research of HCM in Black populations, including tailored approaches to diagnosis and precise evaluation of cardiac anatomy.
Mavacamten Favorably Impacts Cardiac Structure in Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: EXPLORER-HCM Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Substudy Analysis [Letter]
Three-Dimensional Imaging and Dynamic Modeling of Systolic Anterior Motion of the Mitral Valve
Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is often caused by systolic anterior motion (SAM) of the mitral valve caused by the interplay between increased left ventricular (LV) wall thickness and an abnormal mitral valve anatomy and geometry. Three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic imaging of the mitral valve has revolutionized the practice of cardiology, paving the way for new methods to see and treat valvular heart disease. Here we present the novel and incremental value of 3D transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) of SAM visualization. This review first provides step-by-step instructions on acquiring and optimizing 3D TEE imaging of SAM. It then describes the unique and novel findings using standard 3D TEE rendering as well as dynamic mitral valve modeling of SAM from 3D data sets, which can provide a more detailed visualization of SAM features. The findings include double-orifice LVOT caused by the residual leaflet, the dolphin smile phenomenon, and delineation of SAM width. Finally, the review discusses the essential role of 3D TEE imaging for preprocedural assessment and intraprocedural guidance of surgical and novel percutaneous treatments of SAM.
COVID-19 in Adults With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Availability and Utilization of Automated External Defibrillators in New York State Schools
Indications for Surgery in Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy [Editorial]
The Mitral Valve in HypertrophicÂ Cardiomyopathy: Other Side of the Outflow Tract [Editorial]
Analysis of three-chamber view conventional and tagged cine MRI in patients with suspected hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To investigate the potential value of adding a tagged three-chamber (3Ch) cine to clinical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols, including to help distinguish HCM patients with regionally impaired cardiac function. METHODS:Forty-eight HCM patients, five patients with "septal knuckle" (SK), and 20 healthy volunteers underwent MRI at 1.5T; a tagged 3Ch cine was added to the protocol. Regional strain, myocardial wall thickness, and mitral valve leaflet lengths were measured in the 3Ch view. RESULTS:In HCM, we found a reduced tangential strain with decreased diastolic relaxation in both hypertrophied (pâ€‰=â€‰0.003) and remote segments (pâ€‰=â€‰0.035). Strain in the basal septum correlated with the length of the coaptation zoneâ€‰+â€‰residual leaflet (râ€‰=â€‰0.48, pâ€‰<â€‰0.001). In the basal free wall, patients with SK had faster relaxation compared to HCM patients with septal hypertrophy. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:The 3Ch tagged MRI sequence provides useful information for the examination of suspected HCM patients, with minimal additional time cost. Local wall function is closely associated with morphological changes of the mitral apparatus measured in the same plane and may provide insights into mechanisms of obstruction. The additional strain information may be helpful when analyzing local myocardial wall motion patterns in the presence of SK.
Evaluation of Mavacamten in Symptomatic Patients With Nonobstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
BACKGROUND:Patients with nonobstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (nHCM) often experience a high burden ofÂ symptoms; however, there are no proven pharmacological therapies. By altering the contractile mechanics of the cardiomyocyte, myosin inhibitors have the potential to modify pathophysiology and improve symptoms associated with HCM. OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:MAVERICK-HCM (Mavacamten in Adults With Symptomatic Non-Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy) explored the safety and efficacy of mavacamten, a first-in-class reversible inhibitor of cardiac-specific myosin, in nHCM. METHODS:The MAVERICK-HCM trial was a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging phase II study in adults with symptomatic nHCM (New York Heart Association functional class II/III), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)Â â‰¥55%, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP)Â â‰¥300 pg/ml. Participants were randomized 1:1:1 to mavacamten at a pharmacokinetic-adjusted dose (targeting plasma levels of 200 or 500Â ng/ml), or placebo for 16Â weeks, followed by an 8-week washout. Initial dose was 5Â mg daily with 1 dose titration at weekÂ 6. RESULTS:Fifty-nine participants were randomized (19, 21, 19 patients to 200Â ng/ml, 500Â ng/ml, placebo, respectively). Their mean age was 54 years, and 58% were women. Serious adverse events occurred in 10% of participants on mavacamten and in 21% participants on placebo. Five participants on mavacamten had reversible reduction in LVEF â‰¤45%. NT-proBNP geometric mean decreased by 53% in the pooled mavacamten group versus 1% in the placebo group, with geometric mean differences ofÂ -435 andÂ -6 pg/ml, respectively (pÂ =Â 0.0005). Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) geometric mean decreased by 34% in the pooled mavacamten group versus a 4% increase in the placebo group, with geometric mean differences ofÂ -0.008 and 0.001Â ng/ml, respectively (pÂ =Â 0.009). CONCLUSIONS:Mavacamten, a novel myosin inhibitor, was well tolerated in most subjects with symptomatic nHCM. Furthermore, treatment was associated with a significant reduction in NT-proBNP and cTnI, suggesting improvement in myocardial wall stress. These results set the stage for future studies of mavacamten in this patientÂ population using clinical parameters, including LVEF, to guide dosing. (A Phase 2 Study of Mavacamten in AdultsÂ With Symptomatic Non-Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy [MAVERICK-HCM]; NCT03442764).